Military of the Confederate States of America


Military of the Confederate States of America
CSA Battle Flag
CSA Naval Ensign (since 1863)
CSA Naval Jack (since 1863)

The Military of the Confederate States of America comprised three branches:

  • Confederate States Army - The Confederate States Army (CS Army) the land-based military operations. The CS Army was established in two phases with provisional and permanent organizations, which existed concurrently.
    • The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was authorized by Act of Congress on February 23, 1862, and began organizing on April 27.
    • The Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA) was the regular army, organized by Act of Congress on March 6, 1861.[1] It was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved. The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States Generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all militia officers.
    • Confederate States State Militias were organized and commanded by the state governments, similar to those authorized by the United States Militia Act of 1792.
    • Confederate Home Guard - a somewhat loosely organized though nevertheless legitimate organization that was under the vague direction and authority of the Confederate States of America, working in coordination with the Confederate Army, and was tasked with both the defense of the Confederate home front during the American Civil War, as well as to help track down and capture Confederate Army deserters.
  • Confederate States Navy - responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. The two major tasks of the Confederate Navy during the whole of its existence were the protection of Southern harbors and coastlines from outside invasion, and making the war costly for the North by attacking merchant ships and breaking the Union Blockade.

Members of all the Confederate States military forces, to include the Army, the Navy and the Marine Corps were often referred to as "Confederates", and members of the CS Army were referred to as "Confederate soldiers".

Contents

Command and Control

Control and operation of the Confederate States Army was administered by the Confederate States War Department, which was established by the Confederate Provisional Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. The Confederate Congress gave control over military operations, and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the President of the Confederate States of America on February 28, 1861 and March 6, 1861. By May 8, a provision authorizing enlistments for war was enacted, and by August 8, 1861 the Confederate States, after being invaded [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] and attacked by the United States of America, called for 400,000 volunteers to serve for one or three years. By April 1862, the Confederate States of America found it necessary to pass a conscription act, which drafted men into PACS.

The Confederate military leadership included many veterans from the United States Army and United States Navy who had resigned their Federal commissions and had won appointment to senior positions in the Confederate armed forces. Many had served in the Mexican-American War (including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis), but others had little or no military experience (such as Leonidas Polk, who had attended West Point.) The Confederate officer corps was composed in part of young men from slave-owning families, but many came from non-owners. The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks. Although no Army service academy was established for the Confederacy, many colleges of the South (such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute) maintained cadet corps that were seen as a training ground for Confederate military leadership. A naval academy was established at Drewry’s Bluff, Virginia[12] in 1863, but no midshipmen had graduated by the time the Confederacy collapsed.

The soldiers of the Confederate armed forces consisted mainly of white males with an average age between sixteen and twenty-eight.[citation needed] The Confederacy adopted conscription in 1862. Many thousands of slaves served as laborers, cooks, and pioneers. Some freed blacks and men of color served in local state militia units of the Confederacy, primarily in Louisiana and South Carolina, but their officers deployed them for "local defense, not combat."[13] Depleted by casualties and desertions, the military suffered chronic manpower shortages. In the spring of 1865 the Confederate Congress, influenced by the public support by General Lee, approved the recruitment of black infantry units. Contrary to Lee’s and Davis’ recommendations, the Congress refused “to guarantee the freedom of black volunteers.” No more than two hundred troops were ever raised.[14]

Military leaders

Military leaders of the Confederacy (with their state or country of birth and highest rank[15]) included:

General Robert E. Lee, for many, the face of the Confederate army

African Americans in the Confederate Military

"Nearly 40% of the Confederacy's population were unfree ... the work required to sustain the same society during war naturally fell disproportionately on black shoulders as well. By drawing so many white men into the army, indeed, the war multiplied the importance of the black work force."[16] Even Georgia's Governor Joseph E. Brown noted that "the country and the army are mainly dependent upon slave labor for support." [17] Slave labor was used in a wide variety of support roles, from infrastructure and mining, to teamster and medical roles such as hospital attendants and nurses.[18]

The idea of arming slaves for use as soldiers was speculated on from the onset of the war, but not seriously considered by Davis or others in his administration.[19] Though an acrimonious and controversial debate was raised by a letter from Patrick Cleburne[20] urging the Confederacy to raise black soldiers by offering emancipation, it wouldn't be until Robert E. Lee wrote the Confederate Congress urging them that the idea would take serious traction. On March 13, 1865, the Confederate Congress passed General Order 14, and President Davis signed the order into law. The order was issued March 23, but only a few black companies were raised. Two companies were armed and drilled in the streets of Richmond, Virginia, shortly before the besieged southern capital fell.

Supply

Much like the Continental Army in the American Revolution, state governments were supposed to supply their soldiers. The supply situation for most Confederate Armies was dismal even when victorious. The lack of central authority and effective transportation infrastructure, especially the railroads, combined the frequent unwillingness or inability of Southern state governments to provide adequate funding, were key factors in the Army's demise. Individual commanders had to "beg, borrow or steal" food and ammunition from whatever sources were available, including captured Union depots and encampments, and private citizens regardless of their loyalties. Lee's campaign against Gettysburg and southern Pennsylvania (a rich agricultural region) was driven in part by his desperate need of supplies, namely food. Not surprisingly, in addition to slowing the Confederate advance such foraging aroused anger in the North and led many Northerners to support General Sherman's total warfare tactics as retaliation. Scorched earth policies especially in Georgia, South Carolina and the Virginian Shenandoah Valley proved far more devastating than anything Pennsylvania had suffered and further reduced the capacity of the increasingly effectively blockaded Confederacy to feed even its civilian population, let alone its Army. At many points during the war, and especially near the end, Confederate Armies were described as starving and, indeed, many died from lack of food and related illnesses. Towards more desperate stages of the war, the lack of food became a principal driving force for desertion.

Uniforms

See article :Uniforms of the Confederate Military

The Uniforms of the Confederate States military forces were the uniforms used by the Confederate Army and Navy during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. The uniform varied greatly due to a variety of reasons, such as location, limitations on the supply of cloth and other materials, and the cost of materials during the war.

Confederate forces were often poorly supplied with uniforms, especially late in the conflict. Servicemen sometimes wore combinations of uniform pieces combined with captured Union uniforms and items of personal clothing. They sometimes went without shoes altogether, and broad felt or straw hats were worn as often as kepis or naval caps.

Statistics

Total Servicemembers - 1,050,000 (Exact number is unknown. Posted figure is median of estimated range from 600,000 – 1,500,000)

Battle Deaths (Death figures are based on incomplete returns) - 74,524

Other Deaths (In Theater) - 59,297

Died in Union prisons - 26,000 to 31,000

Non-mortal Woundings - Unknown

At the end of the war 174,223 men surrendered to the Union Army.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Eicher, pg. 23
  2. ^ Sharf, pp.769-772
  3. ^ Johnson, p.19
  4. ^ Henderson, p.83
  5. ^ Abraham Lincoln and the American Civil War, accessed Oct 13, 2008
  6. ^ Evans, Vol III, p.38
  7. ^ DiLorenzo, p.257
  8. ^ DiLorenzo, p.135
  9. ^ Johnston (1961), p.19
  10. ^ George B. McClellan, accessed Oct 15, 2008
  11. ^ Stonewall Jackson, accessed Oct 13, 2008
  12. ^ 1862blackCSN
  13. ^ Rubin pg. 104
  14. ^ Levine pg. 146-147
  15. ^ Eicher, Civil War High Commands
  16. ^ Levine, Confederate Emancipation. pg 62
  17. ^ Journal of the Senate at an Extra Session of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia,, Convened under the Proclamation of the Governor, March 25th, 1863, p. 6
  18. ^ Levine, Confederate Emancipation p.62-63
  19. ^ ibid. p. 17-18
  20. ^ Official Records, Series I, Vol. LII, Part 2, pp. 586-92.
  21. ^ http://www1.va.gov/opa/fact/amwars.asp

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Economy of the Confederate States of America — The Confederate States of America had an agrarian based economy that relied heavily on slave worked plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. If ranked as an independent nation, it would have been… …   Wikipedia

  • Flags of the Confederate States of America — Four versions of the flag of the Confederate States of America are shown on this print from 1896. Standing at the center are Stonewall Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, and Robert E. Lee, surrounded by bust portraits of Jefferson Davis and… …   Wikipedia

  • C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America — Directed by Kevin Willmott Produced by Rick Cowan Ollie Hall Sean Blake Victoria Goetz Benjamin Me …   Wikipedia

  • List of railroads of the Confederate States of America — This is a list of Confederate Railroads in operation or used by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. See also Confederate railroads in the American Civil War. Railroads and Railroad Companies *Alabama and Florida… …   Wikipedia

  • Confederate States of America — This article is about the historical state. For the 2004 mockumentary, see C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America. Confederate States of America Unrecognized state[1][2] …   Wikipedia

  • The United States of America —     The United States of America     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The United States of America     BOUNDARIES AND AREA     On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary line to the St. John, and on the north by the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Confederate States of America dollar — Front of Confederate notes (back unprinted) …   Wikipedia

  • Confederate States of America — the group of 11 Southern states that seceded from the United States in 1860 61. Also called the Confederacy. * * * or Confederacy Government of the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860–61 until its defeat in the American Civil… …   Universalium

  • Military of the United States — Infobox National Military country=The United States name=United States Armed Forces caption=United States Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer in Arlington County, Virginia. founded= current form= branches=nowrap| nowrap| nowrap|… …   Wikipedia

  • Uniforms of the Confederate States military forces — Seal of the Confederate States of America The Uniforms of the Confederate States military forces were the uniforms used by the Confederate Army and Navy during the American Civil War, from 1861 to 1865. The uniform varied greatly due to a variety …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.