Macau


Macau

Coordinates: 22°10′N 113°33′E / 22.167°N 113.55°E / 22.167; 113.55

Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China[1]
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區
Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China
Flag Emblem
Anthem: March of the Volunteers
《義勇軍進行曲》
Marcha dos Voluntários
Clockwise from top right: Ruins of St. Paul's; Casino Lisboa; St Joseph Seminary Church; Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower.
Official language(s) Chinese, Portuguese[2]
Spoken languages Cantonese, Portuguese, Macanese (Patuá)
Writing systems Traditional Chinese, Latin alphabet
Demonym Macanese
Government Special Administrative Region of China
 -  Chief Executive Fernando Chui Sai On
 -  President of the
Court of Final Appeal
Sam Hou Fai
 -  President of the
Legislative Assembly
Lau Cheok Va
Legislature Legislative Assembly
Establishment
 -  Portugal-administered trading post 1557 
 -  Portuguese colony 1 December 1887 
 -  Transfer of sovereignty to the PRC
20 December 1999 
Area
 -  Total 29.5 km2 (224th)
11.39 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0
Population
 -  2010 (2nd qtr) estimate 544,600[3] (165th)
 -  2001 census 435,235[4] 
 -  Density 18,568/km2 (1st)
48,092/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total US$31.271 billion (99th)
 -  Per capita US$59,451 (2nd)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total US$21.700 billion (94th)
 -  Per capita US$39,800 (18th)
HDI (2004) steady 0.944[5] (very high) (25th)
Currency Macanese pataca (MOP$) (MOP)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .mo
Calling code +853
Macau
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 澳門
Simplified Chinese 澳门
Cantonese Jyutping ou3mun4*2
Hanyu Pinyin Àomén
Macao Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese 澳門特別行政區 (or 澳門特區)
Simplified Chinese 澳门特别行政区 (or 澳门特区)
Portuguese name
Portuguese Região Administrativa Especial de Macau for "Macao Special Administrative Region"

Macau (Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: Àomén), also spelled Macao (play /məˈk/), is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. It lies on the western side of the Pearl River Delta, bordering Guangdong province to the north and facing the South China Sea to the east and south.[6]

The territory's economy is heavily dependent on gambling and tourism but also includes manufacturing.

Macau was a Portuguese colony and both the first and last European colony in China.[7][8] Portuguese traders first settled in Macau in the 16th century and subsequently administered the region until the handover on 20 December 1999. The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and the Basic Law of Macau stipulate that Macau operates with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.[9]

Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the PRC's Central People's Government is responsible for the territory's defense and foreign affairs, while Macau maintains its own legal system, police force, monetary system, customs policy, and immigration policy. Macau participates in many international organizations and events that do not require members to possess national sovereignty.[9][10] According to The World Factbook, Macau has the second highest life expectancy in the world.[11]

Contents

Etymology

Before the Portuguese settlement in the early 16th century, Macau was known as Haojing (Oyster Mirror) or Jinghai (Mirror Sea).[12] The name Macau is thought to be derived from the A-Ma Temple (Chinese: 媽閣廟; Mandarin Pinyin: Māgé Miào; Jyutping: Maa1 Gok3 Miu6), a temple built in 1448 dedicated to Matsu – the goddess of seafarers and fishermen. It is said that when the Portuguese sailors landed at the coast just outside the temple and asked the name of the place, the natives replied "媽閣" (Mandarin Pinyin: Māgé; Jyutping: Maa1 Gok3). The Portuguese then named the peninsula "Macau".[13] The present Chinese name (澳門, Àomén) means "Inlet Gates".

History

Ruins of St. Paul's Cathedral, by George Chinnery (1774–1852). The cathedral was built in 1602 and destroyed by fire in 1835. Only the southern stone façade remains today.
Macau, ca. 1870

The history of Macau is traced back to the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC), when the region now called Macau came under the jurisdiction of Panyu county, in Nanhai prefecture (present day Guangdong).[12] The first recorded inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in Macau from invading Mongols during the Southern Song Dynasty.[14] Under the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), fishermen migrated to Macau from Guangdong and Fujian provinces.

Flag of the Government of Portuguese Macau (1976–1999)

Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century.[15] In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macau's harbours and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore.[16] Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water;[17] they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van. In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macau, paying an annual rent of 500 taels ( 20 kilograms/44 pounds ) of silver.[17] The Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863 in order to stay in Macau.[18]

In 1564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631.[19]

During the 17th century some 5,000 slaves lived in Macao, in addition to 2,000 Portuguese and 20,000 Chinese.[20][21][22] 25 Patacas was the cost of one Mozambique slave.[23]

As more Portuguese settled in Macau to engage in trading, they made demands for self-administration; but this was not achieved until the 1840s.[24] In 1576, Pope Gregory XIII established the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau.[25] In 1583, the Portuguese in Macau were permitted to form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority,[26] but there was no transfer of sovereignty.[14]

Macau prospered as a port but was the target of repeated failed attempts[27] by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. On June 24, 1622, the Dutch attacked Macau in the Battle of Macau, expecting to turn it into a Dutch possession after its conquest. African slaves who fought for the Portuguese repulsed the Dutch attack, and the Dutch never tried to conquer Macau again. The majority of the defenders were Africans slaves, with only a few Portuguese soldiers and Priests. Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon was commander of the 800 Dutch strong invasion force.[28][29][30][31]

The Dutch Governor Jan Coen said after the defeat that "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year", and "Our people saw very few Portuguese" during the battle.[32][33][34][35]

Following the Opium War (1839–42), Portugal occupied Taipa and Coloane in 1851 and 1864 respectively. On 1 December 1887, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Amity and Commerce, under which China ceded the right of "perpetual occupation and government of Macau by Portugal" in compliance with the statements of the Protocol of Lisbon. In return, Macau Government would cooperate with Hong Kong's smuggle of Indian opium and China would be able to increase profits through customs taxes. Portugal was also obliged "never to alienate Macau without previous agreement with China", therefore ensuring that negotiation between Portugal and France (regarding a possible exchange of Macau and Portuguese Guinea with the French Congo) or with other countries would not go forward – so that the British commercial interests would be secured; Macau officially became a territory under Portuguese administration.[14]

In 1928, after the Qing Dynasty had been overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, the Kuomintang (KMT) government officially notified Portugal that it was abrogating the Treaty of Amity and Commerce;[36] the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Making only a few provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of Macau and Portuguese government of Macau remained unchanged.[37]

In the Second World War, unlike in the case of Portuguese Timor which was occupied by the Japanese in 1942 along with Dutch Timor, the Japanese respected Portuguese neutrality in Macau, but only up to a point. As such, Macau enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity as the only neutral port in South China, after the Japanese had occupied Guangzhou (Canton) and Hong Kong. In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer Sian in Macao and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the installation of Japanese "advisors" under the alternative of military occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was created over Macau. Japanese domination ended in August 1945.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Beijing government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Amity and Commerce invalid as an “unequal treaty” imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing was not ready to settle the treaty question, leaving the maintenance of “the status quo” until a more appropriate time.[38]

Influenced by the Cultural Revolution in mainland China and by general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in Macau in 1966. In the most serious, the so-called 12-3 incident, 6 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured.[39][40] On 28 January 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology.

Shortly after the overthrow of the Portuguese dictatorship in 1974 in Lisbon, the new Portuguese government determined it would relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon redefined Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal and China agreed to regard Macau as "a Chinese territory under (temporary) Portuguese administration".[14][41] The Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the question of Macau in June 1986. The two signed a Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration the next year, making Macau a special administrative region (SAR) of China.[42] The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over Macau on 20 December 1999.[43] The economy since then has continued to prosper with the sustained growth of tourism from mainland China and the construction of new casinos.

Government and politics

Headquarters of the Government of Macau, previously the Governor's House until 1999.

The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and the Basic Law, Macau's constitution promulgated by China's National People's Congress in 1993, specify that Macau's social and economic system, lifestyle, rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1999.[9] Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Macau enjoys a high degree of autonomy in all areas except in defence and foreign affairs.[9] Macau officials, rather than PRC officials, run Macau through the exercise of separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers, as well as the right to final adjudication.[44] Macau maintains its own separate currency, customs territory, immigration and border controls, and police force.[45][46]

Executive

The government in Macau is headed by the chief executive, who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an election within the committee.[47] The chief executive's cabinet is made up of five policy secretaries and is advised by the Executive Council that has between seven and eleven members.[48] Edmund Ho Hau Wah, a community leader and former banker, was the first chief executive of the Macau SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on 20 December 1999. Fernando Chui Sai On is the current Chief Executive.[49] The chief executive and the cabinet have their offices in the Macau Government Headquarters, located in the former area of the St. Lawrence Parish.

Legislature

Office building of the Legislative Assembly of Macau.

The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative Assembly, a 29-member body comprising 12 directly elected members, ten indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive.[50] Any permanent residents at or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections.[51] Indirect election is limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" and a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies.[52]

Judiciary

The original framework of the legal system, based largely on Portuguese law or Portuguese civil law system, was preserved after 1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system with a high court. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.[53]

Macau has a three-tier court system: the Court of the First Instance, the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal.[54] In February 2009, the Legislative Assembly passed a security bill based on the withdrawn security legislation previously introduced in Hong Kong.[55] Democracy advocates feared that the bill's excessively broad scope could lead to abuses, a concern which has been heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong Kong were denied entry into Macau in the run-up to the bill's passage.[56]

Military

Under Portuguese rule, the military presence in Macau was very limited and ceased in 1974. In 1999, upon handover to the PRC, a substantial garrison of the People's Liberation Army was established in the city itself, with a large portion of the forces stationed in neighbouring Zhuhai as well.

Geography

The map of Macau, showing Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa and Coloane.
Landscape of Penha Hill in Macau.
Macau viewed from Macau Museum.

Macau is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Hong Kong and 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Guangzhou. It also has 41 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline, yet only 0.31 kilometres (0.19 mi) of land border with Guangdong.[6][57] It consists of the Macau Peninsula itself and the islands of Taipa and Coloane, which are now connected by landfill forming the Cotai Strip. The peninsula is formed by the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xi Jiang (West River) on the west.[57] It borders the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone in mainland China. The main border crossing between Macau and China is known as the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the Macau side, and the Gongbei Port of Entry on the Zhuhai side.[58]

Macau Peninsula was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar gradually turned into a narrow isthmus, thus changing Macau into a peninsula. Land reclamation in the 17th century transformed Macau into a peninsula with generally flat terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land mass.[57] Alto de Coloane is the highest point in Macau, with an altitude of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft).[6] With a dense urban environment, Macau has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland.

Climate

Macau has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with average relative humidity between 75% and 90%.[59] Similar to much of South China, seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons, and differences in temperature and humidity between summer and winter are noticeable, though not as great as inland China. The average annual temperature of Macau is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F).[60] July is the warmest month, with average temperature being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). The coolest month is January, with a mean temperature of 15.0 °C (59.0 °F).[59]

Located on China's southern coast, Macau has ample rainfall, with average annual precipitation being 2,120 millimetres (83 in). However, winter is mostly dry due to the influence of the vast Siberian High affecting much of East Asia. Autumn in Macau, from October to November, is sunny and still pleasantly warm with low humidity. Winter (December to early March) is generally mild with temperature above 10°C most of the time, although it could also drop to below 5°C at times. Humidity starts to increase from late March. Summer is very warm to hot (often rising above 30 °C (86 °F) at daytime). The hot weather is often followed by heavy rain, thunderstorms and occasional typhoons.[59]

Climate data for Macau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
24.5
(76.1)
28.1
(82.6)
30.3
(86.5)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
30.0
(86.0)
27.4
(81.3)
23.4
(74.1)
19.6
(67.3)
25.2
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13.1
(55.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.6
(74.5)
25.7
(78.3)
26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
24.9
(76.8)
22.3
(72.1)
17.8
(64.0)
13.8
(56.8)
20.2
Rainfall mm (inches) 32.4
(1.276)
58.8
(2.315)
82.5
(3.248)
217.4
(8.559)
361.9
(14.248)
339.7
(13.374)
289.8
(11.409)
351.6
(13.843)
194.1
(7.642)
116.9
(4.602)
42.6
(1.677)
35.2
(1.386)
2,122.9
(83.579)
humidity 74.3 80.6 84.9 86.2 85.6 84.4 82.2 82.5 79.0 73.4 69.3 68.8 79.3
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6 10 12 12 15 17 16 16 13 7 5 4 133
Sunshine hours 132.4 81.8 75.9 87.8 138.4 168.2 226.2 194.7 182.2 195.0 177.6 167.6 1,827.8
Source: SMG [61]

Economy

Employed population by
occupation 2007[62]
Occupation no.
('000)
Senior officials/managers 14.6
Professionals 9.9
Technicians 28.1
Clerks 83.7
Service & sale workers 63.2
Workers in agriculture/fishery 0.8
Craft & similar workers 33.7
Tourism and gambling have been the primary drivers of Macau's economy.
Nightview of Macau Tower, a communication tower.
The central business district of Macau. The building shown is the BNU tower.
Ruins of St. Paul's, façade of originally The Cathedral of St. Paul built in 1602.

Macau's economy is based largely on tourism. Other chief economic activities in Macau are export-geared textile and garment manufacturing, banking and other financial services.[63] The clothing industry has provided about three quarters of export earnings, and the gaming, tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to contribute more than 50% of Macau's GDP, and 70% of Macau government revenue.[48]

Macau is a founding member of the WTO and has maintained sound economic and trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions, with European Union and Portuguese-speaking countries in particular; Macau is also a member of the IMF.[64] The World Bank classifies Macau as a high income economy[65] and the GDP per capita of the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the Handover in 1999, there has been a rapid rise in the number of mainland visitors due to China's easing of travel restrictions. Together with the liberalization of Macau's gaming industry in 2001 that induces significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.[66]

In a World Tourism Organization report of international tourism for 2006, Macau ranked 21st in the number of tourists and 24th in terms of tourism receipts.[67] From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to Macau has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million visitors in 2006,[68] with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland China and another 30% from Hong Kong. Macau is expected to receive between 24 and 25 million visitors in 2007.[69]

Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a government-issued monopoly license by Stanley Ho's Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. The monopoly ended in 2002 and several casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the opening of the Sands Macao,[70] in 2004 and Wynn Macau in 2006,[71] gambling revenues from Macau's casinos were greatly prosperous.[72][73][74] In 2007, Venetian Macau, at the time the second (now sixth) largest building in the world by floor space, opened its doors to the public, followed by MGM Grand Macau. Numerous other hotel casinos, including Galaxy Cotai Megaresort, are also to be opened in the near future.

In 2002, the Macau government ended the monopoly system and six casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau, Wynn Resorts, Las Vegas Sands, Galaxy Entertainment Group, the partnership of MGM Mirage and Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL). Today, there are 16 casinos operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino industry in Macau, but in 2004, the opening of the Sands Macau ushered in the new era.[70][75][76] Gambling revenue has made Macau the world's top casino market, surpassing Las Vegas.[77]

Macau is an offshore financial centre, a tax haven, and a free port with no foreign exchange control regimes.[78][79][80] The Monetary Authority of Macau regulates offshore finance,[81] while the Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute provides services for investment in Macau.[82] In 2007, Moody's Investors Service upgraded Macau's foreign and local currency government issuer ratings to 'Aa3' from 'A1', citing its government's solid finances as a large net creditor. The rating agency also upgraded Macau's foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'.[83]

As prescribed by the Macau Basic Law, the government follows the principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strive to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product. All the financial revenues of the Macau Special Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the Region itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People's Government. The Central People's Government shall not levy any taxes in the Macau Special Administrative Region.[84]

Monetary system

In Macau, the unit of currency is the pataca which is currently pegged to the Hong Kong dollar at a rate of HK$1 = MOP1.03. The name pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second half of the 19th century. In the year 1894, the pataca was introduced in both Macau and Portuguese Timor as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. In 1901 it was decided to grant the Banco Nacional Ultramarino the exclusive rights to issue banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year 1906, these notes went into circulation at an official equivalent rate of 2 shillings and 4 pence sterling, and all foreign coins were outlawed. However, the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. In the year 1935, when China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard, the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to sterling at the fixed rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, whereas the pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a sterling equivalent rate of only 1 shilling. From 1945 to 1951 fractional coins of the pataca were minted for issue in Portuguese Timor, and in 1952 similar issues were minted for Macau including an actual pataca coin for the first time.

Demographics

Residents' usual
language spoken at home[85]
Language Percentage of
population
Cantonese 85.7%
Other
forms of Chinese
6.7%
Portuguese 0.6%
Mandarin 3.2%
English 1.5%
Others 2.3%
A-Ma Temple, a temple built in 1448 dedicated to the goddess Matsu.
Many signs and establishments make use of Chinese and Portuguese names with English becoming commonplace as well.

Macau is the most densely populated region in the world, with a population density of 18,428 persons per square kilometre (47,728/sq mi).[86] 95% of Macau's population is Chinese; another 2% is of Portuguese and/or mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group often referred to as Macanese.[85] According to the 2006 by-census, 47% of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% born in Guangdong and 15.2% in Fujian. Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents were born in Macau, and those born in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Portugal shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.[85]

The growth of population in Macau mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate is one of the lowest in the world.[87] According to a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Macau is the top country/region for life expectancy at birth with an average of 84.36 years,[88] while its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.[89]

Both Chinese (Cantonese) and Portuguese are Macau's official languages.[90] Other languages such as Mandarin, English and Hokkien are also spoken by some local communities.[91] The Macanese language, a distinctive creole generally known as Patuá, is still spoken by several dozen Macanese.[92]

Most Chinese in Macau are profoundly influenced by their own tradition and culture, of which most take part in Chinese folk religion, of which the faiths of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, form an integral part.[48] Macau has a sizable Christian community; Roman Catholics and Protestants constitute 7% and 2% of the population respectively. In addition, 17% of the population follow original Mahayana Buddhism.[93]

Since Macau has an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of the workforce is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling industry.[91] With the opening of several casino resorts and other major constructions underway, many sectors reportedly experience a shortage of labor, and the government seeks to import labor from neighboring regions.

The number of imported workers stood at a record high of 98,505 in the second quarter of 2008, representing more than 25% of the labor force in Macau.[94] Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs due to the influx of cheap imported labor. Some also claim that the problem of illegal labor is severe.[95] Another concern is the widening of income inequality in the region. Macau's Gini coefficient, a popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a more equal income distribution, rose from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in 2006. It is higher than those of neighboring regions, such as mainland China (0.447), South Korea (0.316) and Singapore (0.425).[96]

Education

The administrative building of the University of Macau, the first modern university in the region.

A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a six-year primary education and a six-year secondary education. The literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation, for example the population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above 99%.[85] Currently, there is only one school in Macau where Portuguese is the medium of instruction.

Macau does not have its own universal education system; non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, or the Portuguese education system. There are currently 10 tertiary educational institutions in the region, four of them being public.[48] In 2006, the Programme for International Student Assessment, a worldwide test of 15-year-old schoolchildren's scholastic performance coordinated by OECD, ranked Macau as the fifth and sixth in science and problem solving respectively.[97] Nevertheless, education levels in Macau are low among high income regions. According to the 2006 by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8% has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.[85]

As prescribed by the Basic Law of Macau Chapter VI Article 121, the Government of Macau shall, on its own, formulate policies on education, including policies regarding the educational system and its administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational development. The government shall also in accordance with law, gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community organisations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds.[84]

Healthcare

Macau is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Hospital Kiang Wu, both located in Macau Peninsula, as well as a university hospital called Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macau also has numerous health centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.[98]

Trishaw used to be a major public mode of transport in Macau. But now it is only for sightseeing purposes.
Taxi in Macau

Currently none of the Macau hospitals are independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. There are no western-style medical schools in Macau and thus all aspiring physicians in Macau have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere.[48] Local nurses are trained at the Macau Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing College.[99][100] Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macau.

The Health Bureau in Macau is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organisations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialised and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion.[101] The Macau Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macau. It also handles the organisation of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private health care providers, and issues licences.[102]

Transport

In Macau traffic drives on the left, unlike either mainland China or Portugal. Macau has a well-established public transport network connecting the Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa Island and Coloane Island. Buses and taxis are the major modes of public transport in Macau. Currently two companies, namely Transmac and Transportas Companhia de Macau, operate franchised public bus services in Macau.[103] The trishaw, a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. A new public bus operator, Reolian Public Transport Co., entered service on August 1, 2011. This new bus operator operates on the existing routes by Transmac and Transportas Companhia de Macau.

The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal provides cross-border transportation services for passengers travelling between Macau and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between Macau and cities in mainland China, including Shekou and Shenzhen.[104]

Macau has one active international airport, known as Macau International Airport located at the eastern end of Taipa and neighbouring waters. The airport used to serve as one of the main transit hubs for passengers travelling between mainland China and Taiwan, but now with the introduction of direct flights between those two regions, passenger traffic in this regard has lessened.[105][106] It is the primary hub for Air Macau. In 2006, the airport handled about 5 million passengers.[107]

Culture

The Statue of Guanyin, a blend between the traditional images of the bodhisattva Guanyin and Holy Mary.

The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macau with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macau Grand Prix in November,[108] when the main streets in Macau Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macau Arts festival in March,[109] the International Fireworks Display Contest in September,[110] the International Music festival in October and/or November,[111] and the Macau International Marathon in December.[112]

The Lunar Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February.[113][114] The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Igreja de Santo Agostinho to Igreja da Sé Catedral, also taking place in February.[57]

A-Ma Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many worshippers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord Buddha. In Coloane Village, the Taoist god Tam Kong is also honoured on the same day.[57] Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Winter Solstice in December.[112]

Local cooking in Macau consists of a blend of Cantonese and Portuguese cuisines.[115] Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients.[116] Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes.[117] Famous dishes include Galinha à Portuguesa, Galinha à Africana (African chicken), Bacalhau, Macanese Chili Shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macau.[118]

Macau preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The Historic Centre of Macau, which includes some twenty-five historic locations, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site UNESCO on 15 July 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa.[119]

Sports

Soccer has the greatest popularity in Macau, which has a representative international side, Macau national football team. Another common sport is Rink Hockey, which is often practiced by the Portuguese. The national team of Macau is the most powerful of Asia and has many Rink Hockey Asian Championship titles. The last Championship was conquered in Dalian, China, on the 13th Asian Roller hockey Championship.

Macau always participate in the Rink Hockey World Championship in B category. The automobile racing Macau Grand Prix is arguably the most important international sporting event in Macau, mainly with Formula 3, Motorcycle Road Racing and Touring Car races.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Macau is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As reflected in the Chinese text of the Macau emblem, the text of the Macao Basic Law, and the Macao Government Website, the full name of the territory is the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Although the convention of "Macao Special Administrative Region" and "Macau" can also be used.
  2. ^ The Macau Basic Law states that the official languages are "Chinese and Portuguese." It does not explicitly specify the standard for "Chinese". While Mandarin and Simplified Chinese characters are used as the spoken and written standards in mainland China, Cantonese and Traditional Chinese characters are the long-established de facto standards in Macau.
  3. ^ "Population estimate of Macao (2nd Quarter/2010) ('000)". Statistics and Census Service. Macao SAR Government. http://www.dsec.gov.mo/TimeSeriesDatabase.aspx?KeyIndicatorID=12. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  4. ^ "Global Results of Census 2001". Statistics and Census Service. Macao SAR Government. http://www.dsec.gov.mo/getAttachment/8314999b-50ec-4b19-be6a-2ec5900067b2/E_CEN_PUB_2001_Y.aspx. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  5. ^ "Macao in Figures 2010". Statistics and Census Service, Macau SAR. 2010. http://www.dsec.gov.mo/getAttachment/6ba9054b-39ed-4a06-95fa-be5fdc961af1/E_MN_PUB_2010_Y.aspx. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Macau Yearbook 2007, 475.
  7. ^ Fung, 5.
  8. ^ "Macau and the end of empire". BBC News. 18 December 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/566301.stm. Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Content of Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau. http://www.umac.mo/basiclaw/english/main.html. Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
  10. ^ "Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macau". GPB Govt of Macau. http://www.imprensa.macau.gov.mo/bo/i/88/23/dc/en/. Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
  11. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2102.html
  12. ^ a b Macau Yearbook 2007, 517.
  13. ^ Fung, 298.
  14. ^ a b c d "The entry "Macau history" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. http://www.macaudata.com/macauweb/Encyclopedia/html/44907.htm. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  15. ^ Chan, 3–4.
  16. ^ Fung, 5–6.
  17. ^ a b Fung, 7.
  18. ^ Joseph Timothy Haydn (1885). Dictionary of dates, and universal reference. [With] (18 ed.). p. 522. http://books.google.com/books?id=CioAAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA522&dq=parthian+despatch+macao&hl=en&ei=5Kq5TomRIKiOsQLe3oWlCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "MACAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863. Here Camoens composed part of the " Lusiad."" (Oxford University)
  19. ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. LONDON: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. http://books.google.com/books?id=AvRZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA262&dq=In+I564,+Portugal+commanded+the+trade+of+India,+Japan,+and+China,+though+their+pride+was+deeply+shocked+at+the+supreme+indifference+with+which+the+Chinese+treated+them.+Their+atrocities+at+Ningpo+and+Macao,+and+their+subsequent&hl=en&ei=mqG5Tv_DFcjNhAfYvqyaBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=In%20I564%2C%20Portugal%20commanded%20the%20trade%20of%20India%2C%20Japan%2C%20and%20China%2C%20though%20their%20pride%20was%20deeply%20shocked%20at%20the%20supreme%20indifference%20with%20which%20the%20Chinese%20treated%20them.%20Their%20atrocities%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20Macao%2C%20and%20their%20subsequent&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "In I564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macao. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection." (Princeton University)
  20. ^ George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0521531357. http://books.google.com/books?id=nPyg0evI8ykC&pg=PA32&dq=and+soldiers+5000+slaves+20000+Chinese+1643+2000+moradores+(Portuguese+inhabitants)+1644+40000+total+inhabitants+1648&hl=en&ei=XfC6TtDND-jo0QGsscDeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=and%20soldiers%205000%20slaves%2020000%20Chinese%201643%202000%20moradores%20(Portuguese%20inhabitants)%201644%2040000%20total%20inhabitants%201648&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record" 
  21. ^ Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. 1996. p. 323. ISBN 3110134179. http://books.google.com/books?id=oCx0D0iE2QoC&pg=PA323&dq=typical+cross+section+of+the+population+consisted+of+about+600+casados,+100-200+other+Portuguese,+some+5000+slaves+and+a+growing&hl=en&ei=bPC6TrzhGIrs0gGKoIzfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=typical%20cross%20section%20of%20the%20population%20consisted%20of%20about%20600%20casados%2C%20100-200%20other%20Portuguese%2C%20some%205000%20slaves%20and%20a%20growing&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "The Portuguese population of Macao was never very large. Between the period 1601 -1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100-200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese" 
  22. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9888028545. http://books.google.com/books?id=LP9q1dzVRYQC&pg=PA63&dq=black+slaves+macao&hl=en&ei=Ku66TuyxNcbc0QHP5Z3dDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau." 
  23. ^ Purabhilekh-puratatva: journal of the Directorate of Archives, Archaeology and Museum, Panaji-Goa, Volume 10. The Directorate. 1992. p. 16. http://books.google.com/books?ei=0Pa6ToCZCcLi0QGS9dXLBw&ct=result&id=KZDlAAAAMAAJ&dq=Price+of+slave+from+Mozambique+in+Macao+was+approximately+twenty+five+patacas.+The+Senado+de+Camara+de+Macao+claimed+that+slaves+from+Mozambique+sold+for+100&q=approximately++patacas++price. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Price of slave from Mozambique in Macao was approximately twenty five patacas. The Senado de Camara de Macao claimed that slaves from Mozambique sold for 100" (the University of Michigan)
  24. ^ <Historical figures of Macau>, by CCTV.
  25. ^ "The entry "Catholic" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. http://www.macaudata.com/macauweb/Encyclopedia/html/11502.htm. Retrieved 6 January 2008. 
  26. ^ <Historical figures of Macau> by CCTV.
  27. ^ History of the Qing (清史稿)
  28. ^ Indrani Chatterjee, Richard Maxwell Eaton, ed (2006). Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. ISBN 025321873X. http://books.google.com/books?id=Nsh8NHDQHlcC&pg=PA238&dq=african+slaves+macau&hl=en&ei=jfe6Tr-9LOfV0QGJ4cXfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=african%20slaves%20macau&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Portuguese,”he concluded;“The Portuguese beat us off from Macao with their slaves.”10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves,who threw" 
  29. ^ Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544. ISBN 1884964044,. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA544&dq=african+slaves+macau&hl=en&ei=jfe6Tr-9LOfV0QGJ4cXfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=african%20slaves%20macau&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass" 
  30. ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN 9622094864. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Gr51C1eS1oC&pg=PA159&dq=invaded+Macau+on+24+June+1622+but+was+defeated+by+a+handful+of+Portuguese+priests,+citizens+and+African+slaves&hl=en&ei=4_i6TtDdLsXb0QHvxejeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=invaded%20Macau%20on%2024%20June%201622%20but%20was%20defeated%20by%20a%20handful%20of%20Portuguese%20priests%2C%20citizens%20and%20African%20slaves&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves" 
  31. ^ Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. ISBN 0971594090. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lw6JYOYgjokC&pg=PA15&dq=Macau's+future+as+a+Dutch+colony+seemed+all+but+assured,+since+the+city's+...+still+remained+under+construction+and+its+defenders+numbered+only+about+60+soldiers+and+90+civilians,+who+ranged+from+Jesuit+priests+to+African+slaves&hl=en&ei=UPm6Tv-AHObV0QGyoojeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Macau's%20future%20as%20a%20Dutch%20colony%20seemed%20all%20but%20assured%2C%20since%20the%20city's%20...%20still%20remained%20under%20construction%20and%20its%20defenders%20numbered%20only%20about%2060%20soldiers%20and%2090%20civilians%2C%20who%20ranged%20from%20Jesuit%20priests%20to%20African%20slaves&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves" 
  32. ^ Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0870136321. http://books.google.com/books?ei=zvq6TtccxN3RAZH6qNcJ&ct=result&id=3s8VAQAAIAAJ&dq=Jan+Coen%2C+who+had+been+sent+to+establish+a+Dutch+base+on+the+China+coast%2C+wrote+about+the+slaves+who+served+the+Portuguese+so+faithfully%3A+%22It+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+last+year.%22&q=jan+coen. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year."" (the University of California)
  33. ^ Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos.. p. 89. http://books.google.com/books?ei=Kfu6TpniFIP10gHPmvXeCQ&ct=result&id=8gdmAAAAMAAJ&dq=85%2C+quotes+a+report+from+the+Dutch+governor-general%2C+Coen%2C+in+1623%3A+%C2%ABThe+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully%2C+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+last+year%C2%BB.&q=coen. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: «The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people last year»." (University of Texas)
  34. ^ Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543-1993. HSRC. 1993. p. 23. ISBN 0796915253. http://books.google.com/books?id=8IEFAQAAIAAJ&q=A+year+later,+Captain+Coen+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme:+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully,+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last+year%22&dq=A+year+later,+Captain+Coen+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme:+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully,+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last+year%22&hl=en&ei=mPu6Tp3hA4LX0QGzl_XeCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year". Captain Coen was" 
  35. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550-1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P.. p. 85. http://books.google.com/books?ei=6fu6TqOmEYLd0QGyq83fCQ&ct=result&id=qUAsAAAAMAAJ&dq=Our+people+saw+very+few+Portuguese%22.+A+year+later+he+was+still+harping+on+the+same+theme.+%22The+slaves+of+the+Portuguese+at+Macao+served+them+so+well+and+faithfully%2C+that+it+was+they+who+defeated+and+drove+away+our+people+there+last&q=harping. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "The enemy, it was reported, "had lost many more men than we, albeit mostly slaves. Our people saw very few Portuguese". A year later he was still harping on the same theme. "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last" (the University of Michigan)
  36. ^ Macau Yearbook 2007, 518.
  37. ^ Fung, 409–410.
  38. ^ Fung, 410–411.
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  42. ^ Fung, 424.
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References

  • Fung, Bong Yin (1999) (in Chinese). Macau: a General Introduction. Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co. Ltd.. ISBN 962-04-1642-2. 
  • Chan, S. S. (2000). The Macau Economy. Publications Centre, University of Macau. ISBN 99937-26-03-6. 
  • Godinho, Jorge (2007). Macau business law and legal system. LexisNexis, Hong Kong. ISBN 9789628937271. 
  • Government Information Bureau (2007). Macau Yearbook 2007. Government Information Bureau of the Macau SAR. ISBN 978-99937-56-09-5. 

Further reading

  • Cremer (Editor) (1988). Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. Univ of Washington Pr. ISBN 0295966084. 
  • Berlie, Jean A. (1999). Macao 2000. Oxford University Press editor, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISBN 0195920740. 
  • Berlie, Jean A. (2000). Macau's overview at the turn of the century. St. John's University Institute of Asian Studies editor, New York. 
  • De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe – Person, Culture and Emotion in Macau. Berg Publishers. ISBN 0826457495. 
  • Eayrs, James (2003). Macau Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications, USA. ISBN 0739764519. 

External links

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