- HMHS Britannic
HMHS "Britannic (1914)", the third and largest Sclass|Olympic|ocean liner of the
White Star Line, sister ship of RMS|Olympic and RMS|Titanic, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine with the loss of 30 lives. Although the White Star Line always denied what it called a "legend", [http://www.ocean-liners.com/ships/britannic.asp] Website viewed 12 February 2006.] most sources say that the ship was originally intended to be named "Gigantic"cite book | author=Bonner, Kit & Bonner, Carolyn | title=Great Ship Disasters | pages=60 | publisher=MBI Publishing Company | year=2003 | id=ISBN 0-7603-1336-9] (this is supported by a White Star pamphlet that advertised "The Gigantic"). In the aftermath of the "Titanic" disaster, the name was changed to "Britannic", making it the second of three ships to be so named (see SS|Britannic|1874 and RMS|Britannic|1929).
Post-"Titanic" design changes
Following the loss of the "Titanic" and the subsequent enquiries, several design changes were made to the remaining "Olympic"-class liners. With "Britannic", these changes were made before launching ("Olympic" was refitted on her return to
Harland and Wolff). The main changes included the introduction of a double hull along the engine and boiler rooms and raising 6 out of the 15 watertight bulkheads up to 'B' Deck. A more obvious external change was the fitting of large crane-like davits, each capable of holding six lifeboats. Additional lifeboats could be stored within reach of the davits on the deckhouse roof, and in an emergency the davits could even reach lifeboats on the other side of the vessel. The aim of this design was to enable all the lifeboats to be launched, even if the ship developed a list that would normally prevent lifeboats being launched on the side opposite to the list. These davits were not fitted to "Olympic".
"Britannic" was launched on 26 February 1914 at the
Harland and Wolffshipyard in Belfastand fitting out began. In August 1914, before "Britannic" could commence transatlantic service between New Yorkand Southampton, World War Ibegan. Immediately, all shipyards with Admiraltycontracts were given top priority to use available raw materials. All civil contracts (including the "Britannic") were slowed down.s or for troop transport. The Admiralty was paying the companies for the use of their vessels but the risk of losing a ship during military operations was high. However, the big ocean liners were not taken for military use, as smaller vessels were much easier to operate. The White Star decided to withdraw RMS "Olympic" from service until the danger had passed. RMS "Olympic" returned to Belfast on 3 November 1914, while work on her sister continued slowly. All this would change in 1915.
The need for increased tonnage grew critical as military operations extended to the eastern
Mediterranean. In May 1915, "Britannic" completed mooring trials of her engines, and was prepared for emergency entrance into service with as little as four weeks notice. The same month also saw the first major loss of a civilian ocean vessel when the Cunard liner RMS|Lusitania was torpedoed near the Irish coast by a German submarine.
The following month, the British Admiralty decided to use recently requisitioned passenger liners as troop transports during the
Gallipolicampaign (also called the " Dardanellesservice"). The first to sail were Cunard's RMS|Mauretania|1906|6 and RMS|Aquitania. As the Gallipoli landings proved to be disastrous and the casualties mounted, the need for large hospital ships for treatment and evacuation of wounded became evident. RMS "Aquitania" was diverted to hospital ship duties in August (her place as a troop transport would be taken by the RMS "Olympic" in September) and on 13 November 1915, "Britannic" was requisitioned as a hospital ship from her storage location at Belfast. Repainted white with large red crosses and a horizontal green stripe, she was renamed HMHS (His Majesty's Hospital Ship) "Britannic" and placed under the command of Captain Charles A. Bartlett(1868 - 1945).
After completing five successful voyages to the Middle Eastern theatre and back to the United Kingdom transporting the sick and wounded, "Britannic" departed Southampton for
Lemnosat 14:23 on 12 November 1916, her sixth voyage to the Mediterranean Sea. The "Britannic" passed Gibraltararound midnight on 15 November and arrived at Napleson the morning of 17 November for her usual coaling and water refuelling stop, completing the first stage of her mission.
A storm kept the ship at Naples until Sunday afternoon, when Captain Bartlett decided to take advantage of a brief break in the weather and continue on. The seas rose once again just as "Britannic" left the port but by next morning the storms died and the ship passed the
Strait of Messinawithout problems. Cape Matapanwas rounded during the first hours of Tuesday, 21 November. By the morning "Britannic" was steaming at full speed (around 21 knots) into the Kea Channel, between Cape Sounion (the southernmost point of Attica, the prefecture that includes Athens) and the island of Kea.
At 08:12 on Tuesday, 21 November 1916, a loud explosion shook the ship. The reaction in the dining room was immediate; doctors and nurses left instantly for their posts. Not everybody reacted the same way, as further
aftthe power of the explosion was less felt and many thought the ship had hit a smaller boat. Captain Bartlett and Chief Officer Humewere on the bridge at the time, and the gravity of the situation was soon evident. The first reports were frightening. The explosion had taken place on the starboardside between holds two and three, but the force of the explosion had damaged the watertight bulkhead between hold one and the forepeak. That meant that the first four watertight compartments were filling rapidly with water. To make things worse, the firemen's tunnel connecting the firemen's quarters in the bow with boiler room six had also been seriously damaged and water was flowing into that boiler room.
Bartlett ordered the watertight doors closed, sent a
distress signaland ordered the crew to prepare the lifeboats. Unfortunately, another surprise was waiting. Along with the damaged watertight door of the firemen's tunnel, the watertight door between boiler rooms six and five also failed to close properly for an unknown reason. Now water was flowing further aft into boiler room five. The "Britannic" had reached her flooding limit. She could stay afloat (motionless) with her first six watertight compartments flooded and had five watertight bulkheads rise all the way up to the B-deck. Those measures were taken after the "Titanic" disaster ("Titanic" could float with her first four compartments flooded and the bulkheads only went as high as E-deck). Luckily, the next crucial bulkhead between boiler rooms five and four and its door were undamaged and should have guaranteed the survival of the ship. However, there was something else that probably sealed "Britannic's" fate: the open portholes of the lower decks. The nurses had opened most of those portholes to ventilate the wards. As the ship's list increased, water reached this level and water began to enter aft from the bulkhead between boiler rooms five and four. With more than six compartments flooded, the "Britannic" could not stay afloat.
On the bridge,
Captain Bartlettwas trying to save his vessel. Only two minutes after the blast, boiler rooms five and six had to be evacuated. In other words, in about ten minutes the "Britannic" was roughly in the same condition the "Titanic" was one hour after the collision with the iceberg. Fifteen minutes after the ship was struck the open portholes on E-deck were underwater. Water also entered the ship's aft section from the bulkhead between boiler rooms five and four. The "Britannic" quickly developed a serious list to starboard. To his right Bartlett saw the shores of Kea, about three miles away. He decided to make a last desperate effort to beach the ship. This was not an easy task because of the combined effect of the list and the weight of the rudder. The steering gear was unable to respond properly but by using the propeller(giving more power to the port shaft) "Britannic" slowly started to turn right.
Simultaneously, on the boat deck the crewmembers were preparing the lifeboats. Some of the boats were immediately rushed by a group of stewards and some sailors, who had started to panic. An unknown officer kept his nerve and persuaded his sailors to get out and stand by their positions near the boat stations. He decided to leave the stewards on the lifeboats as they were responsible for starting the panic and he did not want them in his way during the evacuation. However, he left one of the crew with them in order to take charge of the lifeboat after leaving the ship. After this episode, all the sailors under his command remained at their posts until the last moment. As no RAMC personnel were near this boat station at that time, the Officer started to lower the boats, but when he saw that the ship's engines were still running, he stopped them within six feet (2 m) of the water and waited for orders from the bridge. The occupants of the lifeboats did not take this decision very well and started cursing. Shortly after this, orders finally arrived: no lifeboats should be launched, as the Captain had decided to beach the "Britannic".
Harry William Dykewas making the arrangements for the lowering of the lifeboats from the aft davits of the starboard boat deck when he spotted a group of firemen who had taken a lifeboat from the poop deckwithout authority and had not filled it to maximum capacity. Dyke ordered them to pick up some of the men who had already jumped into the water.
At 08:30, two lifeboats from the boat station assigned to
Third Officer David Lawswere lowered without his knowledge through the use of the automatic release gear. Those two lifeboats dropped some 6 feet into the water and hit the water violently. The two lifeboats soon drifted into the giant running propellers, which were almost out of the water by now. As the first one reached the turning blades, both lifeboats, together with their occupants, were torn to pieces. By then the word of the massacre arrived on the bridge. Captain Bartlett, seeing that water was entering more rapidly as "Britannic" was moving and that there was a risk of more victims, gave the order to stop the engines. The propellers stopped turning the moment a third lifeboat was about to be reduced to pieces. RAMC occupants of this boat pushed against the blades and got away from them safely.
The Captain officially ordered the crew to lower the boats and at 08:35, he gave the order to abandon ship. The forward set of port side davits soon became useless. The unknown officer had already launched his two lifeboats and managed to launch rapidly one more boat from the after set of portside davits. He then started to prepare the motor launch when First officer Oliver came with orders from the Captain. Bartlett had ordered Oliver to get in the motor launch and use its speed to pick up survivors from the smashed lifeboats. Then he was to take charge of the small fleet of lifeboats formed around the dying "Britannic". After launching the motor launch with Oliver, the unknown officer filled another lifeboat with seventy-five men and launched it with great difficulty because the port side was now very high from the surface due to the list to starboard. At 08:45, the list to starboard was so great that no davits were operable. The unknown officer with six sailors decided to move to mid-ship on the boat deck to throw overboard-collapsible rafts and deck chairs from the starboard side. About thirty RAMC personnel who were still left on the ship followed them. As he was about to order these men to jump then give his final report to the Captain, the unknown officer spotted Sixth officer Welch and a few sailors near one of the smaller lifeboats on the starboard side. They were trying to lift the boat but they had not enough men. Quickly, the unknown officer ordered his group of forty men to assist the Sixth officer. Together they managed to lift it, load it with men, then launch it safely. At 09:00, Bartlett sounded one last blast on the whistle then just walked into the water, which had already reached the bridge. He swam to a collapsible boat and began to co-ordinate the rescue operations. The whistle blow was the final signal for the ship's engineers (commanded by Chief Engineer Robert Fleming) who, like their heroic colleagues on the "Titanic", had remained at their posts until the last possible moment. They escaped via the staircase into funnel #4, which ventilated the engine room.
The "Britannic" rolled over onto her starboard side and the funnels began collapsing.
Violet Jessopsaw the last seconds: "She dipped her head a little, then a little lower and still lower. All the deck machinery fell into the sea like a child's toys. Then she took a fearful plunge, her stern rearing hundreds of feet into the air until with a final roar, she disappeared into the depths, the noise of her going resounding though the water with undreamt-of violence....” It was 09:07, only fifty-five minutes after the explosion. The "Britannic" then became a time capsuleon the bottom of the Aegean.
The first to arrive on the scene were the Greek fishermen from Kea on their
kaikia, who picked up many men from the water. One of them, Francesco Psilas, was later paid £4 by the Admiralty for his services. At 10:00, HMS "Scourge" sighted the first lifeboats and ten minutes later stopped and picked up 339 survivors. HMS "Heroic" had arrived some minutes earlier and picked up 494. Some 150 had made it to Korissia(a community on Kea), where surviving doctors and nurses from the "Britannic" were trying to save the horribly mutilated men, using aprons and pieces of lifebelts to make dressings. A little barren quayside served as their operating room. Although the motor launches were quick to transport the wounded to Korissia, the first lifeboat arrived there some two hours later due to the strong current and their heavy load. It was the lifeboat of Sixth Officer Welch and the unknown Officer. The latter was able to speak some French and managed to talk with one of the local villagers, obtaining some bottles of brandyand some bread for the injured.
The inhabitants of Korissia were deeply moved by the suffering of the wounded. They offered all possible assistance to the survivors and hosted many of them in their houses while waiting for the rescue ships. Violet Jessop approached one of the wounded. "An elderly man, in an RAMC uniform with a row of ribbons on his breast, lay motionless on the ground. Part of his thigh was gone and one foot missing; the grey-green hue of his face contrasted with his fine physique. I took his hand and looked at him. After a long time, he opened his eyes and said: 'I'm dying'. There seemed nothing to disprove him yet I involuntarily replied: 'No, you are not going to die, because I've just been praying for you to live'. He gave me a beautiful smile . . . That man lived and sang jolly songs for us on Christmas Day.”
The "Scourge" and "Heroic" had no deck space for more survivors and they left for
Pireaussignalling the presence of those left at Korissia. Luckily, HMS "Foxhound" arrived at 11:45 and, after sweeping the area, anchored in the small port at 13:00 to offer medical assistance and take onboard the remaining survivors. At 14:00 arrived the light cruiser HMS|Foresight. The "Foxhound" departed for Pireaus at 14:15 while the "Foresight" remained to arrange the burial on Kea of Sergeant W. Sharpe, who had died of his injuries. Another two men died on the "Heroic" and one on the French tug "Goliath". The three were buried with military honours in the British cemetery at Pireaus. The last fatality was G. Honeycott, who died at the Russian Hospital at Pireaus shortly after the funerals.
1,036 people were saved. Thirty men lost their lives in the disaster but only five were buried. The others were left in the water and their memory is honoured in memorials in
Thessalonikiand London. Another twenty-four men were injured. The ship carried no patients. The survivors were hosted in the warships that were anchored at the port of Pireaus. However, the nurses and the officers were hosted in separate hotels at Phaleron. Many Greek citizens and officials attended the funerals. One survivor, nurse Violet Jessopwas notable as having also survived the sinking of the RMS "Titanic" in 1912, and had also been on board RMS "Olympic", when it collided with the HMS "Hawke" in 1911.
The wreck of HMHS "Britannic" is at coord|37|42|05|N|24|17|02|E| in about 400 ft (120 m) of water. It was first discovered and explored by Jacques Cousteau in 1975. The giant liner lies on her starboard side hiding the zone of impact with the mine. There is a huge hole just beneath the forward well deck. The bow is attached to the rest of the hull only by some pieces of the B-deck. This is the result of the massive explosion that destroyed the entire part of the keel between bulkheads two and three and of the force of impact with the seabed. The bow is bent and deformed in the front part because it reached the seabed before the 882 feet 9 inches (269 m) long liner was completely sunk. Despite this, the crew's quarters in the forecastle were found to be in good shape with many details still visible. The holds were found empty. The forecastle machinery and the two cargo cranes in the forward well deck are still there and are well preserved. The foremast is bent and lies on the sea floor near the wreck with the crow's nest still attached on it. The bell was not found. Funnel #1 was found a few metres from the Boat Deck. The wreck lies in shallow enough water that scuba divers can explore it, but it is a British
war graveand any expedition must be approved by both the British and Greek governments.
In the summer of 1995, during an expedition filmed by NOVA, Dr.
Robert Ballardrelocated the wreck, using advanced side-scan sonar. Images were obtained from remotely controlled vehicles, but the wreck was not penetrated. Ballard succeeded in locating all the ship's funnels, which proved to be in surprisingly good condition. Attempts to find mine anchors failed.
In August 1996, the wreck of the HMHS "Britannic" became available for sale and was bought by Mr. Simon Mills, a maritime historian who has written two books about the ship: "Britannic-The Last Titan", and "Hostage To Fortune". When Simon Mills was asked if he had all the money and support needed, what would his ideal vision be for the wreck of "Britannic" be, he replied: "That's simple—to leave it as it is!"
In 1999, GUE, divers typically acclimated to cave diving, and
Ocean Discoveryled the first dive expedition to include extensive penetration into the "Britannic". Video of the expedition was broadcast by National Geographic, BBC, History Channel, and the Discovery Channel [http://www.ocean-discovery.org/britannic.htm] Website viewed 14 August 2008.] . Unlike the 2006 expedition with the "world's best wreck divers", the GUE divers did not create a massive siltout preventing them from finishing their dives.
In 2003, an expedition led by
Carl Spencerused advanced diving technology to send scuba divers into the wreck. Their most significant finding was that several watertight doors were open. It has been suggested that this was because the mine strike coincided with the change of watches. Alternatively, the explosion may have distorted the doorframes. A number of mine anchors were located, confirming the German records of "U-73" that "Britannic" was sunk by a single mine and the damage was compounded by open portholes and watertight doors.
In 2006, an expedition, funded and filmed by the
History Channel, brought together thirteen of the world's best wreck divers to help determine what caused the quick sinking of the Britannic. Setting sail on 17 September in a diving boat, converted from a fishing boat for this mission, the crew dived and explored the sunken ship. After days of preparation, the wreck was explored by divers John Chattertonand Richie Kohler. However, time was cut short when silt was kicked-up, causing zero visibility conditions, and the two divers narrowly escaped with their lives. One last dive was to be attempted on "Britannic"'s boiler room, but it was discovered that photographing this far inside the wreck would lead to breaking the rules of a permit issued by the Euphorate of Underwater Antiquities, a department within the Greek Ministry of Culture. Due partly to a barrier in languages, a last minute plea was turned down by the department. The expedition was unable to determine the cause of the rapid sinking, but hours of footage were filmed and important data was documented. Underwater Antiquities later recognized the importance of this mission and has since extended an invitation to revisit the wreck under less stringent rules.
During this expedition, Chatterton and Kohler found a bulb shape in her expansion joint. This proved that her design was changed following the loss of "Titanic."
It was planned to install a Welte Philharmonic Organ onboard the "Britannic". Due to the outbreak of the First World War, the instrument never made its way to Belfast.
During the restoration of the Welte-Organ now in the Swiss National Museum in
Seewen, the restorers detected in April 2007 that the main parts of the instruments were signed by the German organ builders with "Britanik" Christoph E. Hänggi: Die Britannic-Orgel im Museum für Musikautomaten Seewen So. Festschrift zur Einweihung der Welte-Philharmonie-Orgel; Sammlung Heinrich Weiss-Stauffacher. Hrsg.: Museum für Musikautomaten Seewen SO. Seewen: Museum für Musikautomaten, 2007.] . A photo of a drawing in a company prospectus, found in the Welte-legacy in the Augustinermuseum in Freiburg, proved that this was the organ for the Britannic. [http://www.slmnet.ch/ci/seewen/presse/britannic/e/britanik_english.pdf] Sunken Ocean-Liner Britannic’s pipe organ found. Retrieved 23 November 2007.]
*"Hostage to Fortune", by Simon Mills
*"The Olympic-Class Ships", by Mark Chirnside
* [http://www.atlanticliners.com/atlantic_liners_book.htm "Atlantic Liners: A Trio of Trios", by J. Kent Layton]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/liners/britannic_page_1.htm Maritimequest HMHS "Britannic" Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.thebritannicfoundation.org.uk/ The Britannic Foundation]
* [http://www.atlanticliners.com/britannic_home.htm "Britannic Home" at Atlantic Liners]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/titanic NOVA Online-Titanic's Lost Sister] (Companion website to the PBS special "Titanic's Lost Sister")
* [http://www.hospitalshipbritannic.com Hospital Ship Britannic]
* [http://www.davidrumsey.ch/Origin_Seewen.pdf About the origins of the Britannic Organ]
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Britannic — war der Name von drei Schiffen der White Star Line: RMS Britannic (1874), 5004 BRT, Gewinnerin des Blauen Bandes 1876 HMHS Britannic, Stapellauf 1914, 48.158 BRT, dritter Dampfer der Olympic Klasse RMS Britannic (1930), 26.943 BRT, vorletzter… … Deutsch Wikipedia