DNA Tribes


DNA Tribes
DNA Tribes
Type Private
Industry Biotechnology
Products Genetic test
Services Genetic testing
Website DNATribes.com

DNA Tribes is a personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Arlington, Virginia[1] that allows individuals to have their genetic ancestry analyzed based on autosomal STR genetic markers developed by the FBI for individual identification in a forensic context. DNA Tribes also provides since 2011 a geographical "deep ancestry" analysis that can be performed based on genotype raw data from any of several SNP microarray tests. Autosomal DNA is inherited from both maternal and paternal ancestors.[2] The methodology is a cheek swab kit which is delivered to the customer's home and then sealed and returned for analysis. Results are delivered to the customer via e-mail.[3][4] The analysis identifies a person's best genetic fits among actual world populations.[4][5]

Contents

Scientific basis

DNA Tribes’ proprietary analysis has been developed by Dr. Eduardas Valaitis, whose background includes extensive work in multivariate analysis and classification, which involves identifying mathematical structure present within large and complex datasets. The company performs an analysis of world populations to identify genetic structure.[4]

Genetic markers

STR

DNA Tribes uses a type of autosomal STR genetic markers developed by the FBI for individual identification. Using this system, each person’s DNA profile serves as a genetic fingerprint for that individual, with typically less than one in a trillion chance of sharing an identical profile with anyone in the world. Because each autosomal STR profile is so unique to each person, these genetic markers are also the industry standard for court-admissible paternity and maternity testing. DNA Tribes uses this highly unique autosomal STR genetic profile to measure a person’s genetic connections to populations and major regions around the world.[4] These are the same genetic markers developed and used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.[6]

In the United States, a core set of 13 STR markers are being used to generate a nationwide DNA database called the FBI Combined DNA Index System (CODIS).[7] In addition to these 13 STR markers, DNA Tribes performs analysis on 8 additional markers for a total of 21 autosomal STR markers that have been the industry standard relied on by police investigators and ordinary citizens in U.S. courts of law for 10 years. These powerful markers not only provide personal genetic identification virtually unique to each person, they allow DNA Tribes' proprietary identification of the most detailed map of world genetic regions performed to date.[4]

SNP

DNA Tribes also provides since 2011 a geographical "deep ancestry" analysis that can be performed based on genotype raw data from any of several SNP microarray tests. The report includes both admixture and total similarity comparisons of one's DNA to world genetic structure.

Sample populations

Currently, DNA Tribes has 920 sample populations collected by researchers from 305,000 individuals, including 673 populations classified as indigenous populations,[8] and 195 populations classified as Diaspora populations, including multiple Jewish populations from Israel and the world Jewish Diaspora.[9] DNA Tribes' sample population sizes range from 21 to 13,000.[8]

World regions

STR test

DNA Tribes' world region analysis is based on the subdivision of 10 inhabited major world regions including, European, Near Eastern, Native North American, Sub-Saharan African, Central Asian, South Asian, East Asian, Native Central American, Native South American, Pacific into 36 world sub-regions.[8] World sub-regions include[10]:

  • Caucasian
    • European
      • Eastern European: The Slavic-speaking region of eastern Europe.
      • Finno-Ugrian: The Uralic-speaking region of northeastern Europe.
      • Mediterranean: The Romance-speaking region of southwestern Europe.
      • Northwest European: The Celtic and Germanic-speaking region of northwestern Europe.
    • Near Eastern
      • Arabian: The Arabian Peninsula.
      • North African: Populations of the Atlas Mountains and Sahara Desert.
      • Mesopotamian: The historical “Cradle of Western Civilization”, including modern Iran, Iraq and Eastern Anatolia (Turkey).
      • Aegean: Anatolia region, modern territories of Southern Italy and Sicily, Greece, and Turkey.
      • Levantine: Populations along the coast of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
  • South Asian
    • Eastern India
    • North India (including Pakistan and Eastern Afghanistan)
    • South India
  • Subsaharan African
    • East African
    • Southern African
    • West African
  • East Asian
  • American Indian
  • Polynesian

SNP test : Admixture Analysis

7 Continental Zones

  • European
  • Middle Eastern
  • Sub‐Saharan African
  • East Asian
  • North Asian
  • South Asian
  • Native American
Population (October 2011)[11] European Middle Eastern North Asian South Asian East Asian Native American Sub‐Saharan African
Adyghe 43.9% 33.5% 0.0% 22.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Algeria 0.0% 93.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7.0%
Armenian 30.2% 58.7% 0.0% 11.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Balochi 8.9% 24.0% 0.0% 67.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Basque 82.5% 17.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Belarus 98.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0%
Bergamo 69.3% 30.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Bulgaria 75.9% 24.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Chuvash 71.0% 0.0% 22.2% 5.2% 0.0% 1.7% 0.0%
Cornwall 95.7% 4.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Cyprus 29.5% 70.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Dargin 50.3% 23.1% 0.0% 26.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Egypt 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
England 96.2% 3.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Finland 95.2% 0.0% 4.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0%
France 85.3% 14.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Greece 55.4% 44.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Hungary 90.9% 9.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Iran 14.9% 57.2% 0.0% 28.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ireland 96.1% 3.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Kurdish 23.7% 54.3% 0.0% 22.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Lebanon 15.4% 77.2% 0.0% 7.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Lezgin 45.6% 30.0% 0.0% 24.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Libya 0.0% 96.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 3.4%
Lithuania 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Makrani 1.0% 37.6% 0.0% 61.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Mordvin 90.0% 0.0% 5.4% 3.4% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0%
Nogay 39.3% 22.7% 12.6% 20.1% 4.9% 0.4% 0.0%
North Morocco 0.0% 99.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0%
Orkney 96.3% 3.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Portugal 67.5% 32.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Romania 69.2% 25.2% 0.0% 5.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Russia 96.7% 0.0% 0.8% 0.9% 0.0% 1.6% 0.0%
Sardinia 58.3% 41.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Scandinavia 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Selkup 29.2% 0.0% 67.7% 0.0% 0.0% 3.1% 0.0%
Slovenia 93.9% 6.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
South Italy and Sicily 46.5% 53.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Spain 75.9% 24.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Tunisia 0.0% 99.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8%
Turkey 33.9% 46.3% 0.0% 19.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Tuscany 63.2% 36.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ukraine 98.5% 0.0% 0.0% 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Uzbek 25.1% 10.8% 22.2% 26.7% 14.4% 0.8% 0.0%
Vologda 91.7% 0.0% 6.6% 0.5% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0%

20 World Regions

  • Atlantic European
  • Caucasus‐Anatolian
  • Arabian
  • North African
  • Baltic-Urals
  • Indus Valley
  • South India
  • West African
  • Southern African
  • Central African
  • African Great Lakes
  • Horn of Africa
  • Southeast Asian
  • Chinese
  • Manchurian
  • Siberian
  • Arctic
  • Mongolian
  • Oceanian
  • Mesoamerican


Population (October 2011)[12] Atlantic European Baltic-Urals Caucasus-Anatolian North African Arabian Indus Valley South India Siberian Arctic Mongolian Other
Adyghe 0.0% 1.7% 92.5% 0.0% 0.0% 4.4% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0%
Algeria 3.8% 0.1% 0.0% 86.0% 9.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.7%
Armenian 0.0% 0.0% 83.3% 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Basque 92.6% 0.0% 0.0% 5.9% 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Belarus 27.2% 68.6% 4.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Bergamo 72.5% 0.0% 12.2% 3.2% 12.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Bulgaria 70.7% 0.0% 23.6% 0.0% 5.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Chuvash 0.0% 67.0% 5.2% 0.0% 0.0% 7.1% 0.0% 10.0% 3.9% 5.8% 0.9%
Cornwall 97.8% 2.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Cyprus 7.1% 0.0% 46.0% 0.0% 47.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Egypt 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.8% 88.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.4%
England 94.1% 5.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Finland 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
France 93.4% 0.0% 1.5% 1.4% 3.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Greece 36.5% 0.0% 51.4% 2.9% 9.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Hungary 69.8% 21.0% 5.6% 0.0% 1.8% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ireland 86.6% 13.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
Lebanon 0.8% 0.0% 43.8% 5.3% 45.7% 2.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7%
Lezgin 0.0% 4.2% 80.2% 0.0% 0.0% 15.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Lithuania 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Mordvin 0.0% 84.9% 8.7% 0.0% 0.0% 3.8% 0.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8%
Nogay 0.1% 12.3% 59.9% 0.0% 0.0% 7.6% 0.0% 2.9% 1.4% 10.1% 5.7%
North Morocco 12.5% 0.0% 1.7% 85.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Orkney 88.5% 10.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2%
Portugal 71.3% 3.7% 1.2% 15.1% 8.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
Romania 54.9% 7.8% 24.3% 0.0% 10.1% 0.0% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2%
Russia 29.3% 64.6% 4.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9%
Sardinia 69.5% 0.0% 0.0% 9.8% 20.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Scandinavia 88.0% 10.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.8%
Slovenia 74.4% 20.3% 5.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Southern Italy and Sicily 38.2% 0.0% 31.1% 2.0% 28.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Spain 86.4% 0.0% 0.0% 7.4% 6.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Tunisia 9.4% 0.0% 3.6% 87.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Turkey 0.0% 0.0% 84.4% 0.8% 9.8% 0.7% 1.4% 2.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.5%
Tuscany 61.0% 0.0% 18.0% 0.3% 20.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Ukraine 31.8% 61.7% 5.6% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Vologda 0.0% 95.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.2% 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.8%

Media reviews

Time Magazine

Journalist Carolina A. Miranda reviewed DNA Tribes in her article for Time Magazine, "Diving into the Gene Pool."[13]

The New York Times

In 2006, journalist Amy Harmon referred to DNA Tribes in her article for the New York Times, "The DNA Age: Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests," which discussed the use of DNA testing by adopted children searching for the ethnic identity of their birth parents and the implications for applying for financial aid with results showing Native American ethnicity. She wrote, "Driving the pursuit of genetic bounty are start-up testing companies with names like DNA Tribes and Ethnoancestry. For $99 to $250, they promise to satisfy the human hunger to learn about one's origins — and sometimes much more."[14]

The San Francisco Chronicle

Journalist Jeff Yang reviewed DNA Tribes for his article in the San Francisco Chronicle on Asian populations called "Get Your Genes On." [15]

Quantcast

In June 2009, Quantcast inference-based modeling audience measurement services reported that 12,748 people visit DNA Tribes.com per month, with a peak high reached in April 2009 of 17,900 individuals.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Several companies, including DNA Tribes of Arlington, Va., also offer a test that examines the DNA contribution of both parents. These tests are the most controversial because many scientists say there isn't enough data yet to get accurate results." Nixon, Ron (2007-12-02). "DNA ancestry testing leaves some in doubt". New York Times. SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/12/02/MNPQTIG6U.DTL. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  2. ^ "The company was formed in 2006" "What's your tribe?". http://www.dnatribes.com/index.html. 
  3. ^ "Companies like DNA Tribes and DNAPrint are offering DNA marker tests by mail" Yang, Jeff (2006-11-09). "Get Your Genes On". SFgate. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2006/11/09/apop.DTL&type=printable. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "company FAQ". http://www.dnatribes.com/faq.html. 
  5. ^ "Driving the pursuit of genetic bounty are start-up testing companies with names like DNA Tribes and Ethnoancestry." Harmon, Amy (2006-04-12). "Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/12/us/12genes.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=DNA%20Tribes&st=cse. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  6. ^ http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/
  7. ^ http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/images/STRBase.pdf
  8. ^ a b c "Populations". http://www.dnatribes.com/populations.html. 
  9. ^ http://www.dnatribes.com/pops-diaspora.html
  10. ^ Neighbor joining tree illustrating the relationships among world regions based on Euclidean distance
  11. ^ Updated SNP Continent and Regional Admixture
  12. ^ Updated SNP Continent and Regional Admixture
  13. ^ Miranda, C.A. (2006). Diving into the Gene Pool. Time.com. Sunday 20 Aug. Available online: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1229118,00.html. Accessed 19 June 2009.
  14. ^ Harmon, A. (2006). The DNA Age: Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests. NYTimes.com. 12 April. Available online: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/12/us/12genes.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&sq=DNA%20Tribes&st=cse&scp=1. Accessed 19 June 2009.
  15. ^ Yang, J. (2006). Get Your Genes On. SFGate.com. Thursday 9 Nov. Available online: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2006/11/09/apop.DTL&type=printable. Accessed 19 June 2009.
  16. ^ http://www.quantcast.com/dnatribes.com#traffic

External links


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