Precambrian


Precambrian
Precambrian Period
4567.17–542 million years ago
PreЄ
600 Ma Late Precambrian - South Polar view.jpg
Mean atmospheric O2 content over period duration ca. 0 Vol %[1]
(0 % of modern level)
Mean atmospheric CO2 content over period duration ca. 0 ppm[2]
(0 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature over period duration ca. 0 °C[3]
(-14 °C above modern level)
Sea level (above present day) Unknown [4]

The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is the name which describes the large span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale. It spans from the formation of Earth around 4600 Ma (million years) ago to the beginning of the Cambrian Period, about 542 Ma, when macroscopic hard-shelled animals first appeared in abundance. The Precambrian is so named because it precedes the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic Eon, which is named after Cambria, the classical name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian accounts for 88% of geologic time.

Contents

Overview

Not much is known about the Precambrian, despite it making up roughly seven-eighths of the Earth's history, and what little is known has largely been discovered in the past 50 years. The Precambrian fossil record is poor, and those fossils present (e.g. stromatolites) are of limited biostratigraphic use.[5] This is because many Precambrian rocks are heavily metamorphosed, obscuring their origins, while others have either been destroyed by erosion, or remain deeply buried beneath Phanerozoic strata.[5][6]

It is thought that the Earth itself coalesced from material in orbit around the Sun roughly 4500 Ma (4.5 Ga) and may have been struck by a very large (Mars-sized) planetesimal shortly after it formed, splitting off material that came together to form the Moon (see Giant impact theory). A stable crust was apparently in place by 4400 Ma, since zircon crystals from Western Australia have been dated at 4404 Ma.[7]

The term Precambrian is somewhat out-moded, but is still in common use among geologists and paleontologists. It was briefly also called the Cryptozoic eon.

Life before the Cambrian

Precambrian Eon
4567.17 - 542 million years ago
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Scale:
Millions of years

It is not known when life originated, but carbon in 3.8 billion year old rocks from islands off western Greenland may be of organic origin. Well-preserved bacteria older than 3.46 billion years have been found in Western Australia.[8] Probable fossils 100 million years older have been found in the same area. There is a fairly solid record of bacterial life throughout the remainder of the Precambrian.

Excepting a few contested reports of much older forms from USA and India, the first complex multicelled life forms seem to have appeared roughly 600 Ma. A quite diverse collection of soft-bodied forms is known from a variety of locations worldwide between 542 and 600 Ma. These are referred to as Ediacaran or Vendian biota. Hard-shelled creatures appeared toward the end of that timespan. The oldest fossil evidence of complex life comes from the Lantian formation, at least 580 million years ago.

A very diverse collection of forms appeared around 544 Ma, starting in the latest Precambrian with a poorly understood small shelly fauna and ending in the very early Cambrian with a very diverse, and quite modern Burgess fauna, the rapid radiation of forms called the Cambrian explosion of life.

Planetary environment and the oxygen catastrophe

Weathered Precambrian pillow lava in the Temagami greenstone belt of the Canadian Shield

Details of plate motions and other tectonic functions are only hazily known in the Precambrian. It is generally believed that small proto-continents existed prior to 3000 Ma, and that most of the Earth's landmasses collected into a single supercontinent around 1000 Ma. The supercontinent, known as Rodinia, broke up around 600 Ma. A number of glacial periods have been identified going as far back as the Huronian epoch, roughly 2200 Ma. The best studied[citation needed] is the Sturtian-Varangian glaciation, around 600 Ma, which may have brought glacial conditions all the way to the equator, resulting in a "Snowball Earth".

The atmosphere of the early Earth is poorly known, but it is thought to have been smothered in reducing gases, containing very little free oxygen. The oxygen-free early atmosphere has been disputed with evidence supporting an oxygenic atmosphere since the early Archean.[9]

When evolving life forms developed photosynthesis, molecular oxygen began to be produced in large quantities, causing an ecological crisis sometimes called the oxygen catastrophe. The oxygen was immediately tied up in chemical reactions, primarily with iron, until the supply of oxidizable surfaces ran out. After that the modern high-oxygen atmosphere developed. Older rocks contain massive banded iron formations that were apparently laid down as iron and oxygen first combined.

Subdivisions

An established terminology has evolved covering the early years of the Earth's existence, as radiometric dating allows plausible real dates to be assigned to specific formations and features.[10] The Precambrian Supereon is divided into three Precambrian eons: the Hadean (4500-3950 Ma), Archean (3950-2500 Ma) and Proterozoic (2500-542 Ma). See Timetable of the Precambrian.

  • Proterozoic: this eon refers to the time from the lower Cambrian boundary, 542 Ma, back through 2500 Ma. The boundary has been placed at various times by various authors, but has now been settled at 542 Ma. As originally used, it was a synonym for "Precambrian" and hence included everything prior to the Cambrian boundary. The Proterozoic eon is divided into three eras: the Neoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic.
    • Neoproterozoic: The youngest geologic era of the Proterozoic Eon, from the Cambrian Period lower boundary (542 Ma) back to 1000 Ma. The Neoproterozoic corresponds to Precambrian Z rocks of older North American geology.
      • Ediacaran: The youngest geologic period within the Neoproterozoic Era. The "2009 GSA Geologic Time Scale" dates it from 630-542 Ma. (542 Ma is the beginning of the Cambrian Period, the earliest period of the Paleozoic Era.) In this period the Ediacaran fauna appeared.
      • Cryogenian: The middle period in the Neoproterozoic Era: 950-630 Ma.
      • Tonian: the earliest period of the Neoproterozoic Era: 1000-950 Ma.
    • Mesoproterozoic: the middle era of the Proterozoic Eon, 1000-1600 Ma. Corresponds to "Precambrian Y" rocks of older North American geology.
    • Paleoproterozoic: oldest era of the Proterozoic Eon, 1600-2500 Ma. Corresponds to "Precambrian X" rocks of older North American geology.
  • Archaean Eon: 2500-3800 Ma.
  • Hadean Eon: 3950-4500 Ma. This term was intended originally to cover the time before any preserved rocks were deposited, although some zircon crystals from about 4400 Ma demonstrate the existence of crust in the Hadean Eon. Other records from Hadean time come from the moon and meteorites.[11]

It has been proposed that the Precambrian should be divided into eons and eras that reflect stages of planetary evolution, rather than the current scheme based upon numerical ages. Such a system could rely on events in the stratigraphic record and be demarcated by GSSPs. The Precambrian could be divided into five "natural" eons, characterized as follows.[12]

  1. Accretion and differentiation: a period of planetary formation until giant Moon-forming impact event.
  2. Hadean: dominated by heavy bombardment from about 4.51, (possibly including a Cool Early Earth period) to the end of the Late Heavy Bombardment period.
  3. Archean: a period defined by the first crustal formations (the Isua greenstone belt) until the deposition of banded iron formations due to increasing atmospheric oxygen content.
  4. Transition: a period of continued iron banded formation until the first continental red beds.
  5. Proterozoic: a period of modern plate tectonics until the first animals.

Precambrian supercontinents

The movement of plates has caused the formation and break-up of continents over time, including occasional formation of a supercontinent that contains most or all of the continents. The earliest known supercontinent was Vaalbara. It formed from proto-continents and was a supercontinent by 3.1 billion years ago (3.1 Ga). Vaalbara broke up ~2.8 Ga ago. The supercontinent Kenorland was formed ~2.7 Ga ago and then broke sometime after 2.5 Ga into the proto-continent Cratons called Laurentia, Baltica, Australia, and Kalahari. The supercontinent Columbia or Nuna formed during a period of 2.0–1.8 billion years and broke up about 1.5–1.3 billion years ago[13][14] The supercontinent Rodinia is thought to have formed about 1 billion years ago and to have embodied most or all of Earth's continents, and broken up into eight continents around 600 million years ago.

See also

References

  1. ^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg
  2. ^ Image:Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide.png
  3. ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png
  4. ^ Haq, B. U.; Schutter, SR (2008). "A Chronology of Paleozoic Sea-Level Changes". Science 322 (5898): 64–8. doi:10.1126/science.1161648. PMID 18832639. 
  5. ^ a b James Monroe and Reed Wicander, The Changing Earth, 2nd ed, (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997), p. 492.
  6. ^ "Pamela J.W. Gore, "The Precambrian". Retrieved on 10/05/11". http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/levin/0471697435/chap_tut/chaps/chapter08-01.html. 
  7. ^ Zircons are Forever "Zircons are Forever". http://www.geology.wisc.edu/zircon/zircon_home.html Zircons are Forever. Retrieved 2007-04-28. 
  8. ^ Brun, Yves and Lawrence J. Shimkets, Prokaryotic development, ASM Press, Jan. 2000, p. 114 ISBN 978-1555811587
  9. ^ Clemmey, Harry; Badham, Nick (1982). "Oxygen in the Precambrian Atmosphere". Geology 10 (3): 141–146. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<141:OITPAA>2.0.CO;2. 
  10. ^ Geological Society of America's "2009 GSA Geologic Time Scale."
  11. ^ http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/hefferan/Geol106/CLASS3/hadean.htm
  12. ^ Bleeker, W. (2004) [2004]. "Toward a "natural" Precambrian time scale". In Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, and Alan G. Smith. A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78673-8.  also available at Stratigraphy.org: Precambrian subcommission
  13. ^ Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Sun, M. (2002). "Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent". Earth-Science Reviews 59: 125–162. Bibcode 2002ESRv...59..125Z. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00073-9. 
  14. ^ Zhao, Guochun; Sun, M.; Wilde, Simon A.; Li, S.Z. (2004). "A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth and breakup". Earth-Science Reviews 67: 91–123. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.02.003. 

Further reading

  • Valley, John W., William H. Peck, Elizabeth M. King (1999) Zircons Are Forever, The Outcrop for 1999, University of Wisconsin-Madison Wgeology.wisc.eduEvidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago Accessed Jan. 10, 2006
  • Wilde, S. A.; Valley, J. W.; Peck, W. H.; Graham, C. M. (2001). "Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago". Nature 409 (6817): 175–178. doi:10.1038/35051550. PMID 11196637. 
  • Wyche, S.; Nelson, D. R.; Riganti, A. (2004). "4350–3130 Ma detrital zircons in the Southern Cross Granite–Greenstone Terrane, Western Australia: implications for the early evolution of the Yilgarn Craton". Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 51 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1046/j.1400-0952.2003.01042.x. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • precambrian — PRECAMBRIÁN, Ă, precambrieni, e, s.n., adj. 1. s.n. Prima eră din istoria Pământului. 2. adj. Care aparţine precambrianului (1), privitor la precambrian. [pr.: bri an] – Din fr. précambrien. Trimis de oprocopiuc, 07.04.2004. Sursa: DEX 98 … …   Dicționar Român

  • Precambrian — [prē kam′brē ən] adj. [sometimes p ] designating or of the division of geologic time covering all the time before the Cambrian Period, equivalent to the Archean Eon and the Proterozoic Eon designating or of the division of geologic time covering… …   English World dictionary

  • Precambrian — 1864, from PRE (Cf. pre ) + CAMBRIAN (Cf. Cambrian) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Precambrian — ► ADJECTIVE Geology ▪ relating to the earliest aeon of the earth s history, preceding the Cambrian period and ending about 570 million years ago, a time when living organisms first appeared …   English terms dictionary

  • Precambrian — adjective Date: 1864 of, relating to, or being the earliest era of geological history or the corresponding system of rocks that is characterized especially by the appearance of single celled organisms and is equivalent to the Archean and… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Precambrian — /pree kam bree euhn, kaym /, Geol. adj. 1. noting or pertaining to the earliest era of earth history, ending 570 million years ago, during which the earth s crust formed and life first appeared in the seas. See table under geologic time. n. 2.… …   Universalium

  • Precambrian — Pre•cam•bri•an or Pre Cam•bri•an [[t]priˈkæm bri ən, ˈkeɪm [/t]] adj. 1) gel noting or pertaining to the earliest era of earth history, ending 570 million years ago, during which the earth s crust formed and life first appeared in the seas 2) gel …   From formal English to slang

  • Precambrian — /ˌpriˈkæmbriən/ (say .pree kambreeuhn) Obsolete –adjective 1. relating to the time or systems of rocks older than the Cambrian. –noun 2. the geological period, era, or systems of rocks older than the Cambrian, comprising the longest period of… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Precambrian — adjective Relating to the eons before the Phanerozoic …   Wiktionary

  • precambrian —   a span of geologic time lasting from 4600m to 570m years ago …   Geography glossary


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