- Hells Canyon Wilderness (Oregon and Idaho)
Infobox_protected_area | name = Hells Canyon Wilderness
iucn_category = Ib
locator_x = 44
locator_y = 36
Idaho- Oregon, USA
nearest_city = Halfway, OR
lat_degrees = 45
lat_minutes = 27
lat_seconds = 0
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 116
long_minutes = 40
long_seconds = 0
long_direction = W
area = convert|219006|acre|km2|0|sing=off
governing_body = U.S. Forest Service
Bureau of Land Management
The Hells Canyon Wilderness is a
wilderness arealocated in the U.S. states of Idahoand Oregon. Created in 1975, the Wilderness is managed by both the U.S. Bureau of Land Managementand the U.S. Forest Service and contains some of the most spectacular sections of the Snake Riveras it winds its way through Hells Canyon, one of the deepest gorges on Earth. The Oregon Wilderness Act of 1984 added additional acres to the Wilderness, resulting in a total area of 219,006 acres. [http://www.fs.fed.us/hellscanyon/things_to_see_and_do/hells_canyon_wilderness/wilderness_information.shtml Wilderness Information] - US Forest Service]
The Oregon portion of Hells Canyon Wilderness is characterized by two steep breakland areas in excess of 60 percent paralleling the Snake River. These are separated by a benchland at mid-elevation between the river and canyon rim between Saddle Creek and Dug Bar. The dominant vegetation is native
bunchgrassesand shrubs. Trees are scattered throughout the Oregon side of the Wilderness, but concentrated on north slopes and in stream bottoms - primarily Ponderosa pineand Douglas fir. The three topographic provinces are dissected by many drainages including Saddle, Temperance, Salt, and Sluice Creeks.
The Idaho portion of Hells Canyon Wilderness is characterized by three geologic-vegetative regions. The upper areas are alpine and
subalpinewith several lakes and geologic formations of glacial origin. Vegetation is sparse and broken by large areas of rock. The middle portions contain dense forests of larch, lodgepole pine, and true firs. Lower elevations are characterized by dry, rocky, barren, steep slopes breaking into the Snake River and its major tributaries. Trees are sparse, consisting mostly of Ponderosa pineand Douglas fir. This entire area is dissected by several major drainages including Sheep Creek, Granite Creek, and Deep Creek.
Humans have historically used the Hells Canyon Wilderness area for farming, ranching and mining activities. Historically sheep and cattle have grazed this area of Northeastern Oregon since the 1730s as the
Nez Percegrazed horses and cattle in the main canyons. By the 1800s homesteaders on the Oregon benchland were grazing sheep, cattle, and horses throughout the valley and canyons. Cattle grazing continues today in a small portion of the Wilderness, as permitted in the 1964 Wilderness Act, which allows some traditional activities to continue as long as wilderness values are not compromised. Some mining has also occurred, primarily on the Idaho side of the Wilderness.
A variety of vegetation grows in Hells Canyon Wilderness.
Sagebrushand bunchgrassgrow in lower parts of the canyon with deciduousbushes and trees along the numerous streams that run into Hells Canyon. Englemann spruceand sub-alpine fir grow at the highest levels of the Wilderness, with western larch, Douglas fir, and Ponderosa pinefound between the two extremes. Prickly pear cactusand poison ivyare fairly common as well. [http://www.forwolves.org/ralph/wpages/hellscan.htm Hells Canyon Wilderness, Idaho-Oregon] - ForWolves.org]
Wildlife is abundant in Hells Canyon Wilderness. Black bear,
cougar, elk, deer, mountain goat, chukar, and bighorn sheepare common. There have been reports, though unverified, of grizzly bearin the Wilderness. Reintroduced wolvesin Idaho have at least passed through the area, and Peregrine falcon, bald and golden eaglescan also be seen.
Wild and Scenic Rivers
National Wild and Scenic Riversrun through the Wilderness - the Snake, Imnaha, and Rapid Rivers. [http://www.fs.fed.us/hellscanyon/things_to_see_and_do/hells_canyon_wilderness/index.shtml Hells Canyon Wilderness] - US Forest Service]
convert|66.9|mi|km|0|sing=off of the Snake River, from
Hells Canyon Dam35 miles downstream, are designated Wild and Scenic. convert|32.5|mi|km|0|sing=off are designated "wild" and convert|34.4|mi|km|0|sing=off are designated "scenic." [ [http://www.rivers.gov/wsr-snake.html National Wild and Scenic Rivers System] - Snake River]
convert|77|mi|km|0|sing=off of the Imnaha River from its headwaters are designated Wild and Scenic. The designation comprises the main stem from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Imnaha River to its mouth, and the South Fork from its headwaters to the confluence with the main stem. In 1988, convert|15|mi|km|0|sing=off miles were designated "wild," convert|4|mi|km|0|sing=off were designated "scenic," and convert|58|mi|km|0|sing=off were designated "recreational," though only a portion of the Wild and Scenic Imnaha is located within Hells Canyon Wilderness. [ [http://www.rivers.gov/wsr-imnaha.html National Wild and Scenic Rivers System] - Imnaha River]
convert|26.8|mi|km|0|sing=off of Idaho's Rapid River from the headwaters of the main stem to the National Forest boundary, and the segment of the West Fork from the wilderness boundary to the confluence with the main stem, are designated "wild." The river contains three endangered fish species -
chinook salmon, steelhead, and bull trout. [ [http://www.rivers.gov/wsr-rapid.html National Wild and Scenic Rivers System] - Rapid River]
There are approximately 360 miles of trails crossing Hells Canyon Wilderness. The extensive trail system mostly follows old Forest Service access routes to fires, and stock trails used by ranchers to move livestock to remote salting areas and watering holes. Many routes follow ridges and traverse moderate slopes and benchlands, while others climb steep slopes. [http://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/us_wilderness_area/or_hells.htm Hells Canyon Wilderness, Oregon] - GORP]
U.S. Wilderness Areas do not allow motorized or mechanized vehicles, including bicycles. Although camping, hunting, and fishingare allowed with proper permit, no roads or buildings are constructed and there is no logging or mining, in compliance with the 1964 Wilderness Act.
List of Oregon Wildernesses
List of U.S. Wilderness Areas
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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