Santa Maria in Cosmedin


Santa Maria in Cosmedin

Santa Maria in Cosmedin (or de Schola Graeca) is a basilica church in Rome. It is located in the rione of Ripa.

History

The church was built in the 6th century over the remains of the "Templum Herculis Pompeiani" in the Forum Boarium and of the "Statio annonae", one of the food distribution centres of ancient Rome (another is to be found at theatre of Balbus). A deaconry was a place where charity distributions were given to the poor, and it looks likely that such an institution would have been built near the Roman "annona".

Since it was located near many Byzantine structures, in 7th century this church was called "de Schola Graeca", and a close street is still called "della Greca". Greek monks escaping iconoclastic persecutions decorated the church around 782, when pope Adrian I promoted its reconstruction; the church was built with three naves and a portico. Because of its beauty, the church received the adjective "cosmedin" (from Greek "kosmidion"), beautiful. A sacristy and an oratory dedicated to St. Nicholas were added in the 9th century, by order of Pope Nicholas I, who also built a papal residence, but they were removed in 1085 by Robert Guiscard's Norman troops. It was in Santa Maria in Cosmedin that were elected the popes Gelasius II (who had been Cardinal Deacon of "Titulus S. Mariae in Cosmedin"), Celestine III, and the antipope Benedict XIII (Cardinal Deacon of this church).

A substantial restoration was accomplished in 1118–1124 under Alfanus, camerarius of Pope Callixtus II. After being acquired by Benedictines and a period of decay, in 1718 the church was brought up to a Baroque style, mainly expressed by a new façade, by Giuseppe Sardi in 1718. The Baroque additions, however, were removed in the restoration of 1894–1899 together with the coat-of-arms of Pope Clement XI.

Among the former titular deacons of the church is Reginald Cardinal Pole, the last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury.

Architecture

The church draws many visitors because of la Bocca della Verità, an ancient sculpture thought to be a drain covering, located in its portico; yet is in fact primarily worth visiting for its exceptionally well preserved early medieval choir enclosure and its very fine Cosmatesque pavement. Its bell tower is the tallest medieval belfry in Rome.

The current interior has a nave with two aisles: these are divided by four pilasters and eighteen ancient columns. In the side walls some of the old columns of the "Statio Annonae" are included. Other fragments of the ancient building can be seen in crypt. Paintings from 8th-12th centuries, in three layers, are preserved in the upper part of the nave and in triumphal arch. The "Schola cantorum" is from the 13th century, while the main altar is a red granite piece from 1123. The Easter candelabrum is also from the 13th century.

The sacristy houses a precious 8th century mosaic fragment brought here from the Old St. Peter's Basilica. Of the 18th century restoration, the Crucifix Chapel and the Baptistry can be seen today.

References

* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/I/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/churches/_Texts/Armellini/ARMCHI*/2/Ripa.html#S.Maria_in_Cosmedin "S. Maria in Cosmedin"] , in Mariano Armellini, "Le chiese di Roma dal secolo IV al XIX".
*Federico Gizzi, "Le chiese medievali di Roma", Newton Compton.

External links

* [http://romanchurches.wikia.com/wiki/Santa_Maria_in_Cosmedin Churches of Rome wiki]
* [http://www.romainteractive.com/smcosmed.htm Roma Interactive]
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/churches/S.Maria_in_Cosmedin/home.html Thayer's Gazetteer of Rome]
* [http://kordics.zenfolio.com/p492219437/ Photo Gallery of Santa Maria in Cosmedin] from the collection of Stevan Kordic



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