- Cascade Head
Infobox_protected_area | name = Cascade Head
iucn_category = V
locator_x = 11
locator_y = 28
lat_degrees = 45
lat_minutes = 03
lat_seconds = 45
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 123
long_minutes = 57
long_seconds = 10
long_direction = W
area = convert|37162|acre|km2|1|sing=on
Cascade Head is a headland and convert|270|acre|km2|1|sing=on UNESCO biosphere reserve and
United States Forest ServiceExperimental Forest. It is situated convert|85|mi|km|1 southwest of Portland, Oregonon the Oregon Coastbetween Lincoln City and Neskowin. Cascade Head Preserve is a Nature ConservancySelected Site.
The Nature Conservancy
In the early 1960s, volunteers organized an effort to protect Cascade Head from development. By 1966 they had raised funds and purchased the property, and then turned it over to
The Nature Conservancy. Because of its ecological significance, Cascade Head Preserve and surrounding national forest and other lands won recognition in 1980 as a National Scenic Research Areaand a United Nations Biosphere Reserve. cite web
url = http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/oregon/preserves/art6796.html
title = Cascade Head
publisher = The Nature Conservancy in Oregon
accessdate = 2007-12-19 ]
Conservancy researchers are testing methods of maintaining and restoring grassland habitat for the Oregon silverspot butterfly, including
prescribed fire. Conservancy ecologists also monitor the populations of rare plants throughout the year. In spring and summer, teams of volunteers remove invasive species (such as Himalayan blackberry), help maintain trails, assist with research projects, and teach visitors about the Preserve.
The convert|11890|acre|km2|1|sing=on Cascade Head Experimental Forest was established in 1934 for scientific study of typical coastal Sitka spruce-western hemlock forests found along the Oregon Coast. The forest stands at Cascade Head have been used for long-term studies, experimentation, and ecosystem research since then. In 1974 an act of Congress established the 9,670-acre Cascade Head Scenic Research Area that includes the western half of the experimental forest, several prairie headlands, the Salmon River estuary to the south, and contiguous private lands. [ [http://www.fsl.orst.edu/chef/ Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area] homepage]
Before the establishment of the experimental forest in 1934 and for sometime after, an intense forest inventory was done to determine distribution, age classes, and volumes of major tree species. Early research at Cascade Head includes studies that determined life history and characteristics of native tree species; growth and yield of Sitka spruce-western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and red alder stands; and basic relations between vegetation and climate. A climate station established in 1936 is still operating and is an official United States
Weather Bureausite. Between the 1940s and the 1960s, experimental, commercial sized harvests were done to evaluate the silvicultural and economic results of various tree-cutting methods. [http://www.fsl.orst.edu/chef/about2nd.htm Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area Environs] ] Current research is being done on forest ecosystem productivity, wind disturbance, nutrient cycling, and global carbon cycling.
Research on the Salmon River estuary has been ongoing since the first dike breaching in 1979. Reestablishment of the salt marsh ecosystems continues to be studied and more recently use of these restored ecosystems by anadromous fish is being studied.
Flora and fauna
Cascade Head is home to many native plant species, including
Red Fescue, wild rye, Pacific Reedgrass, coastal paintbrush, goldenrod, blue violet and stream bank Lupine. The Hairy checkermallow is a rare flower found here.
Ninety-nine percent of the world's population of the Cascade Head
catchflyis found here. The Oregon silverspot butterfly, federally listed as a threatened species, is known to only five other locations in the world. The butterfly depends on a single plant species, the early blue violet (which grows coastal grassland openings), to serve as food for its larvae. Elk, deer, coyote, snowshoe hare and the Pacific giant salamanderare also found in the preserve, as well as bald eagle, great horned owl, northern harrier, red-tail hawk and the occasional peregrine falcon.
Sitka Center for Art and Ecology
* [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/dedicated.html Oregon Natural Heritage Program]
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