- Burger King
Infobox Burger King
logo= Burger King (NYSE|BKC), often abbreviated to BK, is a global chain of
hamburger fast foodrestaurants. The first restaurant was opened in Miami, Floridain 1954 by James McLamoreand David Edgerton, and has since used several variations of franchisingto expand its operations. Burger King Holdings is the parent company of Burger King; in the United States it operates under the Burger King Brands title while internationally it operates under the Burger King Corporation banner. It is a publicly traded company with investment firms of TPG Capital, L.P., Bain Capital, and Goldman Sachseach owning about 25% of the company.
At the end of its fiscal year 2007, Burger King reported that there are more than 11,300 outlets in 69 countries; 66% are in the United States and 90% are privately owned and operated. The company has more than 37,000 employees serving approximately 11.4 million customers daily.cite web |url=http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/87/87140/2007_AR.pdf |format=PDF| title=BKC 2007 Annual Report |author=BKC publication |publisher=Burger King Holdings |month=October | year=2007 |accessdate=2008-02-08 |quote=11,283 Restaurants in 69 countries and territories] In North America, franchises are licensed on a per store basis, while in several international locations licenses are sold on a regional basis with franchises owning exclusive development rights for the region or country. These regional franchises are known as master franchises, and are responsible for opening new restaurants, licensing new third party operators, and performing standards oversight of all restaurant locations in these countries. The largest example of a master franchise is
Hungry Jack's, which exclusively owns, operates or sub-licenses over 300 restaurants in Australia.
As with other
multi-national corporations, Burger King has been involved in several legal disputes and cases, as both plaintiff and defendant, in the years since its founding in 1954. Situations involving a myriad of legal topics have affected all aspects of the company's operations. Depending upon its ownership and executive staff at the time, its responses to these challenges have ranged from a conciliatory dialog with its critics to a more aggressive opposition with questionable tactics and negative consequences. How the company responded to these various issues has drawn praise, scorn, and accusations of political appeasement.
The Burger King menu has evolved from a basic offering of burgers, fries, sodas and milkshakes in 1954 to a larger, more diverse set of offerings that includes several variations of chicken, fish,
salads and breakfast. The Whopper, a sandwich that has since become Burger King's signature product, was the first major addition to the menu by Mr. McLamore in 1957. Not all introductions have had the success of the Whopper; BK has introduced many products which failed to catch hold in the marketplace. Some products that have failed in the US have seen success in foreign markets, where BK has also tailored its menu for regional tastes.
The company's "Golden Age" of advertising was during the 1970s when it introduced its mascot the Magical Burger King, a memorable jingle, and several well known and parodied
slogans. Beginning in the early 1980s, its advertising began to lose focus; a series of less successful ad campaigns created by various agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King set about resuscitating its moribund advertising with the hiring of the Miami-based advertising agency of Crispin Porter + Bogusky(CP+B). They completely reorganized Burger King's advertising with a series of new advertisements centered around a resuscitated Magical Burger King character.
Burger King's first restaurant, originally called Insta Burger King, was opened on December 4, 1954 in a suburb of Miami,
Floridaby James McLamore and David Edgerton; both alumni of the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration. McLamore visited the original McDonald's hamburger stand belonging to Dick and Mac McDonaldin San Bernardino, California; sensing potential in their innovative assembly line-based production system, he decided to create a version of his own. By 1959, BK had grown to five regional stores in and around the metropolitan Miami area. About this time, McLamore and Edgerton decided to expand BK nationally by using a franchising system; a popular method for expansion due to its low capital cost for the parent company. They formed Burger King Corporation as the parent and began selling territorial franchise licenses to private owners across the US.cite web |url=http://www.answers.com/topic/burger-king |title=History of Burger King Corporation |author= [http://www.fundinguniverse.com FundingUniverse.com] |publisher=Answers.com |date= |accessdate=2007-10-24]
In 1967, after eight years of private operation, the
Pillsbury Companyacquired Burger King and its parent company Burger King Corporation. At the time of the purchase, BK had grown to 274 restaurants in the United States. Even though Pillsbury owned and operated the company, BK was still the object of a series of failed and successful acquisitions and divestitures. In 1973, Chart House, owner of 350 BK restaurants at the time and one of BK's largest franchise groups, attempted to purchase the chain from Pillsbury for $100 million ( USD). When Chart House's bid failed, its owners, Billy and Jimmy Trotter, suggested that Pillsbury and Chart House spin off their respective Burger King holdings and merge the two entities into a separate company, an offer Pillsbury also declined. After the failed attempts to acquire BK, the relationship with Chart House and the Trotters began to sour; in 1979 BK successfully sued Chart House for improperly acquiring locations in Boston and Houston. In 1984, Pillsbury purchased Chart House's successor DiversiFoods for $390 million ( USD) after a separate, independent $525 million DiversiFoods management-backed leveraged buy-outof the company failed. [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_v19/ai_3930610 |title=How Pillsbury 'stole' DiversiFoods for just $390 million |author=Rick Telberg |work=Nation's Restaurant News |date= 1985-09-09|accessdate=2007-08-24] [cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A02EFDA1238F931A25751C1A962948260 |title=DiversiFoods Net |work= The New York Times|date= 1984-12-12|accessdate=2007-08-24]
BK, and former corporate siblings,
Bennigan's, Steak and Ale, Godfather's Pizza(part of the DiversiFoods acquisition [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_v18/ai_3367413 |title=Hyde leaves DiversiFoods-BK; Bolton takes reins as president |author=David Zuckerman |work=Nation's Restaurant News |date= 1984-07-24|accessdate=2007-08-24] ), Quik Wok and Häagen Dazsice cream shops, remained under the Pillsbury corporate umbrella until Pillsbury divested its restaurant holdings in 1989 and sold Burger King to British alcoholic beveragemanufacturer and distributor Grand MetropolitanPLC. In 1989, under the ownership of Grand Met, Burger King acquired many locations of its major UK rival Wimpywhen the parent company bought the Wimpy's brand from its previous owner United Biscuitsand re-branded them as Burger King, giving it an even greater presence in that country. While other "Wimpy" locations are still in operation presently, they are now independent from BK and no longer have the presence they once did. In 1997, Grand Metropolitan merged with Guinnessto form a company called Diageo. Diageo maintained ownership of BKC until 2001 when Diageo decided to focus solely on their beverage products and divest itself of the chain.
By the time of the sale, Burger King's revenues and market share had declined significantly, Burger King had fallen to a near tie for second place with rival
Wendy'sin the US market for hamburger chain restaurants.cite web |url=http://www.slate.com/id/2102906/ |title=What's wrong with Burger King |author=Daniel Gross |publisher=Slate.com |date= 2004-06-24|accessdate=2007-10-24] For many years leading into the early 2000s Burger King and its various owners plus many of its larger franchises closed many under-performing stores. [cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE7DE123EF93BA35752C0A96E948260 |title=Pillsbury restaurants cutbacks set |author=Calvin Sims |work= The New York Times|date=1988-01-08 |accessdate=2007-10-24] Several of its largest franchises entered bankruptcy due to the issues surrounding the performance of the brand. [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_33_23/ai_77757921 |title=Franchisee of Burger Chain Files Chap. 11 |author =Anthony Palazzo |work=Los Angeles Business Journal |date= 2001-08-21|accessdate=2007-10-24] [cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A01E7D6153BF936A35751C1A9649C8B63&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/F/Fast%20Food%20Industry |title=Big Burger King Franchise chain files for bankruptcy |author= |work= The New York Times|date= 2002-12-05|accessdate=2007-10-24]
In 2002, a troika of
private equityfirms led by TPG Capital, L.P with associates Bain Capitaland Goldman Sachs Capital Partnersagreed to purchase BK from Diageo for $1.5 billion ( USD), with the sale becoming complete in December of that year. [cite web |url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1113/p01s01-usec.html |title=Are private buyouts good for the economy? |author=Mark Trumbull |publisher=Christian Science Monitor |date= 2006-11-13|accessdate=2007-10-24] The new owners, through several new CEOs, have moved to revitalize and reorganize the company, the first major move was to re-name the BK parent as Burger King Brands.cite web |url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/05/12/markets/ipo/burger_king/index.htm |title=Burger King IPO set to fire up |author=Grace Wong |publisher=CNN Money |date= 2006-05-12|accessdate=2007-09-30 ] The investment group initially planned to take BK public within the two years of the acquisition, this was delayed until 2006. On February 1, 2006, CEO Greg Brennemanannounced TPG's plans to turn Burger King into a publicly traded company by issuing an Initial Public Offering (IPO). On February 16, the company announced it had filed its registration for the IPO with the Securities and Exchange Commission. On May 18, 2006, Burger King began trading on the New York Stock Exchangeunder the ticker symbol BKC and generated $425 million in revenue, the largest IPO of a US-based restaurant chain on record.cite web |url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2006-05-18-bk-ipo_x.htm |title=Burger King's IPO declared 'a success' |author=Matt Krantz |work= USA Today|date= 2006-05-19|accessdate=2007-09-30 ]
While BK began its foray in to locations outside of the
continental United Statesin 1963 with a store in San Juan, Puerto Rico, it did not have a large international presence. This situation changed shortly after the acquisition when Pillsbury opened its first international restaurant in Canada in 1969. Other international locations followed soon after: Oceaniain 1971 with Hungry Jack's and in Europe in 1975 with a restaurant in Madrid, Spain. Beginning in 1982, BK and its franchisees began operating stores in several East Asiancountries, including Japan, Taiwan, Singaporeand South Korea. Due to high competition, all of the Japanese locations closed by the end of 2001. BK reentered the Japanese market in mid-2007. [cite web |url=http://www.qsrmagazine.com/articles/news/story.phtml?id=5523 |title=Burger King back in Japan after 6 years |author=Yuri Kageyama |work=QSR Magazine |date= 2007-06-08|accessdate=2007-08-25] BK's Central and South American operations began in Mexicoin the late 1970s. While Burger King lags behind McDonald's in international locations by over 12,000 stores, it has managed to become the largest chain in several countries including Mexico and Spain. [cite web |url=http://knowledge.emory.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1097 |title=Burger King CEO John Chidsey on Innovation, Trust, and "The King" |author=Knowledge@Emory |publisher= Emory University|date= 2007-11-15|accessdate=2008-03-01 |quote=Burger King will soon overtake McDonald's in Mexico, has already surpassed as of September 30, 2007 its top competitor in Spain and is looking to be a worthy competitor in other areas.] To assist in its international expansion, Burger King has established several subsidiaries to develop strategic partnerships and alliances to expand into new territories; in Europe, Burger King's subsidiary Burger King Europe GmbH is responsible for the licensing and development of BK franchises in the that market, Africa and Western Asia. In Asia, the BK AsiaPac, PTE. Ltd. business unit handles franchising for East Asia, the Asian subcontinent and all Oceanic territories except Australia.
Over the ten year period starting in 2008, Burger King sees 80% of its market share to be driven by foreign expansion, particularly in the
Asia-Pacificand Indian subcontinentregional markets.cite web |url=http://www.euromonitor.com/Burger_King_aiming_for_Asian_expansion |title=Burger King aiming for Asian expansion |author=Nicola Becker |work=Euromonitor International |date= 2007-09-04|accessdate=2008-03-01 |quote=Burger King has said it expects 80% of future growth to come from international expansion, with Asia playing a leading role.] While the TPG-lead group has continued BK's international expansion by announcing plans to open new franchise locations in Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, and Brazil, the company plans to focus on the three largest markets, India, China and Japan. [cite press release |url=http://investor.bk.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=87140&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=972760&highlight= |title=The BURGER KING Brand Enters Poland |author=BK press release |publisher=Burger King Holdings |date= 2007-03-17|accessdate=2007-08-25] [cite web |url=http://www.sptimes.ru/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=17516 |title=Burger King Mulls Franchises |author=Maria Levitov |work= The St. Petersburg Times|date= 2006-05-05|accessdate=2007-08-25] [cite press release |url=http://www.ameinfo.com/40791.html |title=Burger King increases number of restaurants in UAE |author=Hana International Company Ltd. press release |publisher=AMEInfo.com |date= 2007-03-29|accessdate=2007-08-25] [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2007_March_29/ai_n18766980 |title=Burger King® To Expand in Egypt |author=Business Wire |publisher=Find Article.com |date= 2007-03-29|accessdate=2007-08-25] The company plans to add over 250 stores in these Asian territories, as well as other countries such as Macau, by the end of 2012. [cite web |url=http://franchise.business-opportunities.biz/2007/06/07/burger-king-may-add-250-asia-stores-within-five-years/ |title=Burger King May Add 250 Asia Stores Within Five Years |author=Bloomberg |publisher= [http://franchise.business-opportunities.biz/ Franchise Business Opportunities] |date= 2007-06-07|accessdate=2007-08-25] Its expansion into the Indian market has the company at a competitive disadvantage with other QSR vendors such as KFCbecause the country's large Hindumajority's aversion to beef. BK hopes to use their recent non-beef products, such as their TenderCrispand TenderGrillsandwiches, as well as other products to help them overcome this hurdle to expand in that country.
At the end of its fiscal 2008 year, Burger King is the second largest chain of
hamburger fast foodrestaurants in the world behind industry bellwether McDonald's(31,000 locations) and the fourth largest fast food restaurant chain overall after Yum! Brands(34,000 locations), McDonald's and Subway (28,400 locations).cite web |url=http://www.hoovers.com/mcdonald's/--ID__10974--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml |title=McDonald's Corporation |author=Joe Bramhall |publisher=Hoovers.com |date= |accessdate=2007-08-23] [cite web |url=http://www.hoovers.com/yum!/--ID__53993--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml |title=YUM! Brands, Inc. |author=Joe Bramhall |publisher=Hoovers.com |date= |accessdate=2007-08-23] cite web |url=http://www.subway.com/subwayroot/AboutSubway/subwayPressKit.aspx |title=SUBWAY® Chain Facts |author=Subway publication |publisher=Subway Restaurants |year=2007 |accessdate=2007-09-23]
* 1954: James McLamore and David Edgerton establish Burger King Corporation.
* 1957: The Whopper is launched.
* 1958: BK releases its first TV advertisement. [cite web |url=http://www.historyofbranding.com/burgerking.html |title=History of Burger King |author=History of Branding |publisher=Inkblot Communications |date= |accessdate=2007-10-24]
* 1959: The company begins to expand through franchising.
* 1967: Burger King is sold to Pillsbury.
* 1977: Donald N. Smith is hired to restructure the firm's franchise system.
* 1982: Burger King claims its burgers taste better than its competition's (McDonald's and Wendy's) fried burgers.
* 1989: Grand Metropolitan plc acquires Pillsbury.
* 1997: The firm launches a $70 million French fry advertising campaign; Grand Metropolitan merges with Guinness to form Diageo plc.
* 2000: Diaego investigates a possible
IPOor sale of the company
* 2001: A North American franchise group seeks to purchase the company
* 2002: A group of investors led by Texas Pacific Group acquire Burger King.
* 2006: BKC, with the same stock symbol, goes public in an IPO.
* In the early 1970s, Burger King was the first fast-food restaurant to offer an enclosed and air-conditioned seating area.cite episode |url=http://www.foodnetwork.com/food/show_iz/episode/0,3195,FOOD_31138_56604,00.html |title=Big Burger Business: McDonald's and Burger King |series= [http://www.foodnetwork.com/food/show_iz/0,3195,FOOD_31138,00.html Heavyweights] |network=
Food Network|airdate=2008-04-21 |season=2 |number=3 ]
FranchisesWhen Burger King Corporation began franchising in 1967, it relied on a regional franchising model where franchisees would purchase the right to open stores within a defined geographic region. These franchise agreements granted BKC very little oversight control over its franchisees and resulted in issues of product quality control, store image and design and operations procedures.cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=oBj-sPpJDQcC&pg=PA64&lpg=PA64&dq=donald+smith+burger+king&source=web&ots=FhXPdZvuKU&sig=Oc4o4BHLk8esIyTgcjWHuSzdXKA&hl=en |title=Making Fast Food: From the Frying Pan Into the Fryer, 2nd edition |author=Ester Reiter |publisher=
McGill-Queen's University Press|month=March | year=1996 |page=64 |accessdate=2008-04-06 |isbn=0773513876 |quote=Burger King's early franchising arrangements proved to be troublesome]This model remained in place until 1978 when Donald Smith initiated a restructuring of all future franchising agreements, disallowing new owners from living more than one hour from their restaurants, preventing corporations from owning franchises and prohibiting franchisees from operating other chains. This new policy effectively limited the size of franchisees and prevented larger franchises from challenging Burger King Corporation as Chart House had. Smith also sought to have BKC be the primary owner of new locations and rent or lease the restaurants to its franchises. This policy would allow the company to take over the operations of failing stores or evict those owners who would not conform to the company guidelines and policies. However, by 1988 BKC parent Pillsbury had relaxed many of Smith's changes, scaled back on construction of new locations and stalling growth.cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0DD1530F937A25752C1A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print |title=Burger King's Angry Franchises |author=Eric N. Berg |work= The New York Times|date= 1988-11-04|accessdate=2008-04-06 |quote=The franchisees complain that, in recent years, the chain's growth has come almost entirely from the franchisees, not from the corporation.] Neglect of Burger King by new owner Grand Met, and its successor Diageo, further hurt the standing of the brand, causing yet more financial damage to BK franchises.cite web |url=http://www.boj.com/articles/franchise/burger_king_fixed.htm |title=It was broken, and new owner's fixing it |author=Shelly Reese |work= The Cincinnati Enquirer|date= 2005-02-04|accessdate=2008-04-12 |quote= |type=reprint]By 2001 and nearly eighteen years of stagnant growth, many of its franchises were in some sort of financial distress. The lack of growth severely impacted BKC's largest franchise, the nearly 400 store AmeriKing; by 2001 the company, which until this point had been struggling under a nearly $300 million debt load and been shedding store across the US, was forced to enter Chapter 11 bankruptcy.cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C03E5D81E3DF931A15751C1A9649C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all |title=A Fighter for Burgers and Fries |author=Jo Napolitano |work= The New York Times|date= 2002-12-22|accessdate=2008-04-06 |quote=The AmeriKing bankruptcy has added uncertainty to the prospects for Burger King, which relies heavily on franchise owners of its restaurants.] The failure of AmeriKing deeply affected the value of the BKC, and put negotiations between Diaego and the TPC Capital-lead group on hold. The developments eventually forced Diaego to lower the total selling price of BKC by almost three quarters of a billion dollars.cite web |url=http://www.forbes.com/2003/04/15/cz_pb_0415burger.html |title=Burger King's Flame-Broiled Future |author=Phyllis Berman |work= Forbes Magazine|date= 2003-04-15|accessdate=2006-04-06 |quote=The all-cash deal was originally pegged at $2.2 billion but got negotiated down to just $1.5 billion.] After the sale, newly appointed CEO Bradley Blum initiated a program to help the roughly 20% of its franchises, including its four largest, who were in financial distress, bankruptcy or had ceased operations altogether.cite web |url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-81297863.html |title=Burger King bolstering its many weak franchisees. |author=Elaine Walker |publisher= Knight-Ridder|date= 2002-01-03|accessdate=2008-04-06] Partnering with the California-based Trinity Capital, LLC, the company established the Franchisee Financial Restructuring Initiative, a program to address the financial issues facing BK's financially distressed franchisees. The initiative was designed to assist franchisees in restructuring their businesses in order to meet financial obligations, focus on restaurant operational excellence, reinvest in their operations and return to profitability.cite press release |url=http://www.bison.com/press/pr2-3-03bk.html |title=Burger King Launches Franchisee Financial Restructuring Initiative |author=BK press release |publisher=Burger King Holdings on Bison.com |date= 2003-02-03|accessdate=2008-04-06 |quote=]Individual owners also took advantage of the AmeriKing failure; one of BK's regional owners, Miami-based Al Cabrera, purchased 130 stores located primarily in the Chicagoand the upper mid-westregion, from the failed company for a bargain basement price of $16 million, or approximately 88% of their original value. The new company, which started out as Core Value Partners and eventually became Heartland Foods, also purchased 120 additional stores from distressed owners and completely revamped them. The resulting purchases made Mr. Cabrerra BKB's largest minority franchisee and Heartland one of BKH's top franchises. [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_50_37/ai_111507745 |title=BK franchisee-led group buys 131 AmeriKing units |author= |work=Nations Restaurant News |date= 2003-12-15|accessdate=2008-04-12 |quote= ] By 2006, the company was valued at over $150 million, and was sold to New York-based GSO Capital Partners. [cite web |url=http://franchise.business-opportunities.biz/2006/12/29/major-burger-king-franchisee-to-sell-240-restaurants/ |title=Major Burger King Franchisee To Sell 240 Restaurants |author= |work= The Miami Herald|date= 2006-12-17|accessdate=2008-04-12 |quote=] Other purchasers included a three way group of NFLathletes Kevin Faulk, Marcus Allenand Michael Strahanwho collectively purchased 17 stores in the cities of Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia; [cite web |url=http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2007/08/17/faulk_joins_other_black_athletes_to_buy_burger_king_franchises/ |title=Faulk joins other black athletes to buy Burger King franchises |author=Keith Reed |work=The Boston Globe |date= 2007-08-17|accessdate=2008-04-12 |quote=] and Cincinnati-based franchisee Dave Devoy, who purchased 32 AmeriKing stores. After investing in new decor, equipment and staff retraining, many of the formerly failing stores have shown growth upwards of 20%.
As with other
multi-national corporations, Burger King has had its share of legal issues and cases. Situations involving a myriad of topics have affected all aspects of the company. Depending upon its ownership and executive staff at the time, its responses to these challenges have ranged from a conciliatory dialog with its critics to a more aggressive opposition with questionable tactics and negative consequences.cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6DA163CF93BA3575BC0A967958260&scp=1&sq=Burger%20Center%20for%20Science%20in%20the%20Public%20Interest&st=cse |title= How Fat? Burger King to Post Answers |author=Trish Hall |work= The New York Times|date= 1991-08-08|accessdate=2008-05-30 |quote=Executives of Burger King, based in Miami and owned by Grand Metropolitan P.L.C. of London, announced the plan yesterday after five months of discussion with New York [City] 's Consumer Affairs Commissioner, Mark Green.] cite web |url=http://www.news-press.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080428/BUSINESS/804280351/1075 |title=Burger King gets farm workers petition; Daughter of Burger King VP says dad wrote anti-coalition postings |author=Amy Bennett Williams |work= The Fort Meyers News-Press|date= 2008-04-28|accessdate=2008-04-28 |quote=At Senate hearings on farm conditions held by U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., earlier this month, Eric Schlosser, author of the best-selling "Fast Food Nation," praised Yum! and McDonald's for working with the coalition and urged Burger King to do the same. "The admirable behavior of these two industry giants makes the behavior of Burger King ... seem completely unjustifiable."] cite web |url=http://www.news-press.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080412/NEWS01/%0D80412019/1002 |title=Tomato pickers feeling spied on |author=Amy Bennett Williams |work= The Fort Meyers News-Press|date= 2008-04-12|accessdate=2008-06-09 |quote=In recent months, they’ve [the CIW and supporter Student/Farmworker Alliance] been vilified online and in e-mails that can be traced to the Miami headquarters of Burger King, a company that’s opposed the groups’ efforts.] cite web |url=http://www.miamiherald.com/business/technology/v-print/story/536707.html |title=Burger King's virtual missteps `a cautionary tale' |author=Elaine Walker |work= The Miami Herald|date= 2008-05-18|accessdate=2008-05-24 |quote= The fast-food chain fired Grover and company spokesman Keva Silversmith last week for violating the company's Code of Business Ethics and Conduct.] How the company responded to these various issues has drawn praise,cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/28/business/28burger.html |title=Burger King Shifts Policy on Animals |author=Andrew Martin |work= The New York Times|date= 2007-03-28|accessdate=2008-03-09 |quote=In what animal welfare advocates are describing as a "historic advance", Burger King, the world’s second-largest hamburger chain, said yesterday that it would begin buying eggs and pork from suppliers that did not confine their animals in cages and crates.] scorn,cite news |url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,261903,00.html |title=Burger King Offers Cage-Free Food. |author=AP Wire |publisher= Fox News|date= 2007-03-28|accessdate=2007-08-21 |quote="Suppliers will hopefully respond by producing more of these types of products," [PETA spokesman Matt] Prescott said. ] and accusations of political appeasement.cite web |url=http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/2005/09/_burger_king_recalls_sacrilegious_desserts/ |title=Burger King Stops Selling Anti-Muslim Ice Cream |author= James Joyner|publisher= [http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/ Outside the Beltway] |date= 2005-09-18|accessdate=2008-06-04 |quote=Burger King has stopped selling ice cream cones after a single idiot Muslim was offended by the shape of the swirl on the lid.]
A trademark dispute involving the owners of the similarly named Burger King in
Mattoon, Illinoisled to a federal lawsuit whose outcome helped define the scope of the Lanham actin the United States;cite web |url=http://www.illinoistimes.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=oid%3A2686 |title=The burger king and queen of Mattoon |author=John Jermaine |work=The Illinois Times |date= 2003-11-20|accessdate=2007-09-26 |quote= ] while an existing trademark held by a shop of the same name in Queenslandforced the company to change its name in Australia.cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/eating-drinking-places/4275422-1.html |title=Burger King Re-flags Australian Stores |author=Restaurant Business News |publisher=AllBusiness.com |date= 2003-05-30|accessdate=2007-09-29 |quote=Hungry Jack's was BK's original franchisee in Australia, but the company could not use the Burger King name at the time because it was already trademarked.] Legal decisions from other suits have set contractual law precedents in regards to long-arm statutes, the limitations of franchise agreements, and ethical business practices; many of these decisions have helped define general business dealings that continue to shape the entire marketplace.cite web |url=http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=471&page=462 |title=471 U.S. 462 |publisher= Findlaw|date= 1985-05-20|accessdate=2008-03-04 |quote=] cite web |url=http://www.invispress.com/law/civpro/burger.html |title=Burger King v. Rudzewicz |author=Christopher D. Peloso |date= 2007-05-19|accessdate=2008-03-04]
Controversies and disputes with groups such as
PETAover the welfare of animals, governmental and social agencies over health issues, and unions and trade groups over labor relations, have touched on concepts of animal rights,cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_Feb_11/ai_n24256165 |title=PETA Praises Safeway for Adopting New Industry-Leading Animal Welfare Policies |author= Gale Group|publisher= Business Wire|date= 2008-02-11|accessdate=2008-03-09 |quote=June 2001: Following PETA's six-month "Murder King" campaign, Burger King agrees to adopt standards that are in some areas better than those adopted by McDonald's.] corporate responsibility,cite web |url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20070517/burgerking_transfat_070517/20070517?hub=Health |title=Burger King responds to trans-fat cooking oil suit |author=AP Wire |publisher=CTV |date= 2007-05-17|accessdate=2007-09-28 |quote= ] and social justice.cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/24/business/24farm.html?_r=1&sq=Burger%20King%20Tomatoes&st=nyt&oref=slogin&scp=1&pagewanted=print |title=Burger King Grants Raise to Pickers |author=Andrew Martin |work= The New York Times|date= 2008-05-24|accessdate=2008-05-24 |quote=At a news conference on Capitol Hill, the hamburger chain, based in Miami, said it would pay tomato prices adequate to give workers a wage increase of 1.5 cents a pound.] The outcome of these disputes have often resulted in legal agreements that alter the way the company interacts and negotiates contracts with its suppliers and how it does business with the public it serves.
breach of contractdispute between BK and its Israeli franchise erupted into a geopolitical conflagration involving Muslimand Jewish groups on multiple continents,cite web |url=http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/11939/edition_id/230/format/html/displaystory.html |title=Dumping West Bank store puts Burger King in a pickle |author=Julia Goldman |work=The Jewish News Weekly |date= 1999-09-01|accessdate=2007-10-01 |quote=When the Burger King Corp. pulled its name from a franchise in the West Bank settlement of Ma'aleh Adumim on Thursday of last week, it claimed the reason was breach of contract. ] cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/middle-east/israel/394208-1.html |title=Jews Plan to Boycott Burger King. |author=Israel Faxx news report |publisher= [http://www.israelfaxx.com/ Israel Faxx] |date= 1999-08-30|accessdate=2008-06-04 |quote=The Zionist Organization of America is considering calling for a worldwide Jewish boycott against Burger King, to protest its surrender to Arab threats and the closure of its branch in Ma'aleh Adumim.] cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/middle-east/israel/711850-1.html |title=U.S. Muslims Call For Burger King Boycott. |author=Candice Williams |publisher= [http://www.israelfaxx.com/ Israel Faxx] |date= 2007-07-07|accessdate=2008-06-27 |quote=A Washington-based Muslim group, American Muslims for Jerusalem, says it is calling on Muslims and Arabs to immediately boycott the fast food restaurant chain, Burger King, for a second time. In a news conference, the group says the Miami-based fast food] with calls for international boycotts from both sides as well as threats from members of the Arab Leagueto revoke Burger King's business licenses in Islamic countries.cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/eating-drinking-places/4284932-1.html |title=Middle East Muddle |author=Megan Steintrager |work=Nations Restaurant News |date= 2000-11-05|accessdate=2008-06-24 |quote=... and the Arab League has threatened to revoke contracts for 84 Burger Kings throughout the Middle East.] A second issue with members of the Islamic faith regarding the interpretation of promotional artwork on a dessert package in the United Kingdom raised issues of cultural sensitivity,cite web |url=http://news.scotsman.com/latestnews/Burger-King-recalls-sacrilegious-desserts.2662082.jp |title=Burger King recalls 'sacrilegious' desserts |author=John Innes |work= The Scotsman|date= 2005-09-07|accessdate=2008-05-10 |quote=The offending lid was spotted in a branch in Park Royal last week by business development manager Rashad Akhtar, 27, of High Wycombe.] and, with the former example, posed a larger question about the lengths which companies must go to insure the smooth operation of their businesses in the communities they serve.
Charitable contributions and services
Burger King has several of its own in-house national
charitable organizations and programs. The first is the Have It Your Way Foundation, a U.S.-based non-profit, 501(c)(3)corporation with multiple focuses on hunger alleviation, disease prevention and community education through scholarship programs at colleges in the US. The other charitable organization is the McLamore Foundation, also a non-profit, 501(c)(3) corporation that provides scholarships to students in the US and its territories. [cite web |url=http://www.bk.com/companyinfo/community/hiywfoundation.aspx |title=the HIYW foundation |author= |publisher=Burger King Holdings |date= |accessdate=2007-09-26 ] [cite web |url=http://www.bk.com/companyinfo/community/mclamore.aspx |title=the McLamore Foundation |author= |publisher=Burger King Holdings |date= |accessdate=2007-09-26 ] Additionally, there is an optional literacy program that partners individual restaurants with community schools in the US.
In various regions across the United States, Burger King and its franchises have aligned themselves with several charitable organizations that support research and treatment of juvenile
cancer. Each year these coalitions hold a fund raising drive called A Chance for Kids, which has the restaurants selling lottery-style scratch cardsfor $1. Each card produces a winning prize that is usually a food or beverage product, but includes items such as shopping sprees or trips. In the Northeast, BK has affiliated itself with the Major League Baseballteam the Boston Red Soxand its charitable foundation, the Jimmy Fund. The group runs the contest in Boston, in the New York cityarea it operates the contest in association with the Burger King Children's Charities of Metro New York and the New York Yankees. Funds raised in these areas go to support the Dana-Farber Cancer Institutelocated in Boston. [cite web |url=http://www.jimmyfund.org/cor/special/burger/default.html |title=Burger King A Chance for Kids |author= |publisher=The Jimmy Fund |date= 2007-07-01|accessdate=2007-09-28 ] [cite web |url=http://www.jimmyfund.org/abo/press/pressreleases/2002/072602b.asp |title=Burger King Children's Charities of Metro New York to help Small Fries become Large Fries |author= |work=The Jimmy Fund |date= 2002-07-26|accessdate=2008-03-29] In Nebraska, the company is affiliated with the [http://www.lizslegacy.com/html/home/index.asp Liz's Legacy Cancer Fund] [http://www.beatcancerforkids.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=18&Itemid=44 BK Beat Cancer for Kids] program at the UNMC Eppley Cancer Center at the University of Nebraska Medical Centerin Omaha. [cite web |url=http://www.beatcancerforkids.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=15&Itemid=30 |title=BK Beat Cancer for Kids |author= |publisher=University of Nebraska Medical Center |date= |accessdate=2008-03-09 |quote=The BK Beat Cancer for Kids Program was established through the generosity of Burger King Restaurants and is one of many outreach and fundraising programs benefiting Liz’s Legacy , the Fund to Advance Cancer Research at the UNMC Eppley Cancer Center.] In the Pittsburgh region it funded the establishment of the Burger King Cancer Caring Center, a support organization for the patients, families and friends of cancer patients. [cite web |url=http://www.cancercaring.org/aboutbkccc.html |title=Burger King Cancer Caring Center |author= |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2007-09-28 ]
When the company began, its menu consisted predominantly of
hamburgers, French fries, soft drinks, and desserts. In 1957, BK added its signature item, the Whopper. This quarter pound hamburgerwas created by Burger King founders James McLamoreand David Edgertonas a way to differentiate BK from other burger outlets at the time. The sandwich became famous enough that BK eventually adopted the motto "Home of the Whopper."
One of Donald N. Smith's first changes to the menu was the addition of the Burger King Specialty sandwich line in 1979, which significantly expanded the breadth of the BK menu with many non-hamburger sandwiches including new chicken and fish offerings. The new specialty sandwich line was one of the first attempts to target a specific demographic, in this case adults 18-34, members of which would be willing spend more on a higher quality product.cite book |title=Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age |author=John A. Jakle |coauthors=Keith A. Sculle |others=Douglas Pappas |publisher=JHU Press |year=1999 |isbn=080186920X |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=0nYcgnWKWXgC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=burger+king+specialty+sandwiches+-nutrition+-subservient+-fries&source=web&ots=QB_8C1kT31&sig=WEY-ls2LOHOTMmPLACVkhQj8Ns8
page=119 |quote=To appeal to the growing adult market, "Specialty Sandwiches" were introduced, including chicken, fish and ham and cheese.] One of Smith's other significant contribution to the menu was the addition of a breakfast product line, which until this time was not a market Burger King had entered. Besides the addition of the
Croissan'Wichin 1983, the breakfast menu remained almost identical to the McDonald's offerings until a menu revamp in 1985. This expansion introduced BK's Am Express product line which added new products such as French toaststicks and Mini-muffins.
As the company expanded both inside and outside the US, it introduced localized versions of its products that conform to regional tastes and cultural or religious beliefs. International variations add ingredients such as
teriyakior beetrootand fried eggto the Whopper, [cite web |url=http://www.worldsgreatesthamburgers.com/index/content/id/8 |title=the History of Burgers |author= |publisher= [http://www.worldsgreatesthamburgers.com worldsgreatesthamburgers.com] |date= |accessdate=2008-03-28 |quote=The Hungry Jacks "Aussie Burger" has tomato, lettuce, onion, cheese, bacon, beetroot, egg, ketchup and a meat patty.] beer in Germany, Italy and Spain, and halalor kosher products in the middle East and Israel.cite web |url=http://www.halaljournal.com/artman/publish_php/article_894.php |title=Prima-Agri to Produce Halal Beef for Regional Fast Food Chains |author= |work=The Halal Journal |date=200-10-10 |accessdate=2007-10-01] [cite press release |url=http://www.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20040802080316 |title=Burger King® UAE launches the king of all burgers across the UAE |author=Olayan press release |publisher=Zawya.com |date=2004-05-02 |accessdate=2007-10-01] cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/wholesale-trade/merchant-wholesalers-nondurable/621140-1.html |title=The Kosher Whopper Boosts Burger Sales in Israel. |author= |publisher=AllBusinees.com |date=2000-07-01 |accessdate=2007-10-01 ] To generate additional sales, BK will occasionally introduce limited time offers (LTOs) that are versions of its core products or new products intended for either long or short term sales. Items such as the Texas Double Whopper and various sandwiches made with mushroomsand Swiss cheesehave been rotated in and out of its menu for several years while products such as its 1993 offering, a MeatloafSpecialty Sandwich and limited table servicealong with special dinnerplatters, failed to generate interest and were discontinued.cite web |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50F14F83E550C7B8EDDA10894DF494D81 |title=As Business Gets Lean, a Big King Dares Big Mac |author=Glenn Collins |work= The New York Times|date= 1997-08-28|accessdate=2007-08-21 ]
In order to appeal to as many demographic groups as possible and better compete with its QSR competitor
Wendy's, Burger King added a multi-tiered value menuin 1993 with items priced at 99¢, $1.99 and $2.99 ( USD). The project called, Operation Phoenix, was an attempt to add not only a value menu but a line of value meals. The tiered menu was replaced with a more standard value menu in 1998, while the value meals were separated into their own menu segemnt. [cite web |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/prnewswire/access/27375113.html?dids=27375113:27375113&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Mar+16%2C+1998&author=&pub=PR+Newswire&desc=Burger+King+Debuts+New+99+Cent+'Great+Tastes'+Menu&pqatl=google |title=Burger King Debuts New 99¢ 'Great Tastes' Menu |author=AP Wire |work= The Kansas City Star|date= 1998-03-17|accessdate=2007-10-09 ] This value menu featured seven products: Whopper Jr., 5 piece Chicken Tenders, a bacon cheeseburger, medium sized french fries, medium soft drink, medium onion rings and small shake. In 2002 and 2006, BK revamped its value menu adding and removing several different products such as chili and its Rodeo Cheeseburger. [cite web |url=http://www.bizjournals.com/southflorida/stories/2002/09/09/daily63.html |title=Burger King promotes new menu |author= |work= South Florida Business Journal|date= 2002-09-12|accessdate=2007-10-09 ] Many of these items have since been discontinued, modified or relegated to a regional menu option.cite web |url=http://www.bk.com/Nutrition/PDFs/regional_menu.pdf |format=PDF| title=US Regional Menu Nutritional Brochure |author=BKC publication |publisher=Burger King Holdings |month=July | year=2007 |accessdate=2007-10-24] To better appeal to a more adult palate and demographic, BK introduced several new products to its menu in 2003, including several new or revamped chicken products, a new salad line and its BK Joe brand of coffee. Some of the new products, including its Enormous Omelet Sandwichline and the BK Stackerline, brought negative attention due the large portion size, amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats.cite web |url=http://www.komoradio.com/news/archive/4191016.html |title=Burger King Launches Line Of Jumbo High-Rise Burgers |author=Herb Weisbaum |publisher=KOMO Radio ( Seattle, WA) |date= 2006-07-06|accessdate=2007-10-24] cite web |url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2005-03-27-burger-king_x.htm | title=Burger King to offer whopper of a breakfast sandwich |author=Bruce Horovitz |work= USA TODAY|date= 2005-05-03|accessdate=2007-10-24] cite web |url=http://www.spokesmanreview.com/blogs/healthbeat/archive.asp?postID=761 |title=Word of the day: Meat'Normous |work=The Spokesman Review ( Spokane, WA) |author=Heather Lalley |date= 2005-09-06|accessdate=2007-09-01] Many of these products feature higher quality ingredients like whole chicken breast, Angus beef, natural cheeses such as cheddar and pepper jack. [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_35_38/ai_n6189447 |title= Chains beef up with Black Angus |author=The Gale Group |work=Nation's Restaurant News |date= 2004-08-04|accessdate=2007-07-16 ] cite web |url=http://www.clickz.com/showPage.html?page=3404771 |title=Burger King's Back With New Buzz |author=Kevin Newcomb |publisher=ClickZ.com |date= 2004-10-07|accessdate=2007-06-10 ] Again, not all these products, such as the BK Baguette line, have met corporate sales expectations.cite web |url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2004-03-21-burgerking_x.htm |title=Burger King zaps menu, image |author=Bruce Horovitz |work= USA Today|date= 2004-03-22|accessdate=2007-09-26 ]
Burger King has employed varied advertising programs, both successful and unsuccessful, since its foundation in 1954. During the 1970s, output included a memorable jingle, the inspiration for its current mascot
the Burger Kingand several well known and parodied sloganssuch as "Have it your way " and "It takes two hands to hold a Whopper".cite web |url=http://www.bk.com/companyinfo/content/corporation/history.html |title=Marketing and Advertising History |author=BKC publication |publisher=Burger King Holdings |date= 2007-03-12|accessdate=2007-10-24] cite web |url=http://shephyken.blogspot.com/2006/05/hold-pickles-hold-lettuce-special.html |title=Customer service and more |author=Shep Hyken |publisher=BlogSpot |date= 2006-05-26|accessdate=2007-09-26] Burger King introduced the first attack adin the fast food industry with the help of then unknown Sarah Michelle Gellarin 1981. The television spot, which claimed BK burgers were larger than competitor McDonald's, so enraged executives at McDonald's parent company, they sued all parties involved.cite web |url=http://www.nndb.com/people/511/000023442/ |title=Sarah Michelle Gellar |author= |publisher=NNDB.com |date= |accessdate=2007-10-02 ] [cite web |url=http://www.celebritypro.com/bio/sarah_michelle_gellar_bio.htm |title=Sarah Michelle Gellar Bio |author= |publisher=CelebrityPro.com |date= |accessdate=2007-10-02 ] Starting in the early 1980s and running through approximately 2001, BK engaged a series of ad agencies that produced many unsuccessful slogans and programs, including its biggest advertising flop " Where's Herb?".cite web |url=http://www.time.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,960538,00.html |title=Herb Comes Out of Hiding |author= |work= Time Magazine|date=1986-02-03 |accessdate=2004-10-24] [cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_v20/ai_4083228 |title=Herb falls flat, but Wendy's breaks another winner |author=Mark Schoifet |work=Nation's Restaurant News |date=1986-01-01 |accessdate=2007-10-24]
Burger King was a pioneer in the advertising practice known as the
product tie-inwith a successful partnering with George Lucas' Lucasfilm, Ltd. to promote the 1977 movie Star Warsfilm " Star Wars" (later renamed "") in which BK sold a set of glasses featuring the main characters from the film. This promotion was one of the first in the fast food industry and set the pattern that continues to the present. BK's early success in the field was overshadowed by a 1982 deal between McDonald's and the Walt Disney Companyto promote Disney's animated films beginning in the mid 1980s and running through the early 1990s. In 1994 Disney switched from McDonald's to Burger King, signing a ten film promotional contract which would include such top ten films as "Aladdin" (1992), "Beauty and the Beast" (1991), " The Lion King" (1994) and " Toy Story" (1995).cite web |url=http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Burger-King-Corporation-Company-History.html |title=Burger King Corporation, Turnaround under Grand Met in the 1990s |author= |publisher= [http://www.fundinguniverse.com/ FundingUniverse.com] |date= |accessdate=2007-11-26] A partnership in association with the Pokémonfranchise at the height of its popularity in 1999 was one of the most successful in the industry, rivaled only by McDonald's/Ty Beanie Babiescross-promotion in 1999-2000. [cite web |url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/KIDS+SWARM+BURGER+KING+AS+POKEMON-MANIA+STRIKES.(News)(Statistical...-a083629023" |title=Kids swarm Burger King as Pokémon-mania strikes |author=Jason Kandel |work= Los Angeles Daily News|date=1999-11-12 |accessdate=2007-12-02]
Shortly after the acquisition of Burger King by
TPG Capital, L.P.in 2002, its newly hired CEOBradley (Brad) Blum set about turning around fortunes of the company by initiating an overhaul its flailing advertising programs. One of the first moves by the company was to reinstate its famous "Have it your way" slogan as the corporate motto. BK handed the effort off to its new advertising agency, Miami-based Crispin Porter + Bogusky(abbreviated as CP+B). CP+B was known for having a hip, subversive tack when creating campaigns for its clients, exactly what BK was looking for. [cite web |url=http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=14482 |title=Burger King Corporation Selects Crispin Porter + Bogusky As Lead Creative Advertising Agency|publisher=HispanicBusiness.com| date=2006-01-23] One of CP+B strategies was to revive the Burger King character used during BKs 1970s/1980s Burger King Kingdomchildren's advertising campaign as a caricatured variation now simply called "the King". The farcical nature of "the Burger King" centered advertisements inspired an internet memewhere the King is photoshopped into unusual situations that are either comical or menacing, many times followed with the phrase "Where is your God now?".
Additionally, CP+B created a series new characters like
the Subservient Chickenand the faux nu metalband Coq Roqfeatured in a series of viral web-based advertisements on sites such as MySpaceand various BK corporate pages to compliment the various television and print promotional campaigns. [cite web |url=http://www.mad.co.uk/Main/Home/Articles/be50c1fbeab44225a611af5edb1d4ae7/Burger-King-in-MySpace-campaign.html |title=Burger King in MySpace campaign |publisher=Mad.co.uk |date= 2006-05-13|accessdate=2007-08-27 |type=Fee required] [cite web |url=http://marketingtoday.blogspot.com/2005/07/burger-king-goes-tasteless.html |title=Burger King Goes Tasteless |author=Peter Delegge |publisher=MarketingToday.com |date= 2005-07-31|accessdate=2007-08-25] [cite web |url=http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/advertising/3877633-1.html |title=Burger King's Table Guests |author=Robyn Tippins |publisher=AllBusiness.com |date= 2006-08-03|accessdate=2007-08-25] One of the more unique promotions that CP+B devised was the creation of a series of three advergames for the Xbox 360. Featuring company celebrity spokesman Brooke Burke, the games sold more than 2 million copies, placing them as one of the top selling games along with an another Xbox 360 hit, " Gears of War". [cite web |url=http://www.xbox365.com/news.cgi?id=GGHHHLHurH12210217 |title=More than 2 Million Games Sold Nationwide... |author=Coola |publisher= [http://www.xbox365.com/ XBox365.com] |date= 2006-12-21|accessdate=2007-10-27] These innovative ad campaigns, coupled with other new promotions and a series of new product introductions, drew considerable positive and negative attention to BK and helped TPG and its partners realize about $367 million in dividends. [cite web |url=http://www.cpbgroup.com/ |title=CP+B website, "://Work" section. |author= |publisher= Crispin Porter + Bogusky|date= |accessdate=2007-10-24] [cite web |url=http://www.whatsnextblog.com/archives/2004/04/burger_king_has_fun_with_subse.asp |title=Burger King Has Fun With Subservient Chicken Viral Campaign |author=B.L. Ochman |date= 2004-04-12|accessdate=2007-08-25] [cite web |url=http://blogs.business2.com/madisonavenuewest/2007/04/is_burger_king_.html |title=Is Burger King Perverting Children? |author=Evelyn Nussenbaum |publisher=Madisdon Avenue*West |date= 2007-04-23|accessdate=2007-08-25]
Evolution of the company logo
The first logo that Burger King used is identified simply as the "Sitting King" logo; the first version of
the Burger Kingcharacter is shown sitting atop the of the sign holding a beverage. The sign has several versions, with the King either sitting atop a hamburger or on an inverted trapezoidwith the company name along the top and its motto "Home of the Whopper" below it; some signs did not include the King and only had the inverted trapezoid. This logo was used in one form or another until 1969 when the famous Burger King "bun halves" logo made its debut, and has continued in one form or another until the current day. As implied by its name, the logo is meant to resemble a hamburger; the logo had two orange semi-circular "buns" surrounding the name, which was the "meat" of the logo. In 1994 BK updated the logo with a graphical tightening, replacing the aging "bulging" font with a smoother font with rounded edges. In addition, all secondary signing, such as roof and directional signs, was also updated with new rounded font.
In 1999, BK again revised its logo. The new Burger King logo is a stylized version of the original "bun halves" logo. BK changed the color of the restaurant's name from red to burgundy, while leaving them sandwiched between two yellow bun halves. The new logo also tilts the bun halves and the
fonton an axis, has a smaller "bun" motif and wraps the burger with a blue crescent whipping around the buns giving it a more circularappearance. Most restaurants did not acquire newer signs with the new logo, menus, and drive-thru ordering speakers until 2001. Again all secondary signage was updated with the new logo and sharp type face, and all sign posts were repainted to match the blue coloring of the new crescent from their original black. [cite web |url=http://www.logoblog.org/burger-king-logo.php |title=Burger King Logo |author= |publisher=LogoBlog.org |date= |accessdate=2008-03-10 |quote=In 1969, Burger King established its famous Burger King “bun halves” logo that lasted till early 1990s.] [cite press release |url=http://www.bison.com/press/pr4-14bk.html |title=Burger King Shares Extensive Transformation Plans |author=BK press release |publisher=BizJournals on Bison.com |date= 1999-04-14|accessdate=2007-10-09 ]
The Hungry Jack's logo is based on the Burger King "bun halves" design. HJ currently uses a variation of the second generation "bun halves" logo, featuring the smoother font used in the Burger King logo from 1994. Currently, the only region that BK uses a non-Latin text logo is in the Middle East. In those Arabic speaking countries the logo is mirrored and uses Arabic characters; otherwise the logo is identical to the "blue crescent" logo used in the west.
Burger King has a longstanding presence at U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force installations worldwide, dating back to the 1980s under a contract with
Army and Air Force Exchange Service. Today, while other chains such as Taco Bell, Popeye'sand Subway have a presence on military bases, virtually every major Army and Air Force installation hosts a BK restaurant.
;Countries currently with Burger King locations:
* - known as
* - Reentered March 2008
** HKG (漢堡王)
* - AAFES
* (برغر كينغ)
;Countries formerly with Burger King restaurants:
* - Burger King branded restaurants operated 1997-2003 violating franchise agreements, sold and rebranded to Australian Burger King franchise
Hungry Jack'sfollowing legal action
* - Burger King operated in
Helsinkifor a short period in 1980s
* - Burger King decided to leave France in 1997 and closed their 39 French outlets in 1998
* - Burger King operated in
Greecefor a short period in the early 1990s
* - Burger King left both
St. Croixand St. Thomas in 1997
* - Burger King operated in
Kievfor a short period in 2006.
* - Burger King decided to leave
Other hamburger QSR vendors:
Jack in the Box
Wendy's(nearest competitor) [cite web |url=http://www.hoovers.com/wendy's/--ID__11621--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml |title=Wendy's International, Inc. |author=Joe Bramhall |publisher=Hoovers.com |date= |accessdate=2007-09-26 ]
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3473728/ Burger King & Food Safety]
* [http://wss.foodinnovation.biz/PotatoPro/NewsBurgerKing.aspx Burger King News]
* [http://www.healthyweightforum.org/eng/calorie-counter/burger_king_calories/ How many calories does Burger King food have?]
* [http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/54/54531.html Yahoo! Burger King Corporation Company Profile] at Yahoo! Finance
* [http://www.hoovers.com/burger-king/--ID__54531--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml Burger King Corporation Company Profile] at Hoovers.com
* [http://www.progressiveboink.com/archive/bkkidsclub.html Article on BK Kids Club no ProgressiveBoink.com]
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groupstyle = padding:0.35em 1.0em; background:#f3b044; line-height:1.1em;
group1 = Corporate
list1 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerking.com BK Corporate] ·w [http://investor.bk.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=87140&p=irol-IRHome Investor Relations] nowrap end
group2 = Asia
list2 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerkingjapan.co.jp/ Japan] ·w [http://www.burgerking.co.kr/ Korea] ·w [http://www.burgerking.dachan.com/ Taiwan] nowrap end
group3 = Europe
list3 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerking.de/ Germany] ·w [http://www.burgerking.it/ Italy] ·w [http://www.burgerking.nl/ Netherlands] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.pl/ Poland] ·w [http://www.burgerking.es/ Spain] ·w [http://www.burgerking.se/ Sweden] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.tr/ Turkey] ·w [http://www.burgerking.co.uk/ UK/Ireland] nowrap end
group4 = Middle East
list4 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerking.co.il/ Israel] ·w [http://www.burgerking-me.com/landing.asp UAE/Saudi Arabia/Jordan] nowrap end
group5 = North America
list5 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerking.ca/ Canada] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.mx/ Mexico] ·w [http://www.bk.com/ USA] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.sv/ El Salvador] nowrap end
group6 = Oceania
list6 = nowrap begin [http://www.hungryjacks.com.au/ Australia] (as
Hungry Jack's)·w [http://www.burgerking.co.nz/ New Zealand] nowrap end
group7 = South America
list7 = nowrap begin [http://www.burgerking.com.ar/ Argentina] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.br/ Brazil] ·w [http://www.burgerking.cl/ Chile] ·w [http://www.burgerking.com.pe/ Peru] nowrap end
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