- Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were signed by
Egyptian President Anwar El Sadatand Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Beginon September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. [ [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/Camp%20David%20Accords Camp David Accords - Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs] ] The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.
Upon assuming office on
January 20, 1977, President Carter moved to rejuvenate the Middle Eastern peace process that had stalled throughout the 1976 presidential campaign in the United States. Following the advice of a Brookings Institutionreport, Carter opted to replace the incremental, bilateral peace talks which had characterized Henry Kissinger's shuttle diplomacyfollowing the 1973 Yom Kippur Warwith a comprehensive, multilateral approach. This new approach called for the reconvening of the 1973 Geneva Conference, this time with a Palestiniandelegation, in hopes of negotiating a final settlement, however this never materialized.
Carter also wasted no time in visiting the heads-of-state on whom he would have to rely to make any peace agreement feasible. By the end of his first year in office, he had already met with
Anwar El Sadatof Egypt, King Husseinof Jordan, Hafez al-Assadof Syria, and Yitzhak Rabinof Israel. However, the United States still feared some action by Hungary, East Germany, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, and the Soviet Union who had fought on the Egyptian and Syrian side. These were also the members of the Warsaw Pact. As a precaution, the NATO armies were mobilized for war. Carter's and Vance's exploratory meetings gave him a basic plan for reinvigorating the peace process based on the Geneva Conference and Israeli withdrawal on all fronts, including the West Bank. The political situation in Israel underwent a dramatic upheaval with a devastating electoral loss of the long-ruling Alignment (the forerunner of the Israeli Labour Party) to Menachem Begin's Likudin May 1977. While Begin officially favored the reconvention of the conference, perhaps even more vocally than Rabin, and even accepted the Palestinian presence, in actuality the Israelis and the Egyptians were secretly formulating a framework for bilateral talks. Even earlier, Begin had not been opposed to returning the Sinai, but a major future obstacle was his firm refusal to consider relinquishing control over the West Bank.Fact|date=October 2008
The Sadat Peace Initiative
Anwar El Sadatcame to feel that the Geneva track peace process was more show than substance, and was not progressing, partly due to disagreements with Syria and his communist allies. He also lacked confidence in the United States to pressure Israel after a meeting with Carter. His frustration boiled over, and after clandestine preparatory meetings between Egyptian and Israeli officials, unknown even to the Americans, in November 1977 Anwar El Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel, thereby implicitly recognizing Israel.
The Sadat visit came about after he delivered a speech in Egypt stating that he would travel anywhere, "even Jerusalem," to discuss peace. That speech led the Begin government to declare that, if Israel thought that Sadat would accept an invitation, Israel would invite him.
Knessetspeech he talked about his views on peace, the status of Israel's occupied territories, and the Palestinian refugee problem. This tactic went against the intentions of both the United States and the Soviet Union, which were to revive the Geneva Conference. Hungarian leader Janos Kadarthreatened war with Egypt if they signed a peace agreement with Israel. Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania followed. Yugoslavia and East Germany also threatened to attack Egypt if they did not revoke their recognition of Israel. The Soviet Union, Poland and Romania didn't threaten war, but they would support their allies in a war against Egypt.
The gesture stemmed from an eagerness to enlist the help of the
United Statesin improving the ailing Egyptian economy, a belief that Egypt should begin to focus more on its own interests than on the interests of the Arab world, and a hope that an agreement with Israel would catalyze similar agreements between Israel and her other Arab neighbors and help solve the Palestinian problem. Prime Minister Begin's response to Sadat's initiative, though not what Sadat or Carter had hoped, demonstrated a willingness to engage the Egyptian leader. Like Sadat, Begin also saw many reasons why bilateral talks would be in his country's best interests. It would afford Israel the opportunity to negotiate only with Egypt instead of with a larger Arabdelegation that might try to use its size to make unwelcome or unacceptable demands. Israel felt Egypt could help protect Israel from other Arabs and Eastern communists. In addition, the commencement of direct negotiations between leaders – summit diplomacy – would distinguish Egypt from her Arab neighbors. The basic message of Sadat's speech at the Knessetwere the request for the implementation of Resolutions 242 and 338. Sadat’s visit was the first step to negotiations such as the preliminary Cairo Conference in December 1977 and ultimately the Camp David Accords.
Accompanied by their capable negotiating teams and with their respective interests in mind, both leaders converged on Camp David for thirteen days of tense and dramatic negotiations from September 5-17, 1978. By all accounts, Carter's relentless drive to achieve peace and his reluctance to allow the two men to leave without reaching an agreement are what played the decisive role in the success of the talks. Numerous times both the Egyptian and Israeli leaders wanted to scrap negotiations, only to be lured back into the process by personal appeals from Carter. Begin and Sadat had such mutual antipathy toward one another that they only seldom had direct contact; thus Carter had to conduct his own microcosmic form of shuttle diplomacy by holding one-on-one meetings with either Sadat or Begin in one cabin, then returning to the cabin of the third party to relay the substance of his discussions.
A particularly difficult situation arose on the tenth stalemated day of the talks. The issues of Israeli settlement withdrawal from the Sinai and the status of the West Bank created what seemed to be an impasse. Begin and Sadat were “literally not on speaking terms,” and “claustrophobia was setting in." In response, Carter had the choice of trying to salvage the agreement by conceding the issue of the West Bank to Begin, while advocating Sadat’s less controversial position on the removal of all settlements from the Sinai Peninsula. Or he could have refused to continue the talks, reported the reasons for their failure, and allowed Begin to bear the brunt of the blame. Carter chose to continue and for three more days negotiated.
Terms of the agreements
There were two 1978 Camp David agreements "A Framework for Peace in the Middle East" and "A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel", the second leading towards the
Israel-Egypt Peace Treatysigned in March, 1979. The agreements and the peace treaty were both accompanied by "side-letters" of understanding between Egypt and the U.S. and Israel and the U.S. [ [http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/campdavid/letters.phtml "The Camp David Accords."] " Jimmy Carter Library and Museum". 21 July 2001. 28 April 2008.]
The first agreement had three parts. The first part was a framework for negotiations to establish an self-governing authority in the
West Bankand the Gaza stripand to fully implement SC 242. It was less clear than the agreements concerning the Sinai, and was later interpreted differently by Israel, Egypt, and the United States. The fate of Jerusalem was deliberately excluded from this agreement [Gold, 175] .
The second part dealt with Egyptian-Israeli relations, the real content being in the second agreement. The third part "Associated Principles" declared principles that should apply to relations between Israel and all of its Arab neighbors.
The second agreement outlined a basis for the peace treaty six months later, in particular deciding the future of the
Sinai peninsula. Israel agreed to withdraw its armed forces from the Sinai, evacuate its 4,500 civilian inhabitants, and restore it to Egypt in return for normal diplomatic relations with Egypt, guarantees of freedom of passage through the Suez Canal and other nearby waterways (such as the Straits of Tiran), and a restriction on the forces Egypt could place on the Sinai peninsula, especially within 20-40 km from Israel. Israel also agreed to limit its forces a smaller distance (3 km) from the Egyptian border, and to guarantee free passage between Egypt and Jordan. With the withdrawal, Israel also lost the Abu-Rudeis oil fields in western Sinai, which contained Israel's only long term commercially productive wells to date.
The agreement also resulted in the United States committing to several billion dollars worth of annual subsidies to the governments of both Israel and Egypt, subsidies which continue to this day, and are given as a mixture of grants and aid packages committed to purchasing U.S.
materiel. From 1979 (the year of the peace agreement) to 1997, Egypt received $1.3 billion annually, which also helped modernize the Egyptian military, turning it into the largest in the Middle East. [ [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm#relations "Egypt"] " U.S. Department of State". March 2008. 28 April 2008.] Soviet-supplied until 1979, Egypt now received American weaponry such as the M1A1 AbramsTank, AH-64 Apachegunship and the F-16 fighter jet. In comparison, Israel has received $3 billion annually since 1985 in grants and military aid packages. [Benhorin, Yitzhak. [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3362402,00.html "Israel still top recipient of US foreign aid."] " Ynetnews". 2 August 2007. 28 April 2008.]
According to "The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East":
"The normalization of relations [between Israel and Egypt] went into effect in January 1980. Ambassadors were exchanged in February. The boycott laws were repealed by Egypt's National Assembly the same month, and some trade began to develop, albeit less than Israel had hoped for. In March 1980 regular airline flights were inaugurated. Egypt also began supplying Israel with crude oil" [Sela, 100] .
The time that has elapsed since the Camp David Accords has left no doubt as to their enormous ramifications on Middle Eastern politics. Most notably, the perception of Egypt within the Arab world changed. With the most powerful of the Arab militaries and a history of leadership in the Arab world under Nasser, Egypt had more leverage than any of the other Arab states to advance Arab interests. One key point of criticism was at concluding a peace treaty without demanding greater concessions for Israeli recognition of the Palestinians' right to
self-determination. Egypt was also suspended from the Arab Leaguefrom 1979 until 1989.
The Camp David Accords also prompted the disintegration of a united Arab front in opposition to Israel. Egypt's realignment created a power vacuum that
Saddam Husseinof Iraq, at one time only a secondary power, hoped to fill. Because of the vague language concerning the implementation of Resolution 242, the Palestinianproblem became the primary issue in the Arab-Israeli conflictimmediately following the Camp David Accords (and arguably, until today). Many of the Arab nations blamed Egypt for not putting enough pressure on Israel to deal with the Palestinian problem in a way that would be satisfactory to them.
Lastly, the biggest consequence of all may be in the psychology of the participants of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The success of Begin, Sadat, and Carter at Camp David demonstrated to other Arab states and entities that negotiations with Israel were possible — that progress results only from sustained efforts at communication and cooperation. Despite the disappointing conclusion of the 1993
Oslo Accordsbetween the PLO and Israel, and even though the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peacehas not fully normalized relations with Israel, both of these significant developments had little chance of occurring without the precedent set by Camp David.
Criticism of the Accords
For Israel, perhaps the most evident tangible benefit of the agreement with Egypt (other than the subsequent U.S. aid, which Egypt also received) was a peaceful mutual border, enabling the
Israel Defense Forcesto reduce their levels of alert on Israel's southwestern frontier. Although both sides generally abided by the agreements since 1978, in the following years a common belief emerged in Israel that the peace with Egypt is a "cold peace." There are Israelis who feel that Egypt is adhering only to letter and not the spirit of the agreement, particularly with the clauses concerning normalization of relations between the two countries. Others feel that the Peace agreement was between the Israeli people and Egypt's charismaticPresident Anwar El Sadat, rather than with the Egyptian people, who were not given the opportunity to accept or reject the agreement with a free vote or a representative majority. However, it was initially supported by the vast majority.cite book | last=Vatikiotis | first=P.J. | title=The History of Modern Egypt | edition= 4th edition | location = Baltimore | publisher= Johns Hopkins University | year=1992 | pages=443] While the treaty was approved by a parliament majority in Israel, which has a multi-candidate, Multi-party electoral system, Egypthas had a semi-presidential systemwith a single candidate government since 1953.
Further supporting this claim is the fact that although Israeli tourists flocked to Egypt, few Egyptians return the gesture: in the peak year, 1999, 415,000 Israelis visited Egypt. The highest number of Egyptians visiting Israel was 28,000, in 1995.Fact|date=April 2008 (While the disparity is undoubtedly attributable in part to Egyptian average income being lower, it is also worth noting that Israel's population is 6 million while Egypt's is 71 million). Approximately 1.8 million Egyptians travel abroad every year, [Saad, Rehab. [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/844/tr3.htm "Think about Oman."] "
Al-Ahram Weekly". 10-16 May 2007. 28 April 2008.] while in 2006 2 million Israelis traveled abroad, [ [http://www.cbs.gov.il/tourism_sp/e_mavo_tourism.doc 2006 - Israeli Tourism Statistics] ] indicating that a significantly higher percentage of Israeli travelers visit Egypt than the percentage of Egyptian travelers who visit Israel.
According to the BBC,Clark, Kate. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3136059.stm "Interpreting Egypt's anti-semitic cartoons."] "
BBC News". 10 August 2003. 28 April 2008.] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2386767.stm "Egypt criticised for 'anti-Semitic' film."] " BBC News". 1 November 2002. 28 April 2008.] "New York Times", [Wakin, Daniel J. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F00E1DE1F3CF935A15753C1A9649C8B63 "Anti-Semitic 'Elders of Zion' Gets New Life on Egypt TV."] " The New York Times". 26 October 2002. 28 April 2008.] the Middle East Media Research Institute, [Stalinksy, Steven. [http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Area=sr&ID=SR2804 "MEMRI: Special Report - No. 28."] "". 2 April 2004. 28 April 2008.] Anti-Defamation League, [ [http://www.adl.org/egyptian_media/media_2001/jews_as_nazis.asp "Anti-Semitic Images in the Egyptian Media: Jews as Nazis."] "ADL". January 2000 - February 2001. 28 April 2008.] [ [Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media - Images and Accusations: Jews as Abnormal; Israelis as Nazis."] "ADL". 1997. 28 April 2008.] [ [http://www.adl.org/egyptian_media/old_egyptian_images.asp Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media - Images and Accusations: Jews as Abnormal; Israelis as Nazis ] ] [ [http://www.adl.org/egyptian_media/old_egyptian_conspiracy.asp "Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media - Conspiracy Theories."] "ADL". 1997. 28 April 2008.] and former Israeli diplomat to Egypt Ephraim Dowek, [Dowek, Ephraim. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Luvy4oHkLuEC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=anti-semitic+egyptian+media&source=web&ots=Lq1nh0Qxaq&sig=gNSmHypybkU28xeZr-yz9WU00M4&hl=en "Israeli-Egyptian Relations, 1980-2000."] " Google Book Search". 28 April 2008.] anti-Semiticthemes and cartoons still appear in the Egyptian media. These themes include Holocaust denial, accusations that Jews committed the 9/11 terrorist attacks, imagery of Jews as Satanic figures, equating Jews with Nazis, imagery of Jews with hooked noses, and resurfacing the blood libel against Jews. Abdullah Schliefer, director of Television Studies at American University of Cairo, explains that "it's not real racial anti-Semitism," but rather "just a stupid knee-jerk reaction to the Arab-Israeli conflict."
Egypt has mediated several unofficial cease fire understandings between Israel and the Palestinians. There have been many popular protests in Egypt against peace with Israel (from all levels of society, up to and including intellectuals, students and
democratizationmovements such as Kifaya). These typically intensify following Israeli actions in its conflicts with the Palestiniansand Lebanon, which Israel views as self defence, but are seen in Egypt as harsh repression of Arabs.
According to an Egyptian Government 2006 poll of 1000 Egyptians (taken at the time of the
2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict) 92% of Egyptians view Israel as an enemy nation. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6107160.stm "Denmark 'Egypt's foe', says poll"] " BBC News". 1 November 2006. 28 April 2008.] [Pipes, Daniel. [http://www.nysun.com/article/43906 "Time to Recognize the Failure OF Israel-Egypt Treaty."] " The New York Sun". 21 November 2006. 28 April 2008.] However, the treaty was supported by the vast majority of Egyptians on the day it was signed. In Israel, there is lasting support of the Camp David Peace Accords, which have become a national consensus, supported by 85% of Israelis according to a 2001 poll taken by the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies (Israel based). [Ronen, Joshua. [http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/Hjerus1.html "Poll: 58% of Israelis back Oslo process."] " Tel Aviv University". 7 June 2001. 28 April 2008.] Nevertheless, a minority of Israelis believe the price Israel paid for the peace agreement was too high for its present gains, i.e. having relinquished the entire Sinai Peninsula, with its oil, tourism and land resources (Israel has no other oil wells), and the trauma of evacuating thousands of its Israeli inhabitants (many resisted, as in the town of Yamitand had to be forcefully evacuated, a phenomenon encountered also in the subsequent Israeli withdrawal from Gaza in 2005, known as the Disengagement).
* [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Camp+David+Accords.htm Text of the Accords, Israeli government]
* [http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/campdavid/index.phtml Text of Accords and additional material, Carter Library]
* [http://www.nysun.com/article/43906 2006 Egyptian public poll on attitudes to Israel] and other countries, NY Sun Article. Alternate link to poll results from a [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6107160.stm BBC News Article]
* [http://www.begincenter.org.il/ The Menachem Begin Heritage Foundation]
* [http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/Hjerus1.html Jaffe Center Poll on Israeli public Attitudes to the Peace Process]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F00E1DE1F3CF935A15753C1A9649C8B63 NY Times: Anti-Semitic 'Elders of Zion' Gets New Life on Egypt TV]
1948 Arab-Israeli War
1956 Suez War
1967 Six Day War
1970 War of Attrition
1973 Yom Kippur War
Proposals for a Palestinian state
Arab League and the Arab-Israeli conflict
Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
*Faisal-Weizmann Agreement (1919)
1949 Armistice Agreements
*Camp David Accords (1978)
*Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (1979)
Madrid Conference of 1991
*Oslo Accords (1993)
*Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (1994)
Camp David 2000 Summit
Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs
List of Middle East peace proposals
International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict
*Bregman, Ahron "Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America".
*Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." "The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East". Ed.
Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.
*Gold, Dore. "The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, the West, and the Future of the Holy City". Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2007.
*Meital, Yoram. "Egypt’s Struggle for Peace: Continuity and Change, 1967-1977".
*Sela, Avraham. "Arab-Israeli Conflict." "The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East". Ed.
Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.
Adam Curtis' 2004documentary " The Power of Nightmares", in its 2nd and 3rd part, studies the Camp David Accords from the point of view of fundamentalist Muslims.
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