Polymerase


Polymerase
Structure of Taq DNA polymerase

A polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) is an enzyme whose central function is associated with polymers of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA. The primary function of a polymerase is the polymerization of new DNA or RNA against an existing DNA or RNA template in the processes of replication and transcription. In association with a cluster of other enzymes and proteins, they take nucleotides from solvent, and catalyse the synthesis of a polynucleotide sequence against a nucleotide template strand using base-pairing interactions.

It is an accident of history that the enzymes responsible for the catalytic production of other biopolymers are not also referred to as polymerases.

One particular polymerase, from the thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus (Taq) (PDB 1BGX, EC 2.7.7.7) is of vital commercial importance due to its use in the polymerase chain reaction, a widely used technique of molecular biology.

Other well-known polymerases include:

See also


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  • Polymerase — Polymérase Les polymérases (nom tiré de polymère)(EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) sont des enzymes qui ont pour rôle la copie d un élément, par exemple lors de mitoses (divisions cellulaires). Les polymérases synthétisent le nouveau brin dans le sens 5’… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • polymérase — [ pɔlimeraz ] n. f. • 1960; de polymère et ase ♦ Biochim. Enzyme catalysant la synthèse de l A. D. N. ou de l A. R. N. polymérase [pɔlimeʀaz] n. f. ÉTYM. 1960; de polymère, et ase. ❖ ♦ Biochim. Enzyme qui catalyse la sy …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • polymerase — polymerase. См. полимераза. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • polymerase — 1866, coined by Berzelius (1830) from Gk. polymeres having many parts (see POLYMER (Cf. polymer)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • polymerase — [päl′ə mər āz΄, päl′i mərās΄] n. any of various enzymes that promote polymerization, esp. of nucleic acids …   English World dictionary

  • Polymerase — Polymerasen sind in allen Lebewesen vorkommende Enzyme, die die Polymerisation von Nukleotiden, die Grundbausteine der Nukleinsäure, katalysieren. Ihre Funktion ist notwendig für die Vermehrung der Erbinformation (DNA) im Prozess der Replikation …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Polymérase — Les polymérases (nom tiré de polymère) (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) sont des enzymes qui ont pour rôle la synthèse d un brin de polynucléotide (ADN ou ARN), le plus souvent en utilisant un brin complémentaire comme matrice et des nucléotides… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • polymerase — noun Date: 1958 any of several enzymes that catalyze the formation of DNA or RNA from precursor substances in the presence of preexisting DNA or RNA acting as a template compare DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • polymerase — /pol euh meuh rays , rayz /, n. Biochem. any of several enzymes that catalyze the formation of a long chain molecule by linking smaller molecular units, as nucleotides with nucleic acids. Cf. DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase. [1955 60; POLYMER +… …   Universalium

  • polymerase — An enzyme that catalyses the formation of polymers from monomers. A DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA from deoxynucleoside triphosphates using a complementary DNA strand and a primer. An RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA from ribonucleoside… …   Glossary of Biotechnology


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