- Population health
Population health is an approach to
healththat aims to improve the health of an entire population. One major step in achieving this aim is to reduce health inequities among population groups. Population health seeks to step beyond the individual-level focus of mainstream medicineand public healthby addressing a broad range of factors that impact health on a population-level, such as environment, social structure, resource distribution, etc. An important theme in population health is importance of social determinants of healthand the relatively minor impact that medicine and healthcare have on improving health overall.
From a population health perspective, health has been defined not simply as a state free from disease but as "the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life's challenges and changes" (Frankish et al., 1996).
Recently, there has been increasing interest from epidemiologists on the subject of
economic inequalityand its relation to the health of populations. There is a very robust correlation between socioeconomic status and health. This correlation suggests that it is not only the poor who tend to be sick when everyone else is healthy, but that there is a continual gradient, from the top to the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder, relating status to health. This phenomenon is often called the " SES Gradient". Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to chronic stress, heart disease, ulcers, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, certain types of cancer, and premature aging.
Despite the reality of the SES Gradient, there is debate as to its cause. A number of researchers (A. Leigh, C. Jencks, A. Clarkwest - see also Russell Sage working papers) see a definite link between economic status and mortality due to the greater economic resources of the better-off, but they find little correlation due to
Other researchers such as
Richard Wilkinson, J. Lynch , and G.A. Kaplan have found that socioeconomic status strongly affects health even when controlling for economic resources and access to health care. Most famous for linking social status with health are the Whitehall studies - a series of studies conducted on civil servantsin London. The studies found that, despite the fact that all civil servants in England have the same access to health care, there was a strong correlation between social status and health. The studies found that this relationship stayed strong even when controlling for health-affecting habits such as exercise, smoking and drinking. Furthermore, it has been noted that no amount of medical attention will help decrease the likelihood of someone getting type 1 diabetesor rheumatoid arthritis- yet both are more common among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Lastly, it has been found that amongst the wealthiest quarter of countries on earth (a set stretching from Luxembourgto Slovakia) there is no relation between a country's wealth and general population health ref|sci_amer_dec_2005 - suggesting that past a certain level, absolute levels of wealth have little impact on population health, but relative levels within a country do.
The concept of
psychosocial stressattempts to explain how psychosocial phenomenon such as status and social stratificationcan lead to the many diseases associated with the SES Gradient. Higher levels of economic inequality tend to intensify social hierarchies and generally degrades the quality of social relations - leading to greater levels of stress and stress related diseases. Richard Wilkinson found this to be true not only for the poorest members of society, but also for the wealthiest. Economic inequality is bad for everyone's health.
Inequality does not only affect the health of human populations. David H. Abbott at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center found that among many primate species, less egalitarian social structures correlated with higher levels of stress hormones among socially subordinate individuals. Research by
Robert Sapolskyof Stanford Universityprovides similar findings.
The importance of Contraceptives
Not everyone is one of the richest countries in the world. Unlike the United States, developing countries around the world have women who’s knowledge of modern life is growing slowly. Contraceptives play a major role in the health of the population. To institute the importance of health, ideas of family planning programs are often introduced to increase women’s awareness of family planning methods. The more informative these methods are, the more likely that people can stay healthy and prevent the spread of disease.
* Frankish, CJ et al. "Health Impact Assessment as a Tool for Population Health Promotion and Public Policy." Institute of Health Promotion Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver: 1996.
Health Impact Assessment
List of countries by income equality
Population Health Forum
Social determinants of health
* [http://www.pophealth.wisc.edu/grad Population Health MS and PhD Graduate Programs] MS and PhD Graduate Programs in Population Health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
* [http://www.pophealth.wisc.edu/uwphi/ Population Health Institute] Population Health Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
* [http://www.cihi.ca Canadian Institute for Health Information]
* [http://www.iph.uottawa.ca/ Institute of Population Health] Institute of Population Health at the University of Ottawa, Canada
* [http://www.riskanalytica.com/Library/Presentations.aspx Examples of population based health management metrics] Population Based Health intervention analysis, business case evaluations, epidemiology
* [http://www.jhsph.edu/dept/pfrh/PFHS_Preview/Population_and_Health.html Population and Health Graduate Program] Population and Health Graduate Program in the Dept of Population and Family Health Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Population Health Forum[http://depts.washington.edu/eqhlth website]
* [http://www.riskanalytica.com/Library/Papers.aspx A Population-Based Risk Management Framework for Cancer Control]
* [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/phdd/ Public Health Agency of Canada's take on population health]
* [http://policyresearch.gc.ca/doclib/horizonsv2n3e.pdf Canadian Policy Research Secretariate report on population health]
* [http://www.psp-one.com Private Sector Partnerships for Better Health]
* [http://www.pophealth.uottawa.ca Ph.D. in Population Health Progam] Ph.D. in Population Health Program at the University of Ottawa, Canada
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