Rudolf von Jhering


Rudolf von Jhering

Rudolf von Jhering (also Ihering) (22 August 181817 September 1892) was a German jurist. He is known for his 1872 book "Der Kampf ums Recht", as a legal scholar, and as the founder of a modern sociological and historical school of law.

Jhering was born in Aurich, Kingdom of Hanover. He entered the university of Heidelberg in 1836 and, after the fashion of German students, visited successively Göttingen, Munich, and Berlin. Georg Friedrich Puchta, alone of all his teachers, appears to have influenced him.

After graduating "doctor juris", Jhering established himself in 1844 at Berlin as privatdocent for Roman law, and delivered public lectures on the "Geist des römischen Rechts", the theme which may be said to have constituted his life's work. In 1845 he became an ordinary professor at Basel, in 1846 at Rostock, in 1849 at Kiel, and in 1851 at Giessen. Upon all these seats of learning he left his mark; beyond any other of his contemporaries he animated the dry bones of Roman law.

The German juristic world was still under the dominating influence of the Savigny cult, and the older school looked askance at the daring of the young professor, who essayed to adapt the old to new exigencies and to build up a system of natural jurisprudence. This is the keynote of his famous work, "Geist des römischen Rechts auf den verschiedenen Stufen seiner Entwicklung" (1852-1865), which for originality of conception and lucidity of scientific reasoning placed its author in the forefront of modern Roman jurists.

It is no exaggeration to say that in the second half of the 19th century the reputation of Jhering was as high as that of Savigny in the first. Their methods were almost diametrically opposed. Savigny and his school represented the conservative, historical tendency. In Jhering the philosophical conception of jurisprudence, as a science to be utilized for the further advancement of the moral and social interests of mankind, was predominant.

In 1868 Jhering accepted the chair of Roman Law at Vienna, where his lecture-room was crowded, not only with regular students but with men of all professions and even of the highest ranks in the official world. In 1872 Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria conferred upon him a title of hereditary nobility.

The social functions of the Austrian metropolis became wearisome, and Jhering gladly exchanged its for the repose of Göttingen, where he became professor in 1872. In this year he had read at Vienna before an admiring audience a lecture, published under the title of "Der Kampf ums Recht" (1872; Eng. trans., "Battle for Right", 1884). Its success was extraordinary. Within two years it attained twelve editions, and it has been translated into 26 languages. This was followed a few years later by "Der Zweck im Recht" (2 vols., 1877-1883). In these two works is clearly seen Jhering's individuality. The "Kampf ums Recht" shows the firmness of his character, the strength of his sense of justice, and his juristic method and logic: to assert his rights is the duty that every responsible person owes to himself. In the "Zweck im Recht" is perceived the bent of the author's intellect. But perhaps the happiest combination of all his distinctive characteristics is to be found in his "Jurisprudenz des taglichen Lebens" (1870; Eng. trans., 1904). A great feature of his lectures was his so-called "Praktika", problems in Roman law, and a collection of these with hints for solution was published as early as 1847 under the title "Civilrechtsfalle ohne Entscheidungen".

Aside from shorter positions at Leipzig and Heidelberg, Jhering continued to work in Göttingen until his death. In appearance he was of middle stature, his face clean-shaven and of classical mould, lit up with vivacity and beaming with good nature. He was perhaps seen at his best when dispensing hospitality in his own house.

Among others of his works were the following: "Beiträge zur Lehre vom Besitz", first published in the "Jahrbücher für die Dogmatik des heutigen römischen und deutschen Privatrechts", and then separately; "Der Besitzwille", and an article entitled "Besitz" in the "Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften" (1891), which aroused at the time much controversy, particularly on account of the opposition manifested to Savigny's conception of the subject.

See also "Scherz und Ernst in der Jurisprudenz" (1885); "Des Schuldmoment im römischen Privat-recht" (1867); "Das Trinkgeld" (1882); and among the papers he left behind him his "Vorgeschichte der Indoeuropaer", a fragment, has been published by v. Ehrenberg (I 894). See for an account of his life also M. de Jonge, "Rudolf v. Jhering" (1888); and Adolf Merkel, Rudolf von Jhering (1893).

Works

* "Der Geist des römischen Rechts" (1852 – 1865) two volumes
* "Der Kampf ums Recht", Vienna 1872
* "Der Zweck im Recht" (1877 – 1883) two volumes
* "Scherz und Ernst in der Jurisprudenz" (1884)
* "Der Besitzwille" (1889)
* [http://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/ihering/LawMeansEnd.pdf "Law as a Means to an End"] (English Translation of vol.1 of Der Zweck im Recht, 1913) at the [http://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/index.html McMaster Archive for the History of Economic Thought.]

See also

* Victor Ehrenberg (jurist)

References

*1911


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  • Rudolf von Jhering — (* 22. August 1818 in Aurich; † 17. September 1892 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Jurist. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf von jhering — (souvent Ihering) (Aurich, 22 août 1818 Göttingen, 17 septembre 1892) était un juriste allemand. Il est connu pour son livre publié en 1872 Der Kampf ums Recht, comme savant juriste, et comme fondateur de l école moderne sociologique et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rudolf von Jhering — (souvent Ihering) (Aurich, 22 août 1818 Göttingen, 17 septembre 1892) était un juriste allemand. Il est connu pour son livre publié en 1872 Der Kampf ums Recht, comme savant juriste, et comme fondateur de l école moderne sociologique et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rudolf von Ihering — Rudolf von Jhering (* 22. August 1818 in Aurich; † 17. September 1892 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Jurist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werke 3 Zitate 4 Quellen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rudolf von Ihering — Rudolf von Jhering Rudolf von Jhering (souvent Ihering) (Aurich, 22 août 1818 Göttingen, 17 septembre 1892) était un juriste allemand. Il est connu pour son livre publié en 1872 Der Kampf ums Recht, comme savant juriste, et comme fondateur de l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rudolf von Ihering — «Ihering» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Ihering (desambiguación). Rudolf von Ihering …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jhering, Rudolf von — born Aug. 22, 1818, Aurich, Hanover died Sept. 17, 1892, Göttingen, Ger. German legal scholar. He taught Roman law at Giessen (1852–68), at Göttingen (from 1872), and at four other universities (including the University of Vienna) for briefer… …   Universalium

  • Jhering, Rudolf von — (22 ago. 1818, Aurich, Hannover–17 sep. 1892, Gotinga, Alemania). Jurista alemán. Enseñó derecho romano en Giessen (1852–68), Gotinga (a partir de 1872) y en otras cuatro universidades (entre ellas la Universidad de Viena) por períodos más breves …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Rudolph von Jhering — Rudolf von Jhering (* 22. August 1818 in Aurich; † 17. September 1892 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Jurist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werke 3 Zitate 4 Quellen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hermann von Jhering — Hermann von Ihering Hermann von Ihering (* 9. Oktober 1850 in Kiel; † 24. Februar 1930 in Gießen) war ein deutscher Arzt, Zoologe und Paläontologe. Leben Hermann von Ihering wurde 1850 als ältester Sohn des Juristen …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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