Global 200


Global 200

The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as priorities for conservation. According to the WWF, an ecoregion is defined as a "relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of natural communities that share a large majority of their species, dynamics, and environmental conditions (Dinerstein et al. 1995, TNC 1997)."

The WWF assigns a conservation status to each ecoregion in the Global 200: critical or endangered; vulnerable; and relatively stable or intact. Over half of the ecoregions in the Global 200 are rated endangered.

Background

The WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions across the Earth's land surface, as well as freshwater and marine ecoregions. The goal of this classification system is to ensure that the full range of ecosystems will be represented in regional conservation and development strategies. Of these ecoregions, the WWF selected the Global 200 as the ecoregions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity. The Global 200 list actually contains 238 ecoregions, made up of 142 terrestrial, 53 freshwater, and 43 marine ecoregions.

Conservationists interested in preserving biodiversity have generally focused on the preservation of tropical moist broadleaf forests (commonly known as tropical rainforests) because it is estimated that they harbor one half of Earth's species. On the other hand, the WWF determined that a more comprehensive strategy for conserving global biodiversity should also consider the other half of species, as well as the ecosystems that support them.

Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub biome, were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action. WWF maintains that "although conservation action typically takes place at the country level, patterns of biodiversity and ecological processes (e.g., migration) do not conform to political boundaries", which is why ecoregion-based conservation strategies are deemed essential.

Classification

Historically, zoologists and botanists have developed various classification systems that take into account the world's plant and animal communities. Two of the worldwide classification systems most commonly used today were summarized by Miklos Udvardy in 1975.

The Earth's land surface can be divided into eight biogeographical realms (formerly called kingdoms, and which the WWF calls ecozones) that represent the major terrestrial communities of animals and plants, and are a synthesis of previous systems of floristic provinces and faunal regions. The biome system classifies the world into ecosystem types (i.e. forests, grasslands, etc.) based on climate and vegetation. Each biogeographical realm contains multiple biomes, and biomes occur across several biogeographical realms. A system of biogeographical provinces was developed to identify specific geographic areas in each biogeographical realm that were of a consistent biome type, and shared distinct plant and animal communities. The WWF system represents a further refinement of the system of biomes (which the WWF calls "major habitat types"), biogeographical realms, and biogeographical provinces (the WWF scheme divides most biogeographical provinces into multiple smaller ecoregions).

election process

Based on a comprehensive list of ecoregions, The Global 200 includes all major habitat types (biomes), all ecosystem types, and species from every major habitat type. It focuses on each major habitat type of every continent (such as tropical forests or coral reefs). It uses ecoregions as the unit of scale for comparison. WWF say ecoregions could be considered as conservation units at regional scale because they meet similar biological communities.

Some ecoregions were selected over other ecoregions of the same major habitat type (biome) or ecozone. Selection of the Global 200 relied on extensive studies of 19 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine major habitat types. Selection of the ecoregions was based on analyses of species richness, species endemism, unique higher taxa, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity of major habitat type.

Global 200 ecoregion list is most helpful to conservation efforts at a regional scale: local deforestation, destruction of swamp habitats, degradation of soils, etc. However, certain phenomena, such as bird or whale migration, depend on more complex parameters not used to define the current database, such as atmospheric currents and dynamic pelagic ecosystems. These would require gathering more information, and co-ordination of efforts between multiple ecoregions. However, the Global 200 ecoregions can help these efforts by identifying habitat sites and resting sites for migratory animals. It may also help identify the origin of invasive species, and offer insights for slowing down or stopping their intrusion.

Global 200: Terrestrial

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Afrotropic

*Guinean moist forests
*Congolian coastal forests
*Cameroon Highlands forests
*Northeastern Congolian lowland forests
*Central Congolian lowland forests
*Western Congolian moist forests
*Albertine Rift montane forests
*East African Coastal Forests
*Eastern African montane forests
*Madagascar lowlands and subhumid forests
*Seychelles and Mascarene Islands moist forests


=Australasia=

*Sulawesi moist forests
*Moluccas moist forests
*Southern New Guinea lowland forests
*New Guinea montane forests
*Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck moist forests
*Queensland tropical rain forests
*New Caledonia moist forests
*Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands forests

Indomalaya

*South Western Ghats montane rain forests and moist deciduous forests
*Sri Lanka moist forests
*Northern Indochina Subtropical moist forests
*Southeast China-Hainan moist forests
*Taiwan montane forests
*Annamite Range moist forests
*Sumatran Islands lowland and montane forests
*Philippines moist forests
*Palawan moist forests
*Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim moist forests
*Peninsular Malaysian lowland and montane forests
*Borneo lowland and montane forests
*Nansei Shoto Archipelago forests
*Eastern Deccan Plateau moist forests
*Naga-Manipuri-Chin hills moist forests
*Cardamom Mountains moist forests
*Western Java montane forests

Neotropic

*Greater Antillean moist forests
*Talamancan-Isthmian Pacific forests
*Choco-Darien moist forests
*Northern Andean montane forests
*Coastal Venezuela montane forests
*Guianan moist forests
*Napo moist forests
*Rio Negro-Jurua moist forests
*Guayana Highlands moist forests
*Central Andean yungas
*Southwestern Amazonian moist forests
*Atlantic forests


=Oceania=

*South Pacific Islands forests
*Hawaii moist forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Afrotropic

*Madagascar dry deciduous forests

Australasia

*Nusa Tenggara dry forests
*New Caledonia dry forests

Indomalaya

*Indochina dry forests
*Chhota-Nagpur dry forests

Neotropic

*Mexican dry forests
*Tumbesian-Andean valleys dry forests
*Chiquitano dry forests
*Atlantic dry forests

Oceania

*Hawaii dry forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Nearctic

*Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental pine-oak forests

Neotropic

*Greater Antillean pine forests
*Mesoamerican pine-oak forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Australasia

*Eastern Australia temperate forests
*Tasmanian temperate rain forests
*New Zealand temperate forests

Indomalaya

*Eastern Himalayan broadleaf and conifer forests
*Western Himalayan temperate forests

Nearctic

*Appalachian and mixed mesophytic forests

Palearctic

*Southwest China temperate forests
*Russian Far East temperate forests

Temperate coniferous forests

Nearctic

*Pacific temperate rain forests
*Klamath-Siskiyou forests
*Sierra Nevada forests
*Southeastern coniferous and broadleaf forests

Neotropic

*Valdivian temperate rain forests-Juan Fernandez Islands

Palearctic

*European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests
*Caucasus-Anatolian-Hycanian temperate forests
*Altai-Sayan montane forests
*Hengduan Shan coniferous forests

Boreal forests/taiga

Nearctic

*Muskwa-Slave Lake boreal forests
*Canadian taiga

Palearctic

*Ural Mountains taiga
*East Siberian taiga;
*Kamchatka taiga and grasslands

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Afrotropic

*Horn of Africa acacia savannas
*East African acacia savannas
*Central and Eastern miombo woodlands
*Sudanian savannas

Australasia

*Northern Australia and Trans-Fly savannas

Indomalaya

*Terai-Duar savannas and grasslands

Neotropic

*Llanos savannas
*Cerrado woodlands and savannas

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Nearctic

*Northern prairie

Neotropic

*Patagonian steppe

Palearctic

*Daurian steppe

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Afrotropic

*Sudd-Sahelian flooded grasslands and savannas
*Zambezian flooded savannas

Indomalaya

*Rann of Kutch flooded grasslands

Neotropic

*Everglades flooded grasslands
*Pantanal flooded savannas

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Afrotropic

*Ethiopian Highlands
*Southern Rift montane woodlands
*East African moorlands
*Drakenberg montane shrublands and woodlands

Australasia

*Central Range subalpine grasslands

Indomalaya

*Kinabalu montane shrublands

Neotropic

*Northern Andean paramo
*Central Andean dry puna

Palearctic

*Tibetan Plateau steppe
*Middle Asian montane steppe and woodlands
*Eastern Himalayn alpine meadows

Tundra

Nearctic

*Alaskan North Slope coastal tundra
*Canadian low arctic tundra

Palearctic

*Fenno-Scandia alpine tundra and taiga
*Taimyr and Russian coastal tundra
*Chukote coastal tundra

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Afrotropic

*Fynbos

Australasia

*Southwestern Australia forests and scrub
*Southern Australia mallee and woodlands

Nearctic

*California chaparral and woodlands

Neotropic

*Chilean Matorral

Palearctic

*Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Afrotropic

*Namib-Karoo-kaokoveld deserts
*Madagascar spiny thicket
*Socotra Island desert
*Arabian Highland woodlands and shrublands

Australasia

*Carnavon xeric scrub
*Great Sandy-Tanami deserts

Nearctic

*Sonoran-Baja deserts
*Chihuahuan-Tehuacan deserts

Neotropic

*Galapagos Islands scrub
*Atacama-Sechura deserts

Palearctic

*Central Asian deserts

Mangroves

Afrotropic

*Gulf of Guinea mangroves
*East African mangroves
*Madagascar mangroves

Australasia

*New Guinea mangroves

Indomalaya

*Sundarbans mangroves
*Greater Sundas mangroves

Neotropic

*Guianan-Amazon mangroves
*Panama Bight mangroves

Global 200: Freshwater ecoregions

Large rivers

Afrotropic

*Congo River and flooded forests (Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo)

Indomalaya

*Mekong River (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)

Nearctic

*Colorado River (Mexico, United States)
*Lower Mississippi River (United States)

Neotropic

*Amazon River and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Peru)
*Orinoco River and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)

Palearctic

*Yangtze River and lakes (China)

Large river headwaters

Afrotropic

*Congo basin piedmont rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan)

Nearctic

*Mississippi piedmont rivers and streams (United States)

Neotropic

*Upper Amazon rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Upper Paraná rivers and streams (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay)
*Brazilian Shield Amazonian rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)

Large river deltas

Afrotropic

*Niger River delta (Nigeria)

Indomalaya

*Indus River Delta (India, Pakistan)

Palearctic

*Volga River Delta (Kazakhstan, Russia)
*Mesopotamian delta and marshes (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait)
*Danube River delta (Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia)
*Lena River delta (Russia)

mall rivers

Afrotropic

*Upper Guinea rivers and streams (Côte D’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone)
*Madagascar freshwater (Madagascar)
*Gulf of Guinea rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo)
*Cape rivers and streams (South Africa)

Australasia

*New Guinea rivers and streams (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*New Caledonia rivers and streams (New Caledonia)
*Kimberley rivers and streams (Australia)
*Southwest Australia rivers and streams (Australia)
*Eastern Australia rivers and streams (Australia)

Indomalaya

*Xi Jiang rivers and streams (China, Vietnam)
*Western Ghats Rivers and Streams (India)
*Southwestern Sri Lanka rivers and streams (Sri Lanka)
*Salween River (China, Myanmar, Thailand)
*Sundaland rivers and swamps (Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)

Nearctic

*Southeastern rivers and streams (United States)
*Pacific Northwest coastal rivers and streams (United States)
*Gulf of Alaska coastal rivers and streams (Canada, United States)

Neotropic

*Guianan freshwater (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Greater Antillean freshwater (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico)

Palearctic

*Balkan rivers and streams (Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia)
*Russian Far East rivers and wetlands (China, Mongolia, Russia)

Large lakes

Afrotropic

*Rift Valley lakes (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

Neotropic

*High Andean lakes (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)

Palearctic

*Lake Baikal (Russia)
*Lake Biwa (Japan)

mall lakes

Afrotropic

*Cameroon crater lakes (Cameroon)

Australasia

*Lakes Kutubu and Sentani (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Central Sulawesi lakes (Indonesia)

Indomalaya

*Philippines freshwater (Philippines)
*Inle Lake (Myanmar)
*Yunnan lakes and streams (China)

Neotropic

*Mexican highland lakes (Mexico)

Xeric basins

Australasia

*Central Australian freshwater (Australia)

Nearctic

*Chihuahuan freshwater (Mexico, United States)

Palearctic

*Anatolian freshwater (Syria, Turkey)

Global 200 Marine ecoregions

Polar

Antarctic Ocean

*Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea

Arctic Ocean

*Bering Sea (Canada, Russia, United States)
*Barents-Kara Sea (Norway, Russia)

Temperate shelfs and seas

Mediterranean

*Mediterranean Sea (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey)

North Temperate Atlantic

*Northeast Atlantic Shelf Marine (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom)
*Grand Banks (Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), United States)
*Chesapeake Bay (United States)

North Temperate Indo-Pacific

*Yellow Sea (China, North Korea, South Korea)
*Sea of Okhotsk (Japan, Russia)

Southern Ocean

*Patagonian Southwest Atlantic (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay)
*Southern Australian Marine (Australia)
*New Zealand Marine (New Zealand)


=Temperate upwelling=

North Temperate Indo-Pacific

*California Current (Canada, Mexico, United States)

outh Temperate Atlantic

*Benguela Current (Namibia, South Africa)

outh Temperate Indo-Pacific

*Humboldt Current (Chile, Ecuador, Peru)
*Agulhas Current (Mozambique, South Africa)


=Tropical upwelling=

Central Indo-Pacific

*Western Australian Marine (Australia)

Eastern Indo-Pacific

*Panama Bight (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama)
*Gulf of California (Mexico)
*Galápagos Marine (Ecuador)

Eastern Tropical Atlantic

*Canary Current (Canary Islands, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara)


=Tropical coral=

Central Indo-Pacific

*Nansei Shoto (Japan)
*Sulu-Sulawesi Seas (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines)
*Bismarck-Solomon Seas (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands)
*Banda-Flores Sea (Indonesia)
*New Caledonia Barrier Reef (New Caledonia)
*Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
*Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Marine (Australia)
*Palau Marine (Palau)
*Andaman Sea (Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)

Eastern Indo-Pacific

*Tahitian Marine (Cook Islands, French Polynesia)
*Hawaiian Marine (Hawaii)
*Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
*Fiji Barrier Reef (Fiji)

Western Indo-Pacific

*Maldives, Chagos, and Lakshadweep atolls (Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka)
*Red Sea (Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen)
*Arabian Sea (Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen)
*East African Marine (Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania)
*West Madagascar Marine (Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles)

Western Tropical Atlantic

*Mesoamerican Reef (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico)
*Greater Antillean Marine (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States)
*Southern Caribbean Sea (Aruba, Colombia, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela)
*Northeast Brazil Shelf Marine (Brazil)

See also

*Megadiverse countries
*Biodiversity hotspots

External links

* [http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/global.html?detail=undefined&size=undefined&id=0&cMinx=-180&cMaxx=180&cMiny=-90&cMaxy=90 Map of the Global 200]
* [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/maps/index.cfm Conservation status map of the global 200]
* [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/ecoregion_list/index.cfm List of the Global 200]


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