- Compulsory dance
Compulsory dances, now called pattern dance in ice dancing, are a part of ice dancing and artistic roller skating in which all the couples perform the same standardized steps and holds to music of a specified tempo. One or more compulsory dances were usually skated as the first phase of ice dancing competitions. The 2009-10 season was the final season in which the segment was competed in ISU junior and senior level competition. In June 2010, the International Skating Union replaced the name "compulsory dance" with "pattern dance" for ice dancing, and merged it into the short dance beginning in the 2010–2011 figure skating season.
Compulsory dances are also popular as a form of recreational or social dance among skaters.
The patterns for most dances either cover one-half or one full circuit of the rink. The International Skating Union (ISU) and the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) publish the step diagrams and descriptions of the dances that are competed internationally, and also provides a set of standard music recordings for each dance with uniform tempo and introductory phrasing for use in competition.
The dances that have been performed in junior and senior international competition include:
Name First performed Creators Other notes Fourteenstep 1889 Franz Scholler Also known as Ten Step or Scholler March. European Waltz before 1900 unknown American Waltz unknown unknown Kilian 1909 Karl Schreiter Tango 1932 Paul Krechkow, Trudy Harris Foxtrot 1933 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats Argentine Tango 1934 Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis Blues 1934 Robert Dench, Lesley Turner Rocker Foxtrot 1934 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats Viennese Waltz 1934 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats Paso Doble 1938 Reginald B. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis Quickstep 1938 Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis Rhumba 1938 Walter Gregory Westminster Waltz 1938 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats Silver Samba 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne Starlight Waltz 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne Yankee Polka 1969 James Sladky, Judy Schwomeyer, Ronald Ludington Ravensburger Waltz 1973 Angelika Buck, Erich Buck, Betty Callaway Tango Romantica 1974 Lyudmila Pakhomova / Aleksandr Gorshkov, Elena Tchaikovskaia Austrian Waltz 1979 Susi Handschmann, Peter Handschmann Golden Waltz 1987 Natalia Dubova, Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Cha Cha Congelado 1989 Bernard Ford, Kelly Johnson, Laurie Palmer, Steven Belanger Finnstep 1995 Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko, Martin Skotnicky. Kati Winkler / René Lohse helped adapt to CD. Midnight Blues 2001 Roy Bradshaw, Sue Bradshaw, Mark Bradshaw, Julie MacDonald
The American Waltz, European Waltz, Fourteenstep, and Kilian (a march) date back to the early days of figure skating. Several of the compulsory dances were first performed by dancers in the United Kingdom in the 1930's. Others were adapted from original dances performed after that segment was added to dance competitions in the 1960s. For example, the Golden Waltz, considered the most complex and challenging of the compulsory dances, was adapted from the original set pattern performed by Marina Klimova and Sergei Ponomarenko in the 1987 season.
In addition to the international dances, there are also several simpler dances that are taught to beginning skaters. For example, in the United States, the first dance learned by most skaters is the Dutch Waltz, which features only forward skating in a side-by-side hold, skated to music with a very slow waltz tempo.
Each season, the ISU published a number of compulsory dances to be competed that season on both the international senior level and junior level. Which compulsory dance was competed depended on the event, and some events, such as the Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final, had no compulsory dance segment in the competition.
Although the ISU published assigned dances for the 2010-11 season, these were not used in competition, as the compulsory and original dances were merged into a single segment, the short dance, starting in 2010-11. The International Skating Union adopted the name "pattern dance" in 2010 and in 2011 U.S. Figure Skating also switched to the new name.
Season Senior-level Junior-level 2005–2006 Yankee Polka
2006–2007 Westminster Waltz
2007–2008 Austrian Waltz
Cha Cha Congelado
2008–2009 Viennese Waltz
2009–2010 Golden Waltz
2010–2011 Ravensburger Waltz
Artistic roller skating
The dances that are performed in junior and senior international competition include
- Argentine Tango
- Castel March
- Flirtation Waltz
- Fourteen Step
- Fourteen Step Plus
- Harris Tango
- Iceland Tango
- Italian Foxtrot
- Paso Doble
- Rocker Foxtrot
- Starlight Waltz
- Tango Delanco
- Westminster Waltz
Artistic roller skating in the United States also has competitive divisions of team and solo dance for all ages and skill levels that compete at the local, regional, and national levels. At competitions, skaters perform between two and six dances set to organ music for a maximum of 3 minutes per dance. Skaters are judged on a number of things that include American technique, pattern placement, and overall performance.
Season Senior Junior Senior Solo Junior Solo 2005-2006 Starlight Waltz
2006-2007 Paso Doble
2008-2009 Italian Foxtrot
14 Step Plus
2009-2010 Castel March
2010-2011 Paso Doble
- ^ ISU Congress News
- ^ "ISU Communication 1621", International Skating Union, http://isu.sportcentric.net/db//files/serve.php?id=1893 (accessed July 19, 2011).
- ^ Fourteenstep
- ^ European Waltz
- ^ American Waltz
- ^ Kilian
- ^ Tango
- ^ Foxtrot
- ^ Argentine Tango
- ^ Blues
- ^ Rocker Foxtrot
- ^ Viennese Waltz
- ^ Paso Doble
- ^ Quickstep
- ^ Rhumba
- ^ Westminster Waltz
- ^ Silver Samba
- ^ Starlight Waltz
- ^ Yankee Polka
- ^ Ravensburger Waltz
- ^ Tango Romantica
- ^ Austrian Waltz
- ^ Golden Waltz
- ^ Cha Cha Congelado
- ^ Finnstep
- ^ Midnight Blues
- ^ p.32, 2011-12 Tests Book", U.S. Figure Skating http://www.usfsa.org/Content/201112TestsBook.pdf (accessed July 19, 2011).
- ^ "International Skating Union Communication No. 1496" (PDF). International Skating Union. 2 May 2008. http://isu.sportcentric.net/db//files/serve.php?id=940. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- ^ "ISU Communication No. 1567 ICE DANCE" (PDF). International Skating Union. 8 May 2009. http://isu.sportcentric.net/db//files/serve.php?id=1442. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- ^ "Artistic Roller Skating Special Regulations & Sports Rules : 2009 Edition" (PDF). Federation Internationale de Roller-Skating. http://www.jussara.org/2009%20-%20REGULAMENTO%20CIPA_RULE_BOOK_2009_4.4%281%29.pdf. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
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