Castigation (from the Latin castigatio), chastisement (via the French châtiment), or chiding is the infliction of severe (moral or corporal) punishment. One who administers a castigation is a castigator or chastiser.
In earlier times, castigation specifically meant restoring one to a religiously pure state, called chastity. In ancient Rome, it was also a term for the magistrate called a censor (in the original sense, rather than the later politicized evolution), who castigated in the name of the pagan state religion but with the authority of the 'pious' state.
In Christian times, this terminology was adopted but roughly restricted to the physical sphere: chastity became a matter of approved sexual conduct, castigation usually meaning physical punishment, either as a form of penance, as a voluntary pious exercise (see mortification of the flesh) or as educational or other coercion, while the use for other (e.g. verbal) punishments (and criticism etc.) is now often perceived as metaphorical.
Self-castigation is applied by the repentant culprit to himself, for moral and/or religious reasons, notably as penance.
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castigation — ⇒CASTIGATION, subst. fém. Littéraire A. Action de châtier, de punir. Synon. blâme, punition : • ... dans ces sept livres des Châtiments, il y a un châtiment, une castigation funèbre entre toutes et qui sonne comme Villon le glas de la mort même … Encyclopédie Universelle
Castigation — Cas ti*ga tion, n. [L. catigatio.] [1913 Webster] 1. Corrective punishment; chastisement; reproof; pungent criticism. [1913 Webster] The keenest castigation of her slanderers. W. Irving. [1913 Webster] 2. Emendation; correction. [Obs.] [1913… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
castigation — index bad repute, blame (culpability), charge (accusation), condemnation (blame), contumely … Law dictionary
Castigation — er et fremmedord for en revselse eller en tugtelse … Danske encyklopædi
castigation — (n.) late 14c., castigacioun, from L. castigationem (nom. castigatio) a correcting, chastizing, noun of action from pp. stem of castigare (see CASTIGATE (Cf. castigate)) … Etymology dictionary
castigation — castigate ► VERB ▪ reprimand severely. DERIVATIVES castigation noun castigator noun. ORIGIN Latin castigare reprove , from castus pure, chaste … English terms dictionary
castigation — noun see castigate … New Collegiate Dictionary
castigation — See castigate. * * * … Universalium
castigation — noun a) Corrective punishment; chastisement; reproof; pungent criticism. b) Emendation; correction … Wiktionary
castigation — (Roget s Thesaurus II) noun Something, such as loss, pain, or confinement, imposed for wrongdoing: chastisement, correction, discipline, penalty, punishment. See REWARD … English dictionary for students