- Treaty of Paris (1898)
The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on
December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War.
American and Spanish delegates met in Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war after six months of hostilities. The American commission consisted of William R. Day, Sen. Cushman K. Davis, Sen. William P. Frye, Sen. George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid. The Spanish commission included the Spanish diplomats Don Eugenio Montero Ríos, Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza, Don José de Garnica, Don Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, and Don Rafael Cerero, as well as a French diplomat, Jules Cambon.
The Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become independent from Spain but the US congress made sure it would be under US control (
Platt Amendment). Specifically, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over - and title to - Cuba. Upon Cuba's evacuation by Spain, it was to be occupied by the United States, and the United States would assume and discharge any obligations that under international law could result from the fact of its occupation.
The Treaty also assured that Spain would cede to the United States the island of Puerto Rico and other islands then under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, as well as the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones.
The major conflict concerned the situation of the Philippines. Spanish commissioners argued that Manila had surrendered after the armistice and therefore the Philippines could not be demanded as a war conquest, but they eventually yielded because they had no other choice, and the U.S. ultimately paid Spain 20 million dollars for possession of the Philippines. The Treaty specified that Spain would cede to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the a specified line.(Reference: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/spain/sp1898.htm).
treatywas the subject of debate in the US Senateduring the winter of 1898-1899, and it was approved on February 6, 1899by a vote 57 to 27Fact|date=March 2007, only one vote more than the two-thirds majority required. Only 2 Republicans voted against ratification George Frisbie Hoarof Massachusettsand Eugene Pryor Haleof Maine.
In accordance with the treaty
*gave up all rights to
Cuba(see Teller Amendmentand Platt Amendment),
Puerto Ricoand gave up its possessions in the West Indies,
*surrendered the island of
Guamto the United States
Philippinesto the United States.
The defeat put an end to the
Spanish Empirein America and, one year later in the Pacific Ocean (after the German-Spanish Treaty (1899)), and marked the beginning of an age of United States colonial power.
enate Debate on Ratification of the Treaty
During the Senate debate to ratify the treaty, Senators
George Frisbie Hoarand George Graham Vestwere outspoken opponents of the treaty.
::*"This Treaty will make us a vulgar, commonplace empire, controlling subject races and vassal states, in which one class must forever rule and other classes must forever obey."--Senator
George Frisbie Hoar
Some anti-imperialists stated that imperialism violated the most basic tenets of the Constitution. They argued that neither Congress nor the President had the right to pass laws governing colonial peoples who were not represented by law-makers.
Senate Imperialists who supported the treaty said:
::*"If the U.S. were to reject the treaty, Suppose we reject the Treaty. We continue the state of war. We repudiate the President. We are branded as a people incapable of taking rank as one of the greatest of world powers!"--Senator
Henry Cabot Lodge
::*"Providence has given the United States the duty of extending Christian civilization. We come as ministering angels, not despots."--Senator
Expansionists said that the Constitution applied only to the citizens of the United States. This idea was later supported by the Supreme Court in the
As the Senate debate continued,
Andrew Carnegieand former President Cleveland petitioned the Senate to reject the treaty.
Philippine Declaration of Independence
German-Spanish Treaty (1899)
* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/spanishwar/ Library of Congress Guide to the Spanish-American War]
* [http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html PBS: Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/spain/sp1898.htm Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain]
* [http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/treaty1898.html 1898 Treaty of Paris] Full text of the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish American War
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