Jobbik – The Movement for a Better Hungary
Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom
Leader Gábor Vona
Founded 24 October 2003
Headquarters 1113 Budapest, Villányi út 20/A
Ideology Nationalism[1]
Political radicalism[2][3][4]
Political position Far-right[5][6][7]
International affiliation None
European affiliation Alliance of European National Movements
European Parliament Group Non-Inscrits
Official colours Red and Silver
National Assembly
47 / 386
European Parliament
3 / 22
Website (Hungarian) (English)
Politics of Hungary
Political parties

Jobbik, The Movement for a Better Hungary (Hungarian: Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom) commonly known as Jobbik, is a Hungarian radical nationalist[3][4] political party. Jobbik has been denoted by scholars, different press outlets and its political opponents as fascist,[8] neo-fascist,[9] anti-Semitic,[10] anti-Roma and homophobic.[11] The party describes itself as "a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party", whose "fundamental purpose" was the protection of "Hungarian values and interests."[12] Measured according to its representation in the European Parliament and the National Assembly, it is Hungary's third largest party.


History and development

1956 veteran Gergely Pongrátz: a Jobbik founder


Originally established in 2002 as the Right-Wing Youth Association (Jobboldali Ifjúsági Közösség – JOBBIK) by a group of catholic and protestant university students, Jobbik was eventually founded as a political party in October 2003.[13][Third-party source needed] Instrumental in this was the person of Gergely Pongrátz, who in a speech to the founding conference made reference to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.[14]

Around Christmas 2003, Jobbik started a nationwide cross erecting action to remind Hungarians of the "true meaning" of the holiday. The move was disapproved by several Christian intellectual groups, while the churches did not officially object against the political absorption of the religious symbol.[15] The party has adopted the Árpád stripes as a symbol. The stripes have been in used since the 13th century and have traditionally been associated with Hungary. Although they are still present in Hungary's coat of arms, their use is controversial as also the fascist Arrow Cross Party used this crest during the 1930s and 40s.[citation needed]

Árpád house's flag


Even though the far-right Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MIÉP) and Jobbik had publicly showed their mutual aversion beforehand, both parties entered an electoral alliance for the the 2006 national elections, called the MIÉP–Jobbik Third Way Alliance of Parties. Its intention was seen to win votes from the major conservative Fidesz party.[16]

In the 2006 Hungarian national elections the alliance won only 2.2% of the votes. Therefore, Jobbik qualified the alliance a failure and virtually broke it up. In 2009 the State Audit Office (ÁSZ) reported the alliance for grave breaches of accounting rules. Jobbik blamed MIÉP alone for the irregularities.[17].

Growth and Electoral Success

Jobbik was perfectly positioned to capitalize on the mainstream growth in nationalist sentiment associated with the 2006 protests in Hungary. Which after October 2006 felt confirmed in the belief, that the events of 1989 had essentially been a sham, because “Communists” were still in charge. Subsequent events permitted the party to consolidate its growth.[citation needed]

Krisztina Morvai, who successfully headed the party's 2009 EP candidate list; and Gábor Vona the Jobbik party chairman; during their nationwide tour.

In 2007 the party published a policy document[18] which sought to explain and find solutions to the problems of the preceding years. Named after Gábor Bethlen, it described the country as suffering from a “crisis of constitutionality” (e.g. despite its actions the government was facing no accountability, and the Gyurcsány administration was persisting in office), which had resulted in a political status quo in which all parties acted to benefit themselves, if indeed they acted at all; preferring rhetoric which concealed their ineffectiveness and corruption. However, in its opinion Jobbik was faced with an obstacle to disseminating its policy approach (see 3. Policy position). Namely that the Hungarian media could be divided into two camps: the terrestrial television stations and the majority of print media who were broadly sympathetic to the governing MSZP/SZDSZ coalition, and the satellite stations and a minority of publications, who were committed to Viktor Orbán’s “one camp of the right”[19] policy i.e. they were Fidesz sympathetic. As a result the party was compelled to mobilize primarily at the local level. This in turn brought it closer to the immediate concerns of the Hungarian electorate, allowing it to be acutely conscious of the severe local effects of the global financial crisis, and the notable rise in crime (or arguably, the rise in the perception of crime – see 3.4 Law and Order).

The party faced its first electoral test with the coming of the 2009 European parliamentary elections. Once again however, it felt that it was being intentionally excluded by the media from the opportunity of presenting its (symbolically 56 page[20]) manifesto to the public;[21] while being slandered internationally by a national political elite that “feared the Hungarian nation finally getting into their own parliament.”[22] Consequently, Gábor Vona, the party chairman; and Krisztina Morvai, arguably the country’s most famous human rights advocate (who had agreed to head the party’s list), conducted a nationwide tour to take the party manifesto directly to the electorate. The election’s results surprised Jobbik[23] as much as it shocked their opponents:[24] the party sending three MEPs to Strasbourg; coming close to level with the governing Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) while eliminating their liberal coalition partner SZDSZ, to become the nation’s third party.[25] Unsurprisingly, Morvai’s first speech[26] to the European parliament called for the chamber to be conscious of human rights abuses within the community, i.e. Hungary, in order to secure legitimacy about them taking place in other nations, i.e. Iran; as she pointed to what she called every major anti-government demonstration suffering the same fate since 2006.[27] Vona himself was pepper sprayed, handcuffed and arrested at a seated protest in Budapest on 4 July 2009,[28] a demonstration whose legality is still a matter of dispute. In doing so he consolidated his appeal to those who felt that Orbán had abandoned the original protesters of 2006. Vona in contrast, actively joining a demonstration after the police had begun violent efforts to break it up. With Jobbik saying of the incident, that “The violent arrest and forcible detention of the leader of a major European opposition party [was] a sickening development, and without precedent in the 21st Century.”[29]

Hungary's 2010 parliamentary elections saw Jobbik cement its posititon as the nation's 3rd largest party, doubling the vote it had received in the previous year and getting just 3 seats short of the previous ruling party MSZP.

International relations

October 25, 2009 Jobbik founded the Alliance of European National Movements in Budapest together with political parties from four European countries, Nationaldemokraterna (Sweden), Fiamma Tricolore (Italy), Front National (France) and the Front National (Belgium).[30]

Manifesto and political programme

The original programme (in Hungarian) contains 88 pages. There is a shortened English language manifesto: (24 pages) [31]

Issues and Ideology

Linguistic clarifications

The Movement for a Better Hungary more commonly goes under its abbreviated name Jobbik (pronounced [ˈjobbik]), which is in fact a play on words. The word Jobb in Hungarian has two meanings, the adjective for “better” and the direction “right,” the comparative Jobbik therefore means both ‘the more preferable choice’ and ‘more to the right’. This is similar to the English "Right Choice" meaning both Conservative and Proper.

Jobbik is associated with the re-emergence of a Hungarian greeting, coined by the Levente (a veteran led youth cadet organization formed nationally in 1921); namely the call “May God grant” (Adjon az Isten) and response “a brighter future” (Szebb Jövőt!).[nb 1] This may be used as a personal salutation or as a form of address, and is frequently abbreviated to Szebb Jövőt! as a verbal or written valediction; by those sympathetic to the mainstream nationalist movement.[nb 2]

The meaning of the party’s 2009 election slogan “Hungary belongs to the Hungarians” (Magyarország a Magyaroké!) was also the subject of considerable scrutiny.[nb 3] Some critics thought the slogan essentially tautological,[33] while others were sufficiently concerned to mount a successful complaint at the National Electoral Commission; which ruled it “unconstitutional” on the very eve of the election.[34] Jobbik maintained that the use of the slogan’s wording was justified because Hungary’s political and economic elite had been engaged in enriching themselves through placing the majority of the country’s significant assets into private or foreign ownership.[35]

Radical nationalism

Gábor Vona: "What do we mean by radicalism?" [36]

Jobbik rejects the common classification of the political spectrum in left and right. It prefers a distinction of political parties based on their stance towards globalisation. On this scheme, the party sees itself as patriotic.[37]

The comparative political ideological framework within which Jobbik exists is right-wing populism, whose strategy “relies on a combination of ethno-nationalism with anti-elitist populist rhetoric and a radical critique of existing political institutions.”Right-wing populism[38][39] (As a result Jobbik is part of an increasing Europe-wide trend,[40] which began with the Danish Progress Party in 1972,[41] and finds its most significant contemporary manifestation - in terms of most likely to actually form a government - in the Dutch Partij voor de Vrijheid[42] led by Geert Wilders.[43])[nb 4] The most conspicuous advocate of the Hungarian expression of this right-wing populist trend, radical nationalism,[nb 5] is the “articulate and softly spoken former History teacher” Gábor Vona;[47] who was elected chairman of Jobbik at the age of 27. Vona’s radical nationalism actively rejects the conventional classification of the Left-Right political spectrum; which he views to be inherently false and misleading. He supports this contention by pointing to what he calls the persistent inability of this convention to provide solutions to the most pressing issues of the day. For Vona, the division between Left and Right, as commonly understood, is an essentially illusory perspective.[48]

In the place of this illusory divide Jobbik substitutes the twin ideologies of, first, a virtually unrestrained capitalism (namely economic Neoliberalism), and second, modern social liberalism (deemed to include Political correctness and Multiculturalism); which it maintains are the two primary forces actually governing the lives of the modern European (and by extension Hungarian) citizen. But it is also mistaken to believe that these two ideologies are opposed, and in conflict. For Jobbik they represent the status quo, to which the majority of established politicians unquestioningly subscribe.[49] Moreover, any questioning would be pointless because these twin ideologies operate at the trans-national rather than national level. They are imposed and enforced by the directives and regulations of the European Union, which in the form of the Commission has already exclusively appropriated the most significant executive powers of national governments; and whose democratic removal the European elector is (by design) incapable of achieving.[50] As a result the Hungarian citizen is forced to endure a succession of day-to-day realities that fly in the face of their own interests;[51] and there is nothing of merit that politicians from the two main parties can do about it, as a result they either spend their time enriching themselves, or manufacturing political controversies over symbolic issues in order to divert attention from their own impotence and corruption.[52] This is the radical element of Jobbik's ideology.

The nationalist element comes from the suggested solution to this dilemma. As these two currently governing ideologies are considered, by definition, indifferent to the economic fate or cultural survival of the Hungarian people: nationalism is revealed as a sensible, intelligent and worthwhile political choice.[52] And a new and realistic divide emerges, which permits one to make valid and useful distinctions between policy options or Euro-legislation. Namely, does it serve the national interest, or not. As Morvai Krisztina remarked on the 2009 campaign trail, “We have no use in Hungary, for those laws,[53] which in our own land actively disadvantage Hungarians and prioritise the interests of foreigners.”[54] Consequently, Vona has stated that he sees one of the key functions of the party to be compelling those in Hungarian public life to profess which side of this actual political dividing line they occupy. To declare “on which side of the real barricade they stand.”[55] The party’s magazine is entitled “Barricade” (Barikád)[56] for this reason.

Jobbik's interpretation of Hungarian nationalism also includes the ideology of Turanism which stresses the (alleged) origin of the Magyar peoples in Central Asia, and the links of the Hungarians to Asian, especially Turkic peoples. Therefore Jobbik leader Gábor Vona favors Hungaria turning away from the West (including the Euro-Atlantic alliances) and towards the "East", to form a "Turanian alliance" whose "Western bastion" Hungary should become.[57]

Jobbik's Greater Hungarian irredentist claims can be found in pleads for cross-border ethnic self-determination. For example, the party demands "territorial autonomy" for the Székely Land in Romania and desires to make Transcarpathian Ukraine an independent Hungarian district.[58]

Cultural conservatism

Jobbik claims that its definition of Magyar national identity was essentially cultural.[59]

Policy position

Imminent EU regulations on arable land ownership are a major party issue.

The European Union

Jobbik views about Lisbon Treaty:[60]

The economy

Jobbik rejects the globalised capitalism, and the influence of foreign investors in Hungary.[61]

The Eco-Social National Economy:[62]

Hungarian minorities

Hungarian losses of territory in the Treaty of Trianon, which is still perceived as wrong by Jobbik.[citation needed] [nb 6]

Jobbik dedicates itself to supporting the cause of the significant (a quarter of Hungarians live outside Hungary[65]) Hungarian minorities that exist external to the nation's territory in countries bordering Hungary[66] in their campaigns[citation needed] to achieve self-determination and autonomy.[67]

Of the three victorious powers of World War I it was the United States under Woodrow Wilson which argued for self-determination amongst the ethnic communities of the Austro-Hungarian empire.[nb 7] France and Britain however, arguably had a broader strategic agenda of ensuring that any future resurgent Germany would not have a European industrial ally to call upon. They therefore sought by their boundary decisions, primarily to economically cripple Austria and Hungary respectively to ensure this objective. Though a subject of debate, two consequences of their actions nevertheless followed. First, Austria-Hungary being an autarky, had they had such an agenda it was successful. (Germany in World War II had no such industrially significant ally.) Second the Treaty of Trianon, being the document which in 1920 specifically partitioned the Kingdom of Hungary in this process, left large ethnically Hungarian communities (whose residence had spanned centuries) outside the territorial border of modern Hungary; such communities today making up one quarter of Central Europe’s Magyar population.[65] As a consequence the Hungarian constitution states that, “The Republic of Hungary bears a sense of responsibility for what happens to Hungarians living outside of its borders and promotes the fostering of their relations with Hungary.”[68]

However, according to Jobbik, successive Hungarian governments have found it inconvenient to honour this commitment. While the EU, remembering of course that the resolution of the Magyar minority issue was sold as a chief benefit of joining the community, appears merely to have hoped that accession would have just made this issue somehow disappear. Given its continued and resolute refusal to get involved in any alleged incident of the infringement of Magyar minority rights, this being in stark contrast to frequent and repeated highlighting of the Roma minority issue. The point being that whereas in Hungary, minority issues are actively promoted and defended (through exclusive multi-ethnic radio and TV times, and dedicated social funding); the deliberate curtailment of Magyar rights Jobbik argue, are not just merely a rhetorical feature of the political extremes of some neighbouring countries, but are actually a part of official government policy or persisting legislation. (e.g. the Beneš decrees) Jobbik campaigns for these communities to be given the opportunity of self-determination that was originally denied them. As a result the party has caused concern amongst those whose political or constitutional principles are strictly opposed to even countenancing such a proposal, due to commitments to territorial integrity.

Law and Order


The Hungarian Guard in their cultural role. Here a Guard choir sings in Békéscsaba.

The Hungarian Guard

The symbol of the Guard, the crest of King Emeric, decorated with lions and Árpád stripes, which is also part of their uniform.

In June 2007 president Vona, supported by the party, founded and registered the organisation called Magyar Gárda, which says in its deed of foundation that it intends to become “part or core” of the national guard to be set up in accordance with the Bethlen Gábor programme, and it also wishes to participate actively “in strengthening national self-defence” and “maintaining public order” as well as supporting and organising social and charity missions, in disaster prevention and civil defence. The foundation of the Guard was accompanied by sharp political debate.

On 10 March 2008 three leading figures resigned from the party: Dávid Kovács, the founding president of the party, Ervin Nagy, committee chairman, and Márton Fári, former chairman of the party’s ethical committee. They indicated the Hungarian Guard as the cause of their resignation, stating that "Jobbik has been merged inseparably with the Guard, taking responsibility for something that it cannot really control in the long run".

On 2 July 2009 the Metropolitan Court of Appeal (Fővárosi Ítélőtábla) disbanded the "Magyar Gárda" Organization because the court held that the activities of the organization were against the human rights of minorities as guaranteed by the Hungarian Constitution. The Guard has attempted to reorganize itself as a civil service association, known as the Magyar Gárda Foundation, engaged in cultural and nation building activities rather than politics. Its renewed activities are opposed by the Hungarian authorities [69] and prosecutors claim that the founding of the new organization is in contempt of previous court rulings.

Jobbik argues that the national police should be greatly strengthened and -with the FIDESZ- supports introducing an "three strikes law" [70] The radical right wing in Hungary, including Jobbik protested against Israeli President Shimon Peres, after he said that "Israel is buying up Hungary".[71]

The Roma issue

Besides its declarations regarded as anti-ziganist by the party’s critics, some members brought back the use of the term gipsy crime[72] which was in official use before the 1990s by the authorities. Gipsy crime in this sense is used to refer to criminal acts typically attributed to members of the Romani community.

Allegations of Fascism

The party has strenuously denied[73][74][75] allegations of anti-semitism or racism, as being either politically motivated[76][77][78] or simply false. It has also dismissed the criticism of perceived anti-semitism, racism and homophobia as the "favourite topics" of an "ignorant and misled" European Union.[79] Even so, the movement has been accused of playing on those fears.[79] Jobbik has also been linked to homophobic incidents in Budapest.[80][81] In London on 16 May 2008 the delegation of Jobbik's Committee of Foreign Affairs met Nick Griffin, chairman of the British National Party. They discussed cooperation between the two parties, and the elections for the European Parliament. Griffin spoke at the party rally in August 2008, while former vice-president Zoltan Füzessy is presently resident in Gravesend, Kent, England.[82]

Jobbik claims to reject violence and support democracy.[83][84][85]

Charges of Anti-Semitism

On the eve of the 2009 elections to the European parliament, a comment was posted on an unofficial and unverified Hungarian political internet forum, allegedy in the name of Prof. Krisztina Morvai, who then headed the party’s electoral list. Addressing their remarks to Hungarian Jews the comment poster stated that they “would be glad if the so-called proud Hungarian Jews went back to playing with their tiny circumcised dicks instead of vilifying me.”[86][87][88] News of this comment, which has been roundly condemned,[89] spread rapidly around the world[90][91] and eventually even featured in an article by The Economist.[92] (Whose readership immediately questioned the wisdom of using an unverified 3rd party forum posting as an authoritative source.[93]) Morvai’s critics have pointed to her refusal to even discuss the issue,[94] let alone deny it;[95] implying that this is sufficient to unquestioningly ascribe authorship of the remarks to her.[96]

Her supporters however, claim that though she certainly has a record of being critical of the state of Israel[45] given a sympathy for the Palestinian cause she developed while working as an international human rights lawyer,[46] the idea of Morvai being an anti-Semite is "simply ridiculous," given that at the time of her alleged remarks she was married to an Hungarian of Jewish origin,[97] with whom she has three children,[98] but from whom she is now separated.[97]

In a newsletter published by a group calling itself The trade union of Hungarian police officers prepared for action, the following was allegedly printed: "Given our current situation, anti-Semitism is not just our right, but it is the duty of every Hungarian homeland lover, and we must prepare for armed battle against the Jews." The editor of the union, Judit Szima, is a Jobbik candidate in the upcoming election for the European Union parliament. Haaretz alleged Szima "didn't see anything wrong with the content of the article."[99] The trade union denies that they published such a statement and announced that they would demand a retraction from the European Jewish Congress.[100][verification needed][unreliable source?]

Election results

For the Hungarian Parliament:

Elections Number of votes (1st round) Percentage of votes (1st round) Number of votes (2nd round) Percetage of votes (2nd round) Number of seats Percentage of seats Role played in Parliament
2006* 119,007 2.20% 231 0.007% 0 0% extra-parliamentary
2010 855,436 16.67% 141,323 12.26% 47 12.18% opposition

*In an electoral alliance with MIÉP, under the name of the "MIÉP-Jobbik Third Way Alliance of Parties", joined by Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKgP) organisations from 15 counties.

For the European Parliament:

Elections Number of votes Percentage of votes Placing (nationally) Number of seats Group in the European Parliament Subgroup in the European Parliament
2009 427,773 14.77% 3rd[101] 3 Non-Attached Members Non-Attached Members
2009 Seat winners:
  1. Krisztina Morvai
  2. Zoltán Balczó - His seat EP was taken over by Béla Kovács, when he became a member of the Hungarian Parliament in May 2010.
  3. Csanád Szegedi




  1. ^ Call and response greetings are a feature of Hungarian communication, particularly in rural communities. Chiefly the call Dicsértessék a Jézus Krisztus and response Mindörökké, ámen! which is the Hungarian language version of Laudetur Jesus Christus. The verbatim meaning of this greeting is “God grant” (Adjon az Isten), “A nicer future!” (Szebb Jövőt!); though the version rendered in the text retains the meaning while scanning better in English.
  2. ^ There have been historically disingenuous attempts to associate this salutation with the Hungarian Nazi Arrow Cross party formed in 1935. Spontaneously beginning in 1920, the Levente organization however, pre-dates the very existence of the Nyilas (the Hungarian for “Arrow Cross”) fascists by almost 15 years.[32]
  3. ^ It should be noted that the word for Hungary in the Hungarian language (Magyarország) means “the land of the Magyars”; the ethnic group which according to the most recent census constitute 94.4% of the country’s population (though the size of the Roma population is frequently a matter of dispute).
  4. ^ Which amply illustrates the highly varied nature of the modern trend of contemporary European right-wing populism: as it is very unlikely that the staunchly pro-Israeli[44] Wilders, would ever consider himself sharing sympathies with Jobbik given some of the accusations that have been levelled against the party (see: Controversy); and the well-known Pro-Palestinian sympathies of Morvai.[45][46]
  5. ^ No English language version has yet been rendered of the Hungarian Wikipedia article on the phenomenon of Hungarian Radical nationalism. Though "Radical nationalism" is accurate semantically, in Hungarian it is given in the reverse format Nemzeti radikalizmus ("National [or rather: nationist [sic]] radicalism") due to the fact that the Hungarian noun for "Nationalism" (Nacionalizmus) has a primarily negative associative connotation with the 1940s; rather than a positive patriotic one.
  6. ^ Map is based on the 1910 manipulated census.[63] The Hungarian government manipulated the stats in order to increase the percentage of Magyar population, so these numbers are unreliable.[64]
  7. ^ The city of Sopron was given the opportunity of deciding whether it wished to become part of Hungary or Austria through a plebiscite in 1921 following unrest. It decided on the former, but no other town was again granted the privilege.


  1. ^ Nationalist Jobbik Party Doubles Voter Base In Hungary,, 2009-06-25, 
  2. ^ The political effects of the European elections,, 2009-06-11, 
  3. ^ a b Jobbik signs agreements with other European nationalist groups, (source: MTI), 2009-10-26,, "Hungary's radical nationalist Jobbik party signed an agreement with four international parties to set up the Alliance of European Nationalist Movements, Jobbik deputy leader Andras Balczo said on Saturday." 
  4. ^ a b Radical nationalist Jobbik for toppling Trianon borders, says MEP, The Budapest Times, 2009-06-14,, "Hungary's radical nationalist Jobbik party plans to fight for the toppling of borders set by the 1920 Trianon treaty, newly elected MEP Csanad Szegedi said at the memorial meeting." 
  5. ^ Huggan, Graham; Law, Ian (2009). Racism Postcolonialism Europe. Liverpool University Press. 
  6. ^ Schori Liang, Christina (2007). Europe for the Europeans: The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right. Ashgate. 
  7. ^ Kirton, Gill; Greene, Anne-Marie (2010). The Dynamics of Managing Diversity: A Critical Approach (3rd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. 
  8. ^ LeBor, Adam (2009-06-09). "Jobbik: Meet the BNP's fascist friends in Hungary". London: The Times Online. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  9. ^ Chomsky, Noam (2011-04-21) Is the world too big to fail?,
  10. ^ Freeman, Colin (2009-05-24). "Feminine face of Hungary's far-Right Jobbik movement seeks MEP's seat". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  11. ^ Lisiak, Agata Anna (2010), Urban Cultures in (Post) Colonial Central Europe, Purdue University Press, p. 18, 
  12. ^ "Jobbik confident of winning EP seat, party leader says". (source: MTI). 2009-05-13. "Jobbik describes itself as “a principled, conservative and radically patriotic Christian party. Its fundamental purpose is protecting Hungarian values and interests.”" 
  13. ^ Miért alakult meg a Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom-párt (Why was the Movement for a Better Hungary founded?), (Hungarian), 2008-06-01, 
  14. ^ Pongrácz, Gergely (2003-10-24), Pongrátz Gergely megható beszéde a Jobbik alakuló gyűlésén (Gergely Pongrácz’s moving speech to the Jobbik founding conference), (Hungarian @ 6:25),, "The torch is now falling from our hands, it is you who must take it up, that spirit, those values, for which so many brother-in-arms died in ’56. It is you who must take it onwards. (A fáklya kiesik a kezünkből, nektek kel átvenni, azt a szellemiséget, azokat az eszméket, amiért 56-ba olyan sok bajtársuk halt meg. Nektek kell tovább vinni.)" 
  15. ^ Szilágyi, Tamás (2008). "Sacred Characteristics of the Nation: "Hungarianism" as Political Religion?" (PDF). "The other case, which drew the attention of the public, is the country‐wide cross erecting “actions” of JOBBIK Party during Christmas, which started in 2003... Several Christian intellectual groups have disapproved these actions; however, no clear objection appeared from the churches against the political appropriation of the religious symbol." 
  16. ^ "The nationalist Right Gets Together: "Third way" platform". hvg. 2005-10-17. 
  17. ^ Prosecutors target Jobbik-MIÉP 2006 election vehicle,, 2009-08-19, 
  18. ^ Jobbik (2007). "Gábor Bethlen Programme" (PDF). Jobbik. 
  19. ^ Gyulai, Attila (2008-02-04). "Little MDF used and abused in battle between big bruisers - Stuck.". The Budapest Times. 
  20. ^ Jobbik (2009-03). "Magyarország a magyaroké! – A Jobbik programja a Magyar érdek védelmében, a Nemzetek Európája megteremtéséért (Hungary belongs to the Hungarians! – Jobbik’s programme for the defence of the Hungarian nation’s interests, and the creation of a Europe of Nations" (PDF). Jobbik (Hungarian). 
  21. ^ Vona, Gábor (2009-05-18). "Vona Gábor Balassagyarmaton (Gábor Vona in Balassagyarmat)". YouTube @ 5:11. "Hungarian: Ugye nagyon nehéz nekünk elmondani a saját programunkat. Abban a nem megtisztelhető helyzetben vagyunk, hogy az ember megkapcsolja a Tévét és Kolompár Orbán meg Horn Gábor beszél a Jobbik programjáról. Nem Morvai Krisztina, nem én, vagy nem valamelyik másik politikusunk. / English: Of course it is very difficult for us to explain our own programme. We are in an unfortunate predicament, where one switches on the television and Orbán Kolompár (Roma activist) or Gábor Horn (SZDSZ politician) are talking about the Jobbik programme. Not Krisztina Morvai, not myself, nor any other politician of ours." 
  22. ^ Vona, Gábor (2009-05-24). "Vona Gábor Várpalotán - 2009.05.24 (I. rész) (Gábor Vona in Várpalota – Part 1.)". YouTube @ 1:48. "Hungarian: Bizonyára ők is látják tapasztalják hogy a kampány mennyire eldurvult. És hogy ennek az eldurvult kampánynak mindenki a célkeresztjébe bennünket állit. Ha van valamifajta közös pont ma a parlamenti pártok körében, akkor a közös pont az hogy a Jobbik-ott el kel taposni. Mindenki megpróbál bennünket ellehetitleniteni, mindenki szélsőségesnek, neo-Názinak és nem tudom még minek nevez vagy tart bennünket. Céljuk az hogy a társadalmat lehetőség szerint távol tartsák tőlünk. Az oka egyébként teljesen egyértelmű. Én mindig azt szoktam mondani hogy a mi programunk, a Jobbik programja, az a Magyar emberek programja: és a Magyar emberek minimum egy harmada Jobbikos csak még nem tud róla. És ezt valahogy ők nagyon jól is tudják. Ők is félnek attól hogy a Magyar nemzet végre bejut a saját parlamentjébe. / English: I’m sure you yourselves have seen how nasty the campaign has become. And the centrepiece of this is every other political party lining us up in their crosshairs. If there is any point of agreement amongst the parliamentary parties, it’s that we have to be eliminated. Each of them tries to eradicate us, or call or hold us extremists or neo-Nazis or I don’t know what else. Their goal is to as far as possible keep the electorate at a distance from us. Their reason is obvious. I always say that our programme, Jobbik’s programme, is the programme of the Hungarian people. And two out of three Hungarians are Jobbik supporters they just don’t know it yet. Our opponents know this to be true also. And they fear the Hungarian nation finally getting into its own parliament." 
  23. ^ Vona, Gábor (2009-06-12). "Vona Gábor az Estében (Gábor Vona on Tonight)". YouTube (Hungarian). 
  24. ^ Balogh, Eva (2009-06-07). "European parliamentary elections: Hungary". Hungarian Spectrum. 
  25. ^ "Results of the 2009 European elections: Hungary". [] (English). 2009-07-08. 
  26. ^ Morvai, Krisztina (2009-07-15). "Jobbik MEPs first speeches to the European Parliament". YouTube @ 1:32. 
  27. ^ "Human Rights Violations in Hungary". YouTube. 2009-07-13. 
  28. ^ "Gábor Vona’s arrest". YouTube. 2009-07-04. 
  29. ^ "Police suppression of lawful protest culminates in violent arrest of democratic opposition leader". 2009-07-04. 
  30. ^ "Foreign nationalists speak, national media silent". 2009-10-25. 
  31. ^ "Radical Change: for national self-determination and social justice" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  32. ^ Tarlós: Húzzák ki a "szebb jövőt" a francia himnuszból? (Tárlos: Are they removing the "nicer future" from the French national anthem?),, 2009-06-16,, "Hungarian: Eredete 1921-re datálható, és véletlenül sem náci vagy nyilas ideológián alapszik, melyek akkor még nem is igen léteztek. / English: The origins [of this expression] can be dated to 1921, and have no basis in Nazi or Nyilas ideology even by accident, as these groups at that time did not even exist." 
  33. ^ Heltai-Hopp, András (2009-06-05), Big players fight domestic battle in EP election, The Budapest Times, 
  34. ^ EP elections - Hungary elections committee finds radical Jobbik's slogan unconstitutional, The Budapest Times, 2009-06-04, 
  35. ^ Morvai, Krisztina (2009-06-09), Quotation taken from Budapest Sun article, via blog (the Budapest Sun subsequently closed down), Maria Golubeva`s blog,, "The political and economic elite have placed the whole country in foreign hands. We have, therefore, a particular justification for emphasising that “Hungary belongs to the Hungarians”. We want to get back our national assets, which have been sold abroad and privatised, and want to prevent further national assets from getting into private and/or foreign hands." 
  36. ^ "The Movement for a Better Hungary - VONA: What do we mean by radicalism?". Jobbik. 2009-11-28. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  37. ^ Leigh Phillips (2010-04-19). "EUobserver / A far-right for the Facebook generation: The rise and rise of Jobbik". Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  38. ^ Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe (The New Politics of Resentment). Palgrave MacMillan. p. 4. ISBN 0312083904. "the majority of radical right-wing populist parties are radical in their rejection of the established socio-cultural and socio-political system" 
  39. ^ Albertazzi, Daniele (2007). Radical Twenty-First Century Populism: The Spectre of Western European Democracy. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 023001349X. 
  40. ^ Broder, Henryk (2009-06-10). "European voters know what they don't want". NRC Handelsblad. 
  41. ^ Rydgren, Jens (2004). Explaining the emergence of radical right-wing populist parties: the case of Denmark.. West European Politics. p. Abstract. "Denmark became famous in the early 1970s as the home of the strongest right-wing populist party on the continent, the Progress Party, which emerged in the landslide election of 1973 with 15.9 per cent of the vote." 
  42. ^ Conway, Isabel (2009-02-11), Prosecution of Dutch populist will provide a judicial soap opera, The Irish Times, 
  43. ^ Mazyek, Ayman (2009), Geert Wilders and the Right-Wing Populist Threat,, 
  44. ^ ZOA: Support Of Dutch Parliamentarian Geert Wilders For His Right To Free Speech,, 2009-01-29, 
  45. ^ a b Krisztina Morvai Accuses Israel Of War Crimes,, 2009-01-29, 
  46. ^ a b Women’s Anti-Discrimination Committee Voices Concern about Inequalities among Ethnic Groups, as It Takes up Israel’s Report, United Nations Information Service, 2005-07-13, 
  47. ^ Day, Matthew (2009-05-25), Far right is the centre of attention, The Scotsman,, "Gabor Vona, a softly spoken and articulate former history teacher, leads Hungary's Jobbik." 
  48. ^ Vona, Gábor (2008-09-02), JobbikTV Különkiadás - Morvai Krisztina az EP listavezető (Jobbik TV Special – Krisztina Morvai will head the EP list), youtube (Hungarian @ 1:26),, "Hungarian: Nem titkolt célunk hogy a hazai politikában meglévő hamis törésvonalakat végre megszűntessük. Ugyanis a jelenlegi jobboldali és baloldali törésvonal hamis. Éppen ez az egyik fő oka annak hogy Magyarországon a politikai pártok a parlamentben képtelenek orvosolni és megválaszolni jelenünk és jövőnk legfontosabb problémait. / English: It is no secret, that our objective is finally bringing to an end the illusory dividing lines that exist within our national politics. In point of fact the contemporary dividing line between the right an left give merely the illusion of choice. This is precisely one of the key reasons why in Hungary the political parties in parliament are incapable of treating and providing answers to the most important problems that face us both in the present and the future." 
  49. ^ Vona, Gábor (2008-07-21), Vona Gábor: Hazánk két valósága (Gábor Vona: The two differing realities of our homeland), (Hungarian), 
  50. ^ Civil Society is Lacking in Hungary,, 2008-08-03, 
  51. ^ McConkey, Jamie (2009-04-09), Jobbik: Hungary’s far right on the EU, Slovakia and elections,, 
  52. ^ a b Vona, Gábor (2008-09-02), JobbikTV Különkiadás - Morvai Krisztina az EP listavezető (Jobbik TV Special – Krisztina Morvai will head the EP list), youtube, 
  53. ^ For example: Jobbik says top priority is Hungarian ownership of farmland, (MTI), 2008-05-25,, "Hungarian farmers should immediately receive the same EU subsidies as their foreign competitors, Morvai said." 
  54. ^ Morvai, Krisztina (2009-05-01), Speech in Óbuda during 2009 European election campaign, (subtitled @ 7:55),, "We have no use in Hungary, for those laws, which in our own land actively disadvantage Hungarians and prioritise the interests of foreigners. We want nothing less than the suspension of such legislation at a single stroke." 
  55. ^ Vona, Gábor (2008-09-02), JobbikTV Különkiadás - Morvai Krisztina az EP listavezető (Jobbik TV Special – Krisztina Morvai will head the EP list), youtube (@ 1:46),, "Hungarian: Itt az ideje végre annak, hogy mindenki kijöjjön a napra, hogy megnézhessük mindannyian azt hogy ki hová tartozik: nem a hamis törésvonalak mentén hanem a valódi törésvonalak mentén;... meg kell mutatnia mindenkinek magát, hogy a valódi barikádnak melyik oldalán ál. / English: The time has at last arrived, for everyone to emerge into the sunlight, so we may all see who belongs where: not with respect to the illusory dividing line but with respect to the real dividing line;... everyone will have to reveal themselves, on which side of the real barricade they stand." 
  56. ^ "". Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  57. ^ Vona, Gábor: Turanism Instead of Euro-Atlantic Alliance!, Retrieved on 25 Aug 2011.
  58. ^ "Jobbik MEPs to fight for pre-Trianon borders". (MTI). 2009-06-15. "Jobbik will demand territorial autonomy for Szekler land in Romania and will also press for Transcarpathia in Ukraine to become an independent Hungarian district, Szegedi said." 
  59. ^ Varkonyi, Zsolt (2008-11-12). "Statement Made by the Foreign Affairs Committee of Jobbik". "Since the time the regime changed, the Socialist-Liberal governments in Hungary and the forces in the background that support them have had a share in diminishing the Hungarians’ economic and political strength, their ability to reproduce themselves and their culture, in destroying their image of the future and their faith in themselves, in ridiculing their traditions and their national identity. It is only natural that this policy should in itself have encouraged all the internal and external forces that are up against the historical presence of Hungarians in the Carpathian basin and their growth in the future." 
  60. ^ "The Movement for a Better Hungary - VONA: The Lisbon Treason". Jobbik. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  61. ^ Jobbik stages demonstration against banks, "foreign speculative capital",, 2009-08-04, 
  62. ^ "The Movement for a Better Hungary - Gábor Vona: Eco-Social National Economy". Jobbik. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  63. ^ Teich, Mikuláš; Dušan Kováč, Martin D. Brown (2011). Slovakia in History. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
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  65. ^ a b Inder Singh, Anita (2000). Democracy, ethnic diversity, and security in post-communist Europe. Central European University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0275972585. "[including the nations of the former Soviet Union] Magyar and Russian minorities are the largest minority groups in Europe, about one-tenth of all Russians and a quarter of Magyars live outside Russia and Hungary respectively." 
  66. ^ Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 online; Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359-360 online)
  67. ^ "Foreign Policy of Jobbik". [1] (English). 2009-05-19. "" and advocate the efforts of Hungarian minorities outside the country, historically deprived of their rights of self-determination and governance."" 
  68. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Hungary (Chapter I, Article 6, Subsection 3)". The 'Lectric Law Library. 1989-10-23. 
  69. ^ police-investigate-new-magyar-garda New Magyar Gárda
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  71. ^ Maroz, Sharon (2007-10-22). "פרס עורר האנטישמים בהונגריה [Peres awakens the antisemites in Hungary]" (in Hebrew). Maariv. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  72. ^ "Recent attacks in Hungary - with maps". [2] (English). 2009-05-15. Retrieved 2009-06-09. "These events are so common place that they do not even reach the national media sensitivity threshold. What’s worse, their occurrence and numbers are being purposely minimized to make them look negligible in order to cover up the causes of this typical social misbehaviour. Sweeping the problem under the rug will not solve, but aggravate the situation and the government know it. Specifically, if the individual culprit can not be held rigidly accountable and responsible to the fullest extent of the law for their actions because they are members of a minority, then we have a huge problem with our laws and artificial (?) norms. We can consciously and explicitly draw the necessary conclusions: the threshold in terms of arguments as to the definition and use of „gypsie crime”, be they politically right or wrong has been -de facto- crossed. Unfortunately not in positive territory." 
  73. ^ LeBor, Adam (2009-06-09), Jobbik: Meet the BNP's fascist friends in Hungary, London:,, "Jobbik strongly denies that it is anti-Semitic and has condemned the Holocaust. “We are not against anyone, just for Hungary,” its leaders say." 
  74. ^ Stancil, Jordan (2009-06-12), Jobbik Rising,,, "Jobbik denies accusations of racism or anti-Semitism" 
  75. ^ Racist Violence Flares In Central And E.Europe,, 2008-11-21, 
  76. ^ Moore, Matthew (2008-11-10), Hungarian extremist running far-right website from UK, London:,, "When confronted at his home by the newspaper, Mr Fuzessy insisted he was not claiming benefits in the UK and denied Jobbik was fascist. “My party is radical but it is patriotic, not nationalist,” he said. “Millions in Hungary support us. Those who call us Nazis are just communists.”" 
  77. ^ "Jobbik confident of winning EP seat, party leader says". (source: MTI). 2009-05-13. "The party is embroiled in legal action against the liberal Free Democrats, which recently branded the party as “Neo-Nazi”, a label which Jobbik vigorously denies." 
  78. ^ Gergely, Andras (2007-03-22), Che's the man for Hungary's young Socialists,, 
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