- Metallurgical failure analysis
Metallurgical failure analysis is the process by which a metallurgist determines the mechanism that has caused a metal component to fail. Typical failure modes involve various types of corrosion and mechanical damage. It has been estimated that the direct annual cost of corrosion alone in the United States is a staggering 276 billion, approximately 3.1% of GDP.
Metal components fail as a result of the environmental conditions to which they are exposed to as well as the mechanical stresses that they experience. Often a combination of both environmental conditions and stress will cause failure.
Metal components are designed to withstand the environment and stresses that they will be subjected to. The design of a metal component involves not only a specific elemental composition but also specific manufacturing processes such as heat treatments, machining processes, etc.… The huge arrays of different metals that result all have unique physical properties. Specific properties are designed into metal components to make them more robust to various environmental conditions. These differences in physical properties will exhibit unique failure modes. A metallurgical failure analysis takes into account as much of this information as possible during analysis.
Analysis of a failed part can be done using destructive testing or non-destructive testing. Destructive testing involves removing a metal component from service and sectioning the component for analysis. Destructive testing gives the failure analyst the ability to conduct the analysis in a laboratory setting and perform tests on the material that will ultimately destroy the component. Non destructive testing is a test method that allows certain physical properties of metal to be examined without taking the samples completely out of service. NDT is generally used to detect failures in components before the component fails catastrophically.
There is no standardized list of metallurgical failure modes and different metallurgists might use a different name for the same failure mode. The Failure Mode Terms listed below are those accepted by ASTM, ASM, and/or NACE as distinct metallurgical failure mechanisms.
Metallurgical Failure Modes Caused By Corrosion and Stress
- Stress Corrosion Cracking
- Corrosion Fatigue
- Caustic Cracking (ASTM term)
- Caustic Embrittlement (ASM term)
- Stress Corrosion (NACE term)
- Sulfide Stress Cracking (ASM, NACE term)
- Stress Accelerated Corrosion (NACE term)
- Hydrogen Stress Cracking (ASM term)
- Hydrogen Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (ASM term)
Metallurgical Failure Modes Caused By Stress
Metallurgical Failure Modes Caused by Corrosion
- Erosion Corrosion
- Oxygen Pitting
- Hydrogen Embrittlement
- Hydrogen Induced Cracking (ASM term)
- Corrosion Embrittlement (ASM term)
- Hydrogen Disintegration (NACE term)
- Hydrogen Assisted Cracking (ASM term)
- Hydrogen Blistering
- ^ ‘Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States,’ Report FHWA-RD-01-156, contact the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161; phone: 703/605-6000.
- ^ M&M Engineering Conduit Fall 2007 “Ferrous Metallurgy 101,”
- ^ “Standard Terms Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion Testing” (G 15), Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
- ^ ASM-International Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Corrosion, ASM-International, Metals Park, OH
- ^ NACE-International NACE Basic Corrosion Course, NACE-International, Houston, TX
- ^ M&M Engineering Conduit Fall 2007 “Chloride Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steel Alloys,” 
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Failure analysis — is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure. It is an important discipline in many branches of manufacturing industry, such as the electronics industry, where it is a vital tool used in the development of… … Wikipedia
Metallurgy — Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their… … Wikipedia
Materials science — Simulation of the outside of the Space Shuttle as it heats up to over 1,500 °C (2,730 °F) during re entry into the Earth s atmosphere Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of… … Wikipedia
RMS Titanic — was an Olympic class passenger liner owned by the White Star Line and built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland (now Northern Ireland). On the night of 14 April 1912, during her maiden voyage, Titanic hit an iceberg, and sank… … Wikipedia
Europe, history of — Introduction history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… … Universalium
china — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. a translucent ceramic material, biscuit fired at a high temperature, its glaze fired at a low temperature. 2. any porcelain ware. 3. plates, cups, saucers, etc., collectively. 4. figurines made of porcelain or ceramic material … Universalium
China — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. People s Republic of, a country in E Asia. 1,221,591,778; 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km). Cap.: Beijing. 2. Republic of. Also called Nationalist China. a republic consisting mainly of the island of Taiwan off the SE coast … Universalium
metallurgy — metallurgic, metallurgical, adj. metallurgically, adv. metallurgist /met l err jist/ or, esp. Brit., /meuh tal euhr jist/, n. /met l err jee/ or, esp. Brit., /meuh tal euhr jee/, n. 1. the technique or science of working or heating metals so as… … Universalium
Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… … Universalium
Russia — /rush euh/, n. 1. Also called Russian Empire. Russian, Rossiya. a former empire in E Europe and N and W Asia: overthrown by the Russian Revolution 1917. Cap.: St. Petersburg (1703 1917). 2. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 3. See Russian… … Universalium