One Canada Square


One Canada Square
One Canada Square

A view of One Canada Square, the second-tallest building in the United Kingdom.
Record height
Tallest in the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2010[I]
Preceded by Tower 42
Surpassed by Shard London Bridge
General information
Type Commercial[1]
Location London, England, UK
Coordinates 51°30′18″N 0°01′10.6″W / 51.505°N 0.019611°W / 51.505; -0.019611Coordinates: 51°30′18″N 0°01′10.6″W / 51.505°N 0.019611°W / 51.505; -0.019611
Construction started 1988
Completed 1991[2][3][4]
Cost £216 million
Height
Antenna spire 235 m (770 ft)[5] AGL
/
240 m (800 ft)[6] ASL
Technical details
Floor count 50[1]
Floor area 1,200,000 sq ft (111,000 m2)[7]
Elevator count 32 + 3 freight + 2 firemen[1]
Design and construction
Owner United Kingdom Canary Wharf Group plc (current majority shareholder is Songbird Estates plc[8])
Management United Kingdom Canary Wharf Group plc
Main contractor United Kingdom Sir Robert McAlpine [9]
Canada Ellis Don[9]
United States Lehrer McGovern[9]
United Kingdom Bovis
United Kingdom Balfour Beatty
Canada Olympia & York
+ approximately 40 sub-contractors
Architect United States César Pelli & Associates[7][10][11][9]
Canada Adamson Associates[10][9][12]
United Kingdom Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners[10][13][9]
Developer Canada Olympia & York[3][14]
Structural engineer Canada MS Yolles & Partners[10]
United Kingdom Waterman Partnership[10][15]
References
[16]

One Canada Square (often incorrectly called Canary Wharf, after its location) is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is the tallest completed building in the United Kingdom since 1991, standing at 235 metres (770 ft) above ground level[17] and containing 50 storeys. In late 2010, it was surpassed in construction height by the Shard London Bridge (now standing at 245 metres or 804 ft), which is under construction as of 2011 and will become the tallest completed building in the United Kingdom in 2012.

One Canada Square was designed by principal architect Cesar Pelli, who based the design and shape mainly on the World Financial Center and Big Ben. One of the predominant features of the building is the pyramid roof which contains a flashing aircraft warning light, a rare feature for buildings in the United Kingdom. The distinctive pyramid pinnacle is at 240 metres (800 ft) above sea level.[6]

One Canada Square is primarily used for offices, though there are some retail units on the lower ground floor. It is a prestigious location for offices and as of May 2011 was around 65% let.[18] The building is recognised as a London landmark and it has gained much attention through film, television and other media because of its status as one of the tallest buildings in the United Kingdom.

Contents

History and design

The original plans

The original plans for a business district on Canary Wharf came from G Ware Travelstead. He proposed three 260 m (850 ft) towers. Travelstead was unable to find the money for his project, so he sold the plans to Olympia & York in 1987.[9] Olympia & York grouped all three towers into an area[9] known as Docklands Square, and the main tower was designated DS7 during planning. Docklands Square was later renamed Winston Square before finally being renamed as Canada Square.

Architects / Design

The architects chosen to design One Canada Square were Cesar Pelli & Associates, Adamson Associates, and Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners.[10][9] They designed the tower with a similar shape to Three World Financial Center, New York City, which was also developed by Olympia & York and designed by Cesar Pelli too. The shape was also made similar to the Big Ben.[19] Olympia & York wanted to clad One Canada Square in stone, just like the World Financial Center buildings, but the architects first wanted to use aluminium for its low density before insisting on steel[9] to reflect Britain's heritage as an industrial nation.[19]

The original Canary Wharf Tower by Cesar Pelli was 263 metres (864 ft) at 55 stories. The Canary Wharf Tower did penetrate the permitted projection height of the flight obstruction area of the airport approach district to London City Airport, but this was extended to a height of 9.1 metres (30 ft) above curb level considering the Canary Wharf Tower was on the external zone of the airport approach district. To comply with air traffic safety regulations, the architects took off 5 floors[9][19] of the tower. The final height of 251 metres (824 ft) was permitted, otherwise, the developers must dismantle what was necessary to fit the height restriction. After losing 5 floors, Olympia & York insisted the other floors had to make up the lost floor space.[9][19]

The design of the tower did gain a fair share of criticism. According to Cesar Pelli, the most damaging criticism came from Prince Charles who said "I personally would go mad if I had to work in a place like that" on national television.[20] Other criticisms came from former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who said the building was "not quite stunning".

Construction

Construction on the tower began in 1988.[9] Construction was given to Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons in association with Ellis Don of Toronto,[9] but they were slow at building the tower, partly due to building workers going on strike in the Summer of 1989,[21] so Lehrer McGovern took over.[9] Lehrer McGovern contracted out most of the work to Balfour Beatty because the Canary Wharf Tower was a difficult building to build. In total, about 27,500 metric tonnes of British steel and 500,000 bolts were used during construction.[6]

On 8 November 1990, the tower was topped out when the top piece of the pyramid roof was put in place by crane. The celebration was attended by many famous architects, recognised engineers and political leaders. Amongst them were César Pelli, Brian Mulroney, Peter Rice, Man-Chung Tang, and Margaret Thatcher. Paul Reichmann, the owner of Olympia & York gave credit to Pelli for his building design as "this inauguration symbolises the spirit with which buildings can be achieved". Margaret Thatcher told the distinguished audience that the tower can become a "national recognised landmark".

Opening

In August 1991, One Canada Square was completed[9] and open for business. His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh officially opened One Canada Square on the morning of 26 August 1991. His Royal Highness unveiled a commemorative plaque at the entrance to the building. Hundreds of construction workers attended the opening ceremony. The Duke of Edinburgh addressed some 800 invited guests, many of whom were involved in the project. He spoke of the "large, airy space and clean, efficient office layout", as he declared the building ready for business. The attendees heard a specially-commissioned piece of music performed by a 30-strong choir. Paul Reichmann, Chairman of Olympia & York said:

"The Canary Wharf Tower marks the start of a new beginning for Canary Wharf, for London and for the United Kingdom. It is by any standard a triumph of ambition, commitment and collaboration. It will breathe life into Canary Wharf, allowing us to continue our transformation of the rest of the wharf and will put Canary Wharf at the leading edge of real estate."

—Paul Reichmann, Chairman, Olympia & York (1991)

And Cesar Pelli, main architect, gave his speech that included:

"According to Lao Tse, the reality of a hollow object is in the void and not in the walls that define it. He was speaking, of course, of spiritual realities. These are the realities also of the Canary Wharf Tower. The power of the void is increased and... with its supporting structure creates a portal to the sky ... a door to the infinite."

—Cesar Pelli, architect (1991)

Post-completion

The majority of the tower was empty after opening because most tenants had not moved in yet and there was a global recession. To brighten up the tower, lights and lasers[22] were installed during the Christmas celebrations of 1991. Soon after in May 1992, the original developers, Olympia & York, went into bankruptcy administration. A majority of the tenants who were due to move into One Canada Square refused. (Only a handful of tenants actually believed in the Canary Wharf project and still moved in despite the bankruptcy situation.) Over the next several years, ultimate ownership of the tower changed several times (see Ownership section). By 1999, One Canada Square was completely let for the very first time. It took 11 years to fill up the tower (as tenants were first sought from the date of construction).

Building technical details

Building name

The name given to the building by the developers is 'One Canada Square'

Building height

Officially, the Civil Aviation Authority shows the building at 235 metres (771 ft) above ground level, or 245.8 metres (806 ft) above sea level.

Pyramid roof

The pyramid roof at night

The pyramid roof is an important feature of the building, enclosing a maintenance plant and housing facilities for water supply, window washing and an aircraft warning beacon. The pyramid itself is 40 metres high[23] and 30 metres square at the base.[23] It is made from stainless steel[23] and is held together by 100,000 nuts and bolts,[23] with a weight of over 100 tons.[23] A louvre access door opens to allow a shining beacon to identify the building to passing aircraft.[23]

Water

Water is pumped up to the pyramid roof, and is continuously replenished. A common sound that is heard inside the pyramid roof is water being moved around. The water is used for general water requirements, such as toilets, etc. The tower consumes an average of 200,000 gallons of water per day.

Window washing machines

The machines for washing the building windows are stored inside the pyramid roof. There are two types: one is automatic and the other is manual. The automatic window washing machines runs on rails on the sides of the building. This machine can clean a window in 2.6 seconds. It consumes 426,000 gallons of water per run to clean the entire tower. The other machine is a manual window washing cradle. Both of these machines for cleaning the windows are supported by rails that run around the outside of the pyramid roof that are bolted down into the maintenance floor itself.

Canary Wharf: Aircraft warning lights

Aircraft warning lights

The aircraft warning light is at the very top of the pyramid. Access is via a ladder with a warning sign stating that unauthorised entry will lead to dismissal. The tower uses an OL5000 medium intensity LED obstruction light. It is an omni-directional light usually for marking hazards. It has very long life and requires little maintenance. Light intensity achieved is well in excess of the required 2,000 candelas. It uses low power consumption and the unit can be flashing or steady burning.

Electrical equipment

There is electrical equipment that regulates the power to the rest of the building on the mezzanine floor. Some of the electrical generators on the mezzanine floor are powered by micro-hydro water turbines, sourced by water pumped up to the roof, making the building one of the most advanced environmentally friendly buildings in the world.

Roof material

The steel comprises a galvanized steel core, with a multi-layered protective coating and granular finish for with better performance characteristics. The tile is in three satin finishes and a high-gloss silver and can be transported in situ in a building's roof.

Cleaning the roof

The pyramid itself is cleaned by special maintenance personnel who abseil from the light beacon opening at the very top of the roof. Not only do they have to deal with the height, as well as the winds that interfere with their ropes, but they also need to inspect the steel roof.

Pyramid roof lights

The pyramid roof lights up in the evenings and can be seen 20 miles (32 km) away.[24] It is a permanent lighting of the Canary Wharf tower pyramid using a thousand electronically controlled fluorescent tubes capable of sequence programming for special occasions and festive seasons. The 4000 lights are highly energy efficient that have an annual running cost of £23,360 rather than an annual running cost of £116,800 if traditional incandescent bulbs were used.

Lightning conductors

One Canada Square uses a traditional roof circuit for its lightning protection system. The roof holds 5 lightning conductor rods. This rooftop network of conductors contain multiple conductive copper paths from the roof to the ground. The steel clad does not form part of the lightning protection system as it was considered too dangerous.

HVAC

At the peak cooling times, the HVAC (climate control) system requires cooling equivalent to that provided by 2,000 t of melting ice in one day. The building has a condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building and results in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water is collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car park.

Windows

One Canada Square has 3,960 windows[6] and was one of the first buildings to incorporate metallicised windows and other advanced window technologies, to assist with the building's energy efficiency plans. The tower uses super-insulated windows at triple-pane glazing (with a high solar heat-gain coefficient), low-emissivity (low-e) coatings to prevent heat loss in winter months, UV coatings, scratch resistant outer layers, sealed argon / krypton gas filled inter-pane voids, 'warm edge' insulating glass spacers, air-seals and specially developed thermally designed window frames. The windows were manufactured with exceptionally high R-values [low U-values, 0.90 W/(m².K)], thereby the thermal resistance is one of the highest rated in the world for the entire window including the frame.

External lighting

The tower uses low energy consumption external lighting through intelligent lighting controls systems. This computer controlled system generates the visually interesting lighting displays on the exterior of the building. The uplighters that are usually seen on the exterior of the building are inductive fluorescent lamps that can be colour rendered and dimmed. The floodlights use compact fluorescent lamps used to provide controlled lighting at the base of the tower. The lighting control system has photocells that will automatically switch on the display when it is dark.

The tower also has a synchronised building exterior decorative light and laser multimedia display. The technology was developed by Australian firm Laservision and cost approximately £2 million. However, Lights Out is a campaign group who protest against the city's air pollution. Organisers of the campaign urged people to switch off their lights.

Fire system

In the event of a fire, One Canada Square is not fully evacuated. Only the floor that has the fire and the floor immediately above are evacuated. The air conditioning is set to work in reverse to extract smoke and fresh air is blown into the fire escape staircases to increase air pressure and therefore slow the entry of smoke into these areas. The sprinkler system will not operate unless there is sufficient heat acting on any sprinkler head (which are independent of each other and do not operate in unison).

The only time when One Canada Square was fully evacuated was on 30 October 2001,[25] during a test drill in response to the 11 September 2001 attacks.

Procedure for fire alarm

When the fire alarm activates on a floor, audio instructions tailored to each floor of the building sound. The floor where the fire alarm originated, and all floors above this level, will receive an evacuation message. On floors below the source of the alarm a stand-by notification is given.

Tuned mass damper

One Canada Square has a steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper. The pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts of wind. The building can sway 33.02 centimeter or 13 ¾ inches in the strongest winds.[6]

Lobby

The lobby is 11 metres (36 ft) high, cladded in 90,000 square feet (8,000 m2) of marble imported from Italy,[6] Guatemala[6] and Turkey[9]

The stained glass and the roundel in the foyer were designed by Charles Rennie, and are an original design. The design represents Canary Wharf, Water and Boats, illustrating the signs of London Docklands. The slate used here and in various places around the foyer on site is made from the Welsh slate shelving used in the repositories of the original Banana Warehouse at Canary Wharf.

Lifts

The tower has thirty two lifts for tenants to use, where 8 lifts serve roughly ten floors of the building. All tenant passenger lifts serve the ground floor and the following groups of floors - floors 5-17, floors 18-27, floors 28-38 and floors 39-50 (note that level 5 is the first office floor, there is no level 13 and that there are no interchange floors apart from the ground floor). In addition there are 2 firemen's lifts which serve all floors in the building. These have colour designations with blue being in the northeast core of the building and green being in the southwest. From the building's initial construction until late 2009 there were 2 large freight lifts at which point another was added. This lift was built inside a vacant lift shaft and has the designation GL37 (GL for goods lift and 37 as it is the 37th lift in the building).[6] The tower uses 'Gearless Traction Elevators' by Otis. These lifts were installed in 1990 (aside from GL37 - 2009) using a gearless traction machine. They have woven steel cables called hoisting ropes that are attached to the top of the lift cabin and wrapped around the drive sheave in special grooves. The other ends of the cables are attached to a counterweight that moves up and down in the hoistway on its own guiderails. It takes 40 seconds by lift from lobby to top floor[6] (The Canary Wharf website has not been updated to include the new goods lift GL37).

Observation floor

There is currently no public observation floor. However, there was an exception during 12 September 1992 - 15 November 1992, when bankruptcy administrators for Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited opened the 50th floor to the public, in order to maintain interest in Canary Wharf. The scheme was stopped on 15 November 1992 when the IRA attempted to bomb the tower[26] (see Terrorism section).

General figures

  • 28,000 square feet (2,600 m2) average floor size[6]
  • 4,388 internal steps[6]
  • 108,000 deliveries to the loading bay each year[6]

Building internal relations

Public access

A view from the top floor, May 2000

The ground floor, foyer area and basement levels of One Canada Square are open to the general public, having an underground shopping area and a transport interchange from Canary Wharf tube and Docklands Light Railway stations. Access from the basement also links to Canada Square shopping mall.[27] The floors above the lobby are not opened to the public as they contain offices.

Environmental rating

The international BREEAM standard has awarded One Canada Square for best practice in sustainable design and environmental performance for buildings. To achieve the rating, the building had to meet or exceed a challenging score of 85% against strict criteria, and included environmental innovations such as the use of 80% recycled aggregate within the concrete used, and the recycling of waste heat to cool and warm the building. Aggregates used in the office build were from predominantly recycled sources, part of a strategy to integrate sustainable products and materials throughout the site, delivering both affordable and sustainable environmentally friendly features to the building.

Maintenance

Canary Wharf Management Ltd are responsible for the maintenance of the building. There are about 130 in-house and contract staff who maintain, manage, secure and clean the building. There are normally ten maintenance personnel on-site during working hours and three at night to attend to routine repairs and adjustments to the internal environment. Critical spare parts for the electricity, gas and water systems are kept within the building.

Light usage

Lights left on at Canary Wharf

One Canada Square was 'named and shamed' for being the top building to leave the lights on unnecessarily.[28] The research carried out by the BBC Inside Out team found that on midnight Sunday, One Canada Square left more lights on than any other building in London.[28]

However, Canary Wharf Group did say that some tenants have staff working around the clock,[28] and 100% of the energy comes from renewable resources.[28]

13th floor

Due to the building's original Canadian developers there is no thirteenth floor (as is the custom throughout North America) and instead the floors are numbered 11, 12, 14, 15.[5] The fire escape stairs reveals that the floors go straight from the 12th floor to the 14th floor with no space for an extra floor in between.

Tenants

Current office tenants

(This listing differs from Canary Wharf Group's list[7] as it is outdated. This listing also does not match Royal Mail / The Post Office list when searching for companies in One Canada Square[29])

Previous office tenants

Ownership

The ownership of One Canada Square has changed since it was constructed. The table below shows who have previously owned One Canada Square, and also who are the current owners.

Any use of a holding company has been excluded from this list, as it is easier to trace the true owner.

Date Owner
1988–1991 (Building under construction) Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited (Ultimate parent: Olympia & York Developments Limited)
1991–1992 Olympia & York Canary Wharf Limited (Ultimate parent: Olympia & York Developments Limited)
1992-1992 None (previous owners were in administration due to bankruptcy)
1992-1992 Cheung Kong (Holdings) Limited
1992–1993 None (Return to administration)
1993–1995 Canary Wharf Limited (Parent: Sylvester Investments) (Ultimate parent: a consortium of 11 banks owned by Barclays Bank, CIBC, Chemical Bank, Citibank, Commerzbank, Crédit Lyonnais, Credit Suisse, Kansallis-Osake-Pankki, Lloyds Bank, National Bank of Canada, and Royal Bank of Canada)
1993–1995 Canary Wharf Limited (Parent: Tomcat Investments - transitional use to International Property Corporation Limited) (Ultimate parent: a consortium of 5 banks owned by Citibank, Commerzbank, Crédit Lyonnais, Credit Suisse, and Royal Bank of Canada)
1995–1999 Canary Wharf Limited (Parent: International Property Corporation Limited) (Ultimate parent: a consortium owned by CNA Financial Corporation, Franklin Mutual Series Fund, HRH Prince Al Waleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz al Saud, affiliates of Republic New York Corporation, Paul Reichmann)
1999–2004 Canary Wharf Group plc (public company, no majority shareholder)
2004–2010 Canary Wharf Group plc (public company, majority shareholder is Songbird Estates plc)
2010- British Land[37]

External relations

Height ranking

Title Rank
Tallest building in the world 204
Tallest building in Europe 15
Tallest building in the European Union 7
Tallest building in the UK 2
Tallest completed building in the UK 1
Tallest building in Canary Wharf 1

Titles

Titles such as the 'tallest building in the UK' can be determined by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) criteria of: when a building is complete, clad and at least partially open for business.[38] In accordance to the CTBUH method, One Canada Square achieved the title of tallest skyscraper in the UK in August 1991. It is a record it has held since. However, other skyscrapers may take this title in the next few years, for example Bishopsgate Tower and The Shard. As for the tallest building at Canary Wharf, One Canada Square is currently the tallest building there, but it may be overtaken as the tallest building by Riverside Tower 1. As for the tallest building in the European Union, One Canada Square never achieved the title as tallest skyscraper in the European Union's because in accordance to the CTBUH method, a building has to be completed before its receives its title, so as MesseTurm was completed in 1990, and One Canada Square was completed in 1991, it cannot claim that title.

Terrorism

On 15 November 1992, the Provisional Irish Republican Army attempted to place a large improvised explosive device[26] near the tower. The IRA had already worked out that to cause maximum damage, the bomb had to be placed under the Docklands Light Railway bridge to disrupt infrastructure and near the Canary Wharf Tower for a devastating effect. The bomb was in a van which was driven to the designated place. As the bombers were about to make their escape, security guards approached the van because it was parked illegally on double yellow lines. Two men got out of the vehicle and pointed guns at the security guards. The security guards tried to calm the situation thus challenged the two men,[26] but the men shot the guards and decided to flee the scene having accomplished their mission. Other Canary Wharf Security guards pursued them as far as the boundary of the wharf, but the men escaped. Armed police were on the scene within minutes and the army bomb squad discovered that the vehicle contained a bomb. The detonator failed to ignite the main charge,[39] and the bomb did not go off, so there was no bomb damage to Canary Wharf. A few days later, the IRA described it as 'sheer ill luck' as the bomb failed to detonate. There was criticism that the intelligence services did not know about this massive bomb travelling through London. As a result of this attempted bombing, the observation floor was closed (see Public access section) and security was dramatically increased at Canary Wharf.

On 9 February 1996, the IRA did detonate a large bomb at South Quay, south of Canary Wharf (outside of Canary Wharf), which killed two people and devastated several buildings. This explosion is commonly, but erroneously, referred to as the "Canary Wharf bomb".[40][41]

There have been many news articles in recent years stating that the towers at Canary Wharf have been a target for terrorism.[42][43][44] However, some of these plots have been denied by the government.[45] One plot was confirmed on 4 April 2008, when a terror cell appeared at Woolwich Crown Court accused of targeting Canary Wharf. The men denied the charges,[46][47] but were found guilty for planning attacks on the Canary Wharf skyscrapers.[48]

Community relations

Television interference

As the Canary Wharf Tower is the first skyscraper to be clad in stainless steel with metallised windows, this may have caused television reception interference for local people living in the area. In the case Patricia Hunter and others v. Canary Wharf Ltd.[1997],[49][50] the House of Lords concluded there is no legal right to receive good television reception.[51] Patricia Hunter and others lost the case because of a variety of reasons that included:

  • the BBC built a new relay station so there was no long-term television interference
  • it was interference with a purely recreational facility, as opposed to interference with the health or physical comfort or well-being of the plaintiffs
  • nothing was emitted from the defendants' land

In Spring 2001, the BBC received some television interference complaints from residents in the Poplar area[52] (north of Canary Wharf). A possible cause for the interference are the other Canary Wharf towers being built.[52] Their advice was to get digital television, satellite or cable.[52]

Cleaning protest

In March 2004, a window was broken in the lobby of One Canada Square during a protest about wages for cleaners. Cleaners were being paid low wages whilst bankers at Canary Wharf were earning £1 million.[53] Although the protest was relatively peaceful, there was some damage. The shattered glass panel was 12 feet (3.7 m) high and 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick.[54] The window was boarded up and replaced within hours.

In popular culture

Cinema

One Canada Square has been featured in many films. It was featured many times in the movie 28 Weeks Later[55] where the tower and the Docklands area around it are one of the main settings for the post-apocalyptic horror-thriller. Another high profile film was Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, where Harry and some members of the Order of the Phoenix pass next to One Canada Square as they head to Grimmauld Place near the beginning of the movie on their broomsticks.

The tower has also been featured in a few spy films. Exposure was given to the tower in The World Is Not Enough, as James Bond sails past One Canada Square.[55] Another spy film was The Bourne Supremacy[55] where One Canada Square appeared as the CIA's London listening station. In the film Johnny English,[55] One Canada Square had another identical building next to it, where one of the One Canada Square buildings was a hospital and the other was villain Pascal Sauvage's HQ.

Other films featuring the Canary Wharf Tower can be read from a publication called Canary Wharf And Isle Of Dogs Movie Map.[55]

Television

One Canada Square has appeared many times on British television. It has appeared in the television series Doctor Who (in the episode Army of Ghosts), as the location of the Torchwood Institute, under the name "Torchwood Tower".[56] It has appeared in the series The Tomorrow People, as the headquarters for Sam Rees.[57] The tower also made multiple appearances on the television show The Apprentice (UK).[55]

During the 1990s, One Canada Square was home to the television station L!VE TV who broadcast live from the tower.[55]

Literature

A near future sequence in the novel Freezeframes by Katharine Kerr, shows One Canada Square as a free college and youth drop-in centre. It is nicknamed "Major's Last Erection", referring to John Major.

One Canada Square previously appeared in the Virgin Missing Adventures novel Millennial Rites in which the top floor was the headquarters of a yuppie who inadvertently turned London into a "dark fantasy" kingdom in which he was a powerful sorcerer, with the tower as his citadel; and the Past Doctor Adventures novel The Time Travellers, in which it was the headquarters of the British Army in an alternate timeline.

One Canada Square also features prominently in an early issue of the Grant Morrison comic series The Invisibles, in which Dane MacGowan is encouraged to jump from the top by his mentor, Tom O'Bedlam, as an initiation rite that will allow him to see beyond reality and join The Invisibles.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Canary Wharf Group plc, http://www.canarywharf.com/estate/estate/ds7/info.htm The Estate > Buildings > One Canada Square > More information > One Canada Square Facts, official Canary Wharf website, Canary Wharf Group plc. Accessed 25 May 2008 14:45 BST.
  2. ^ Canary Wharf Contractors Limited, http://www.cwcontractors.com/projectsOneCanada.asp Some of our projects > One Canada Square > One Canada Square, Canary Wharf Contractors website, Canary Wharf Contractors Limited. Accessed 25 May 2008 15:30 BST.
  3. ^ a b Canary Wharf Group plc, http://www.canarywharf.com/mainFrm1.asp?strSelectedArea=History History, official Canary Wharf website, Canary Wharf Group plc. Accessed 25 May 2008 14:38 BST.
  4. ^ The Open University http://www.open2.net/modernity/3_17.htm A-Z Index > From Here to Modernity > Buildings > Canary Wharf > Canary Wharf, Open2 website, The Open University. Accessed 25 May 2008 15:39 BST. WARNING: THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ERRORS.
  5. ^ a b "Skyscrapernews.com", http://www.skyscrapernews.com/buildings.php?id=48 "One Canada Square", "Skyscrapernews.com", 15 May 2008. Accessed 25 May 2008 16:31 BST. WARNING: THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ERRORS.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Canary Wharf Group plc, http://www.canarywharf.com/factfile/1can_pagr2.asp Fact File > One Canada Square > One Canada Square, official Canary Wharf website, Canary Wharf Group plc. Accessed 25 May 2008 14:55 BST.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Canary Wharf Group plc, http://www.canarywharf.com/estate/estate/ds7/ds7_r.htm The Estate > Buildings > One Canada Square > Building profile > Building profile, official Canary Wharf website, Canary Wharf Group plc. Accessed 25 May 2008 14:52 BST.
  8. ^ Songbird Estates plc http://www.songbirdestates.com/Corporate-Profile/index.asp Company Overview / AIM Rule 26 > 'Company Overview and Alternative Investment Market ("AIM") Rule 26', Songbird Estates website, Songbird Estates plc, 25 May 2008. Accessed 25 May 2008 20:08 BST.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hermione Hobhouse http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46550 "Modern Docklands: Gazetteer of modern non-housing developments", "Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs", 1994. Accessed 28 April 2008
  10. ^ a b c d e f Unknown author, http://www.building.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=32&storycode=3048265 "Faster, higher, stronger", Building website, Canary Wharf supplement 2005, 2005. Accessed 25 May 2008 14:26 BST.
  11. ^ Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects (formerly Cesar Pelli & Associates) http://www.cesar-pelli.com/ Projects > Office Buildings > One Canada Square > One Canada Square, Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects website, Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects. Accessed 25 May 2008 17:00 BST.
  12. ^ Answers Corporation http://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-associates-2?cat=entertainment "Art Encyclopedia: Adamson Associates", "Answers.com" website, Answers Corporation. Accessed 25 May 2008 19:52 BST.
  13. ^ Gibberd http://www.gibberd.com/ Projects > Office > Canary Wharf > Canary Wharf, Gibberd website, Gibberd. Accessed 25 May 2008 19:46 BST. (Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners are now known as Frederick Gibberd Partnership)
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External links

Records
Preceded by
Tower 42
Tallest Building in the United Kingdom
1991—2012
235m
Succeeded by
Shard London Bridge
Under construction
Preceded by
Tower 42
Tallest Building in London
1991—2012
235m
Succeeded by
Shard London Bridge
Under construction
Preceded by
-
Tallest Building in Canary Wharf
1991—2013
235m
Succeeded by
Riverside South
On Hold

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