Santa Fe, New Mexico


Santa Fe, New Mexico
City of Santa Fe
—  Capital city  —
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís
Santa Fe's Downtown Area

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): The City Different
Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico
Coordinates: 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″W / 35.66722°N 105.96444°W / 35.66722; -105.96444Coordinates: 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″W / 35.66722°N 105.96444°W / 35.66722; -105.96444
Country United States
State New Mexico
County Santa Fe County
Founded ca. 1607-8
Government
 - Mayor David Coss
Area
 - Capital city 37.4 sq mi (96.9 km2)
 - Land 37.3 sq mi (96.7 km2)
 - Water 0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation 7,260 ft (2,134 m)
Population (2010 [1])
 - Capital city 67,947
 - Density 1,927/sq mi (744/km2)
 Metro 144,170 (Santa Fe MSA)
184,416 (Santa Fe-Espanola CSA)
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 - Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP codes 87500-87599
Area code(s) 505
FIPS code 35-70500
GNIS feature ID 0936823
Website santafenm.gov

Santa Fe (English pronunciation: /ˌsæntəˈfeɪ/; (Tewa: Ogha Po'oge, Navajo: Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of Santa Fe County. Santa Fe (literally 'holy faith' in Spanish) had a population of 67,947 in the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Santa Fe-Española Combined Statistical Area. The city's full name when founded was "La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís" ("The Royal Town of the Holy Faith of St. Francis of Assisi").[2]

Contents

History

Spain and Mexico

Santa Fe settlers are “churlish types” who are “accustomed to live apart from each other, as neither fathers nor sons associate with each other."
—Governor Fermín de Mendinueta, c. 1776.[3]

The City of Santa Fe was originally occupied by a number of Pueblo Indian villages with founding dates between 1050 to 1150. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 C.E. A Native American group built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today’s Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west; the village was called Ogapoge.[4] The Santa Fe River provided water to people living there. The Santa Fe River is a seasonal waterway which was a year round stream until the 1700s.[5] As of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers.[6]

Don Juan de Oñate led the first effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fé de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's third Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, however, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1608, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he made it the capital of the province, which it has almost constantly remained,[7] making it the oldest capital city in what is the modern United States. (Jamestown, Virginia, is of similar vintage (1607) but is no longer a capital.) Santa Fe is at least the third oldest surviving American city founded by European colonists, behind the oldest St. Augustine, Florida (1565). (Although Santa Fe is not one of the oldest continuously occupied cities, as from 1680 – 1692 it was abandoned due to Indian raids. A few settlements were founded prior to St. Augustine but all failed, including the original Pensacola colony in West Florida, founded by Tristán de Luna y Arellano in 1559, with the area abandoned in 1561 due to hurricanes, famine and warring tribes. Fort Caroline, founded by the French in 1564 in what is today Jacksonville, Florida only lasted a year before being obliterated by the Spanish in 1565.)

Santa Fe, 1846–1847

Except for the years 1680–1692, when, as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the native Pueblo people drove the Spaniards out of the area known as New Mexico, later to be reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas, Santa Fe remained Spain's provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. In 1824 the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fé de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution.

United States

I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported. The country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy. The streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime. They are the poorest looking people I ever saw. They subsist principally on mutton, onions and red pepper.
—letter from an American traveler, 1849 [8]
The re-construction of the St. Francis Cathedral with the plaza visible (1885)

The Republic of Texas had claimed Santa Fe as part of the eastern portion of Texas along the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, Texas, with the aim of gaining control over the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Santa Fe Expedition the force was poorly prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into the city to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Colonel Alexander William Doniphan under the command of Kearny recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule.[9]

Santa Fe, 1882. The railroad era.

In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived in Santa Fe and began construction of Saint Francis Cathedral. For a few days in March 1862, the Confederate flag of General Henry Sibley flew over Santa Fe, until he was defeated by Union troops.

On October 21,1887, "The Padre of Isleta", Anton Docher went to New Mexico where he was ordained as a priest in the St Francis Cathedral of Santa Fe by Jean-Baptiste Salpointe. After a few years spent in Santa Fe,[10] Bernalillo and in Taos,[11] he arrived in Isleta on December 28, 1891. He wrote an interesting ethnological article published in The Santa Fé Magazine on June,1913, in which he describes the early 20th century's life in the Pueblos.[12]

Santa Fe was originally envisioned as an important stop on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. But as the tracks progressed into New Mexico, the civil engineers decided that it was more practical to go through Lamy, a town in Santa Fe County to the south of Santa Fe. A branch line was completed from Lamy to Santa Fe in 1880[13] and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad extended the narrow gauge Chili Line from the nearby city of Espanola to Santa Fe in 1886,[14] but the result of bypassing Santa Fe was a gradual economic decline. This was reversed in part through the creation of a number of resources for the arts and archaeology, notably the School of American Research, created in 1907 under the leadership of the prominent archaeologist Edgar Lee Hewett. The first airplane to fly over Santa Fe was piloted by Rose Dugan, carrying Vera von Blumenthal as passenger. Together they started the development of the Pueblo Indian pottery industry, a major contribution to the founding of the annual Santa Fe Indian Market.

In 1912, New Mexico became the United States of America's 47th state, with Santa Fe as its capital.

20th century

1921 Fiesta parade, Santa Fe. Palace of the Governors in background.

1912 Plan

In 1912 the town had only five thousand people as civic leaders designed and enacted a sophisticated city plan that incorporated elements of the City Beautiful movement, the city planning movement, and the German historic preservation movement. It anticipated limited future growth, considered the scarcity of water, and recognized the future prospects of suburban development on the outskirts. The planners foresaw conflicts between preservationists and scientific planners. They set forth the principle that historic streets and structures be preserved and that new development must be harmonious with the city's character.[15]

Artists and tourists

The mainline of the railroad bypassed Santa Fe, and it lost population. However artists and writers and retirees were attracted to cultural richness of the area, the beauty of the landscapes and its dry climate. Local leaders took the opportunity to promote the city's heritage making it a tourist attraction. The city sponsored bold architectural restoration projects and erected new buildings according to traditional techniques and styles, thus creating the "Santa Fe style." Edgar L. Hewett, founder and first director of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, was a leading promoter. He began the Santa Fe Fiesta in 1919 and the Southwest Indian Fair in 1922 (now known as the Indian Market). When he tried to attract a summer program for Texas women, many artists rebelled saying the city should not promote artificial tourism at the expense of its artistic culture. The writers and artists formed the Old Santa Fe Association and defeated the plan. The old "mud city" – which short-sighted modernizers laughed at for its adobe houses – was transformed into a city proud of its peculiarities and its blend of tradition and modernity.[16]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.4 square miles (96.9 km2), of which, 37.3 square miles (96.7 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km2) of it (0.21%) is water.

Santa Fe is located at 7,199 feet (2134 m) above sea level, making it the highest state capital in the United States. [17]

Climate

Santa Fe belongs to the cool semi-arid climate zone (Koppen BSk),[18] with cool winters, and hot summers. The 24-hour average temperature in the city ranges from 29.3 °F (−1.5 °C) in January to 69.8 °F (21.0 °C) in July. Evenings are much cooler than afternoons due to the aridity and elevation, with most days of the year averaging above a 30 °F (17 °C) difference between the high and low. Snowfall is typically light, and due to the high elevation and low latitude, snow does not linger on the ground for long. The city usually receives 6 to 8 snowfalls a year between November and April. Heaviest rainfall occurs in July and August.

Climate data for Santa Fe, New Mexico
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 65
(18)
73
(23)
77
(25)
84
(29)
96
(36)
100
(38)
100
(38)
96
(36)
94
(34)
89
(32)
75
(24)
65
(18)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 43.0
(6.1)
48.8
(9.3)
56.2
(13.4)
64.2
(17.9)
73.1
(22.8)
83.0
(28.3)
85.6
(29.8)
82.9
(28.3)
76.8
(24.9)
66.3
(19.1)
52.4
(11.3)
43.7
(6.5)
64.7
Average low °F (°C) 15.5
(−9.2)
20.8
(−6.2)
25.8
(−3.4)
31.6
(−0.2)
40.1
(4.5)
48.9
(9.4)
53.9
(12.2)
52.7
(11.5)
46.1
(7.8)
35.2
(1.8)
23.6
(−4.7)
15.9
(−8.9)
34.2
Record low °F (°C) −14
(−26)
−18
(−28)
−6
(−21)
10
(−12)
23
(−5)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
36
(2)
26
(−3)
5
(−15)
−12
(−24)
−17
(−27)
−18
(−28)
Precipitation inches (mm) 0.60
(15.2)
0.50
(12.7)
0.84
(21.3)
0.72
(18.3)
1.27
(32.3)
1.24
(31.5)
2.25
(57.2)
2.13
(54.1)
1.67
(42.4)
1.30
(33)
1.05
(26.7)
0.65
(16.5)
14.22
(361.2)
Snowfall inches (cm) 5.0
(12.7)
5.4
(13.7)
4.3
(10.9)
1.6
(4.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.4
(1)
2.0
(5.1)
6.9
(17.5)
25.8
(65.5)
Source no. 1: NOAA (temps and precip 1971–2000) [19]
Source no. 2: Western Regional Climactic Center (snow, 1890–1972),[20] Weather.com (records) [21]

Santa Fe style and “The City Different”

This year we are making a studied conscious effort not to be studied or conscious. Santa Fe is now one of the most interesting art centers in the world and you, O Dude of the East, are privileged to behold the most sophisticated group in the country gamboling freely... And Santa Fe, making you welcome, will enjoy itself hugely watching the Dude as he gazes. Be sure as you stroll along looking for the quaint and picturesque that you are supplying your share of those very qualities to Santa Fe, the City Incongruous... Be yourself, even if it includes synthetic cowboy clothes, motor goggles and a camera.
—1928 Santa Fe Fiesta Program[22]
Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, 1869
Palace of the Governors, established 1609–10

The Spanish laid out the city according to the “Laws of the Indies”, town planning rules and ordinances which had been established in 1573 by King Philip II. The fundamental principle was that the town be laid out around a central plaza. On its north side was the Palace of the Governors, while on the East was the church that later became the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi.

An important style implemented in planning the city was the radiating grid of streets centering from the central Plaza. Many were narrow and included small alley-ways, but each gradually merged into the more casual byways of the agricultural perimeter areas. As the city grew throughout the 19th century, the building styles evolved too, so that by Statehood in 1912, the eclectic nature of the buildings caused it to look like “Anywhere USA”.[23] The city government realized that the economic decline, which had started more than twenty years before with the railway moving west and the Federal government closing down Fort Marcy, might be reversed by the promotion of tourism.

To achieve that goal, the city created the idea of imposing a unified building style – the Spanish Pueblo Revival look, which was based on work done restoring the Palace of the Governors. The sources for this style came from the many defining features of local architecture: vigas and canales from many old adobe homes, churches built many years before and found in the Pueblos, and the earth-toned, adobe-colored look of the exteriors.

After 1912 this style became official: all buildings were to be built using these elements. By 1930 there was a broadening to include the “Territorial”, a style of the pre-statehood period which included the addition of portals and white-painted window and door pediments. The City had become “Different”. However, “in the rush to pueblofy”[24] Santa Fe, the city lost a great deal of its architectural history and eclecticism”. Among the architects most closely associated with this “new” style is John Gaw Meem.

Recently, Santa Fe has seen a increase in suburban sprawl. Homes are territorial or pueblo style and stuccoed with flat roofs

By an ordinance passed in 1957, new and rebuilt buildings, especially those in designated historic districts, must exhibit a Spanish Territorial or Pueblo style of architecture, with flat roofs and other features suggestive of the area's traditional adobe construction. However, many contemporary houses in the city are built from lumber, concrete blocks, and other common building materials, but with stucco surfaces (sometimes referred to as "faux-dobe", pronounced as one word: "foe-dough-bee") reflecting the historic style.

In a September 2003 report by Angelou Economics, it was determined that Santa Fe should focus their economic development efforts in the following seven industries: Arts and Culture, Design, Hospitality, Conservation Technologies, Software Development, Publishing and New Media, and Outdoor Gear and Apparel. Three secondary targeted industries for Santa Fe to focus development in are health care, retiree services, and food & beverage. Angelou Economics recognized three economic signs that Santa Fe’s economy was at risk of long term deterioration. These signs were; a lack of business diversity which tied the city too closely to fluctuations in tourism and the government sector; the beginnings of urban sprawl, as a result of Santa Fe County growing faster than the city, meaning people will move further outside the city to find land and lower costs for housing; and an aging population coupled with a rapidly shrinking population of individuals under 45 years old, making Santa Fe less attractive to business recruits.

The seven industries recommended by the report “represent a good mix for short, mid, and long-term economic cultivation.” [25]

In 2005/2006, a consultant group from Portland, Oregon, prepared a “Santa Fe Downtown Vision Plan” to examine the long-range needs for the “downtown” area, roughly bounded by the Paseo de Peralta on the north, south and east sides and by Guadalupe Street on the west. In consultation with members of community groups, who were encouraged to provide feedback, the consultants made a wide range of recommendations in the plan now published for public and City review.[26]

Government

Santa Fe City officials[27][28]
Mayor David Coss
Mayor Pro-Tem Rebecca Wurzburger
City manager Robert Romero
City attorney Geno Zamora
City clerk Yolanda Y. Vigil, CMC
Municipal Judge Ann Yalman
Chief of police Raymond J. Rael
Fire chief Barbara Salas
City councilors Pattie Bushee,
Chris Calvert,
Rosemary Romero,
Rebecca Wurzburger,
Miguel Chavez,
Carmichael Dominguez,
Matthew E. Ortiz,
Ronald S. Trujillo

The City of Santa Fe is a charter city.[29] It is governed by a mayor-council system. The city is divided into four electoral districts, each represented by two councilors. Councilors are elected to staggered four-year terms and one councilor from each district is elected every two years.[29]:Article VI

The municipal judgeship is an elected position and a requirement of the holder is that they be a member of the state bar. The judge is elected to four-year terms.[29]:Article VII

The mayor is the chief executive officer of the city and is a member of the governing body. The mayor has numerous powers and duties, but does not vote with the councilors except to break ties.[29]:Article V Day-to-day operations of the municipality are undertaken by the city manager's office.[29]:Article VIII

Federal representation

The Joseph M. Montoya Federal Building and Post Office serves as an office for U.S. federal government operations. It also contains the primary United States Postal Service post office in the city.[30] Other post offices in the Santa Fe city limits include Coronado,[31] De Vargas Mall,[32] and Santa Fe Place Mall.[33] The U.S. Courthouse building, constructed in 1889, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.[34]

Arts and culture

The Inn at Loretto, a Pueblo Revival style building near the Plaza in Santa Fe

The city is well-known as a center for arts that reflect the multicultural character of the city; and has been designated as a UNESCO Creative City.[35]

Each Wednesday the alternative weekly newspaper, The Santa Fe Reporter, publishes information on the arts and culture of Santa Fe; and each Friday, the daily Santa Fe New Mexican publishes Pasatiempo, its long-running calendar and commentary on arts and events.

Visual art and galleries

The city and the surrounding areas have a high concentration of artists. They have come over the decades to capture on canvas and in other media the natural beauty of the landscape, the flora and the fauna. One of the most well-known New Mexico–based artists was Georgia O'Keeffe, who lived for a time in Santa Fe, but primarily in Abiquiu, a small village about 50 miles (80 km) away. The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe is devoted to exhibitions of her work and associated artists or related themes. As of early 2006, it holds over one thousand of her works in all media. O'Keeffe's friend, western nature photographer Eliot Porter, died in Santa Fe.

Canyon Road, east of the Plaza, has the highest concentration of art galleries in the city, and is a major destination for international collectors, tourists and locals. The Canyon Road galleries showcase a wide array of contemporary, Southwestern, indigenous American, and experimental art, in addition to Russian, Taos Masters, and Native American pieces.

Sculpture

Dinosaur family sculpture, south of I-25 off Cerrillos Road, 2008.

There are many outdoor sculptures, including many statues of Francis of Assisi, and several other holy figures, such as Kateri Tekakwitha. Given that Francis of Assisi was known for his love of animals it is not surprising that there are great numbers of representations of crows, bulls, elephants, livestock and other beasts, all over town. The styles run the whole spectrum from Baroque to Post-modern. Notable sculptors connected with Santa Fe include John Connell, Luis Jiménez, Rebecca Tobey and Allan Houser.

Literature

Numerous authors followed the influx of specialists in the visual arts. Well-known writers like D.H. Lawrence, Cormac McCarthy, Douglas Adams, Roger Zelazny, Alice Corbin Henderson, Mary Austin, Witter Bynner, Dan Flores, Paul Horgan, Rudolfo Anaya, George R. R. Martin, Mitch Cullin, Evan S. Connell, Richard Bradford, John Masters, Jack Schaefer, Susan Gardner, Hampton Sides and Michael McGarrity are or were residents of Santa Fe. Walker Percy lived on a dude ranch outside of Santa Fe before returning to Louisiana to begin his literary career.

Music, dance, and opera

The interior of the Crosby Theatre at the Santa Fe Opera; viewed from the mezzanine

Music and opera are well represented in Santa Fe with the annual Santa Fe Opera productions, which take place between late June and late August each year, the Santa Fe Desert Chorale and the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival which is also held at the same time, mostly in the recently refurbished movie theatre, the Lensic Theater, now a major performing arts venue. Santa Fe has its own professional ballet company, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, which performs in both cities and tours nationally and internationally. The Santa Fe Jazz and International Music Festival was also held at the Lensic Theater for several years. Santa Fe New Music is a leading national presenter of new post-classical music and presents events year-round in many venues.[36] GiG, a small performing arts center in Santa Fe, showcases jazz and world artists from all over the world year-round.[37] The city's dance scene is quite varied, including the Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, the National Dance Institute of New Mexico, Moving People Dance Theatre, and many other small ensembles. Many well-known national dance companies, including the Pacific Northwest Ballet, San Francisco Ballet, Complexions, and the New York City Ballet, have also performed at the Lensic regularly while on tour. German New Age musician Deuter lives in Santa Fe.

Museums

Santa Fe has many world-class museums. Many are located around the historic downtown Plaza or close by:

Others are located on Museum Hill[38]

Sports

The New Mexico Style were an American Basketball Association franchise founded in 2005, but reformed in Texas for the 2007–8 season as the El Paso S'ol (which folded without playing an ABA game in their new city). The Santa Fe Roadrunners were a North American Hockey League team, but moved to Kansas to become the Topeka Roadrunners. Rodeo De Santa Fe is held annually the last week of June. It is one of top 100 rodeos in the nation.[40]

Science and technology

Santa Fe has had an association with science and technology since 1943 when the town served as the gateway to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a 45 minute drive from the city. In 1984, the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) was founded to research complex systems in the physical, biological, economic, and political sciences. It hosts such Nobel laureates as Murray Gell-Mann (physics), Philip Warren Anderson (physics), and Kenneth Arrow (economics). The National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR)[41] was founded in 1994 to focus on research at the intersection among bioscience, computing, and mathematics. In the 1990s and 2000s several technology companies formed to commercialize technologies from LANL, SFI, and NCGR. This community of companies has been dubbed the "Info Mesa."

Due to the presence of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories and the Santa Fe Institute, and because of its attractiveness for visitors and an established tourist industry, Santa Fe routinely serves as a host to a variety of scientific meetings, summer schools, and public lectures, such as International q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, Santa Fe Institute's Complex Systems Summer School,[42] LANL's Center For Nonlinear Studies[43] Annual Conference, and others.

Tourism

Touch the country [of New Mexico] and you will never be the same again.
—D.H. Lawrence, c. 1917.[44]
San Miguel Chapel in Santa Fe is said to be the oldest standing church structure in the US. The adobe walls were constructed around A.D. 1610
El Santuario de Guadalupe, 100 S. Guadalupe St. (downtown), is the oldest extant shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe in the United States. [45]

After State government, tourism is a major element of the Santa Fe economy, with visitors attracted year-round by the climate and related outdoor activities (such as skiing in years of adequate snowfall; hiking in other seasons) plus cultural activities of the city and the region. Tourism information is provided by the convention and visitor bureau[46] and the chamber of commerce.[47]

Most tourist activity takes place in the historic downtown, especially on and around the Plaza, a one-block square adjacent to the Palace of the Governors, the original seat of New Mexico's territorial government since the time of Spanish colonization. Other areas include “Museum Hill”, the site of the major art museums of the city as well as the Santa Fe International Folk Art Market, which takes place each year during the second full weekend of July. The Canyon Road arts area with its galleries is also a major attraction for locals and visitors alike.

Some visitors find Santa Fe particularly attractive around the second week of September when the aspens in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains turn yellow and the skies are clear and blue. This is also the time of the annual Fiestas de Santa Fe, celebrating the "reconquering" of Santa Fe by Don Diego de Vargas, a highlight of which is the burning Zozobra ("Old Man Gloom"), a 50-foot (15 m) marionette.

Popular day-trips in the Santa Fe area include locations such as the town of Taos – about 70 mi (113 km) north of Santa Fe. The historic Bandelier National Monument and the Valles Caldera can be found about 30 mi (48 km) away. In addition, Santa Fe's ski area, Ski Santa Fe, is about 16 mi (26 km) north of the city.

Architectural highlights

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 4,846
1860 4,635 −4.4%
1870 4,756 2.6%
1880 6,635 39.5%
1890 6,185 −6.8%
1900 5,603 −9.4%
1910 5,073 −9.5%
1920 7,326 44.4%
1930 11,176 52.6%
1940 20,325 81.9%
1950 27,998 37.8%
1960 34,394 22.8%
1970 41,167 19.7%
1980 48,053 16.7%
1990 52,303 8.8%
2000 61,109 16.8%
2010 67,947 11.2%

As of the census[48] of 2000, there were 62,203 people, 27,569 households, and 14,969 families living in the city. The population density was 1,666.1 people per square mile (643.4/km2). There were 30,533 housing units at an average density of 817.8 per square mile (315.8/km2). According to the Census Bureau's 2006 American Community Survey, the racial makeup of the city was 75% White, 2.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 16.9% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 44.5% of the population.

There were 27,569 households out of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.7% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.90.

The age distribution was 20.3% under 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,392, and the median income for a family was $49,705. Males had a median income of $32,373 versus $27,431 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,454. About 9.5% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Sister cities

Santa Fe has seven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

Transportation

Air

Santa Fe is served by the Santa Fe Municipal Airport. Currently, American Eagle provides regional jet service to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, which began on June 11, 2009. An additional flight to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport was added on November 19, 2009 alongside a new flight to and from Los Angeles International Airport. Many people fly into the Albuquerque International Sunport and connect by other means to Santa Fe.[49][50]

Road

Santa Fe is located on I-25. In addition, U.S. Route 84 and U.S. Route 285 pass through the city along St. Francis Drive. NM-599 forms a limited-access road bypass around the northwestern part of the city.

In its earliest alignment (1926–1937) U.S. Route 66 ran through Santa Fe.[51]

Public transportation

Santa Fe Trails operates a number of bus routes within the city and also provides connections to regional transit.

The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail service operating in Valencia, Bernalillo (including Albuquerque), Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties. In Santa Fe County, the service uses 18 miles (29 km) of new right-of-way connecting the BNSF Railway's old transcontinental mainline to existing right-of-way in Santa Fe used by the Santa Fe Southern Railway. Santa Fe is currently served by three stations, Santa Fe Depot, South Capitol, and Santa Fe County/NM 599. A fourth station, Zia Road, is under construction and does not yet have a planned opening date.

New Mexico Park and Ride, a division of the New Mexico Department of Transportation, and the North Central Regional Transit District operate primarily weekday commuter coach/bus service to Santa Fe from Torrance, Rio Arriba, Taos, San Miguel and Los Alamos Counties in addition to shuttle services within Santa Fe connecting major government activity centers.[52][53] Prior to the Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe, New Mexico Park and Ride operated commuter coach service between Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

Rail

Along with the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, a commuter rail line serving the metropolitan areas of Albuquerque and Santa Fe, the city or its environs are served by two other railroads. The Santa Fe Southern Railway, now mostly a tourist rail experience but also carrying freight, operates excursion services out of Santa Fe as far as Lamy, 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast. The Santa Fe Southern right-of-way is one of the United States' few rails with trails. Lamy is also served by Amtrak's daily Southwest Chief for train service to Chicago, Los Angeles, and intermediate points. Passengers transiting Lamy may use a special connecting coach/van service to reach Santa Fe.

Trails

Multi-use bicycle, pedestrian, and equestrian trails are increasingly popular in Santa Fe, for both recreation and commuting. These include the Dale Ball Trails,[54] a 30-mile (48 km) network starting within two miles (3 km) of the Santa Fe Plaza; the long Santa Fe Rail Trail to Lamy; and the Santa Fe River Trail, which is in development. Santa Fe is the terminus of three National Historic Trails: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail, the Old Spanish National Historic Trail, and the Santa Fe National Historic Trail.

Education

Santa Fe Public Library

Santa Fe has 3 major High Schools:

The public schools in Santa Fe are operated by Santa Fe Public Schools, The city has three private liberal arts colleges: St. John's College, Santa Fe University of Art and Design (formerly the College of Santa Fe), and Southwestern College; plus Santa Fe Community College and the Institute of American Indian Arts.

The city has six private college preparatory high schools: Santa Fe Waldorf School,[55] St. Michael's High School, Desert Academy,[56] New Mexico School For The Deaf, Santa Fe Secondary School, and Santa Fe Preparatory School. Santa Fe is home to the Santa Fe Indian School, an off-reservation school for Native Americans. There are also several charter schools, including Monte Del Sol, the Academy for Technology and the Classics and Charter School 37. The city has many private elementary schools as well, including Santa Fe International Elementary School,[57] Rio Grande School, Desert Montessori School,[58] La Mariposa Montessori, Santa Fe School for the Arts, and The Tara School.

Notable residents

  • Paul Burlin, modern and abstract expressionist painter
  • Rolf Cahn, folk musician, martial arts teacher, author, and social activist
  • Josh West, Olympic medalist rower

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522867/Santa-Fe. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Ojo Caliente Land Grant". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID=4767. Retrieved May 8, 2009. 
  4. ^ Hazen-Hammond, Susan (1988). A Short History of Santa Fe. San Francisco: Lexikos. p. 132. ISBN 0-938530-39-9. 
  5. ^ Hazen-Hammond, Susan (1988). A Short History of Santa Fe. San Francisco: Lexikos. p. 132. ISBN 0-938530-39-9. 
  6. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "Santa Fe Tops 2007 List of Most Endangered Rivers". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/04/070418-ten-rivers.html. Retrieved April 24, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Santa Fe – A Rich History". City of Santa Fe. http://www.santafenm.gov/index.asp?NID=601. Retrieved October 12, 2008. 
  8. ^ First printed in The Arkansas Banner, 8-31-1849. Quoted in Santa Fe & Taos: the Writers Era, ISBN 9780865346505
  9. ^ Garrard, Lewis H. (1955) [1850]. Wah-to-yah and the Taos Trail. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 
  10. ^ The Indian sentinel, Volumes 7-10-Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 1927
  11. ^ Leo Crane.Desert drums: the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, 1540–1928.1972.Rio Grande Press
  12. ^ Anton Docher. The Quaint Indian Pueblo of Isleta.The Santa Fé Magazine,1913,vol.7,n°7,p.29-32.
  13. ^ "Santa Fe Southern Railway, Santa Fe, NM". Sfsr.com. http://www.sfsr.com/about.html. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Santa Fe, NM". Ghostdepot.com. http://www.ghostdepot.com/rg/mainline/san%20juan%20branch/santa%20fe.htm. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  15. ^ Harry Moul, and Linda Tigges, "The Santa Fe 1912 City Plan: A 'City Beautiful' and City Planning Document," New Mexico Historical Review, Spring 1996, Vol. 71 Issue 2, pp 135–155
  16. ^ Carter Jones Meyer, "The Battle between 'Art' and 'Progress': Edgar L. Hewett and the Politics of Region in the Early-Twentieth-Century Southwest," Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Sept 2006, Vol. 56 Issue 3, pp 47–61
  17. ^ United States Geological Survey
  18. ^ Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
  19. ^ "Climatography of the United States NO. 81: Monthly Station Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1971 – 2000" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim81/NMnorm.pdf. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Santa Fe, New Mexico – Climate Summary". http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?nmsafe. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Monthly Averages for Santa Fe, NM". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USNM0292. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  22. ^ quoted in Santa Fe & Taos: the Writers Era, ISBN 9780865346505
  23. ^ Hammett, p.14
  24. ^ Hammett, p.15. "They ripped off the cast-iron storefronts, tore down the gingerbread trim, took off the Victorian brackets and dentils..."
  25. ^ "Cultivating Santa Fe’s Future Economy: Target Industry Report". Angelou Economics. http://www.santafenm.gov/index.aspx?NID=610. Retrieved April 24, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Santa Fe Downtown Vision Plan". Approved draft by City of Santa Fe Steering Committee. March 2007. http://www.santafenm.gov/hottopics/default.asp?CategoryKey=166972. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Santa Fe, NM – Official Website – Government". City of Santa Fe. http://santafenm.gov/index.asp?NID=63. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Santa Fe, NM – Official Website – Municipal Court". City of Santa Fe. http://santafenm.gov/index.asp?NID=266. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  29. ^ a b c d e (PDF) Santa Fe Municipal Charter. City of Santa Fe. March 4, 2008. http://santafenm.gov/archives/165/City%20of%20Santa%20Fe%20Municipal%20Charter.pdf. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Post Office Location – Santa Fe main". United States Postal Service. http://usps.whitepages.com/service/post_office/63255?p=1&s=NM&service_name=post_office&z=Santa+Fe. Retrieved on July 5, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Post Office Location – Coronado". United States Postal Service. http://usps.whitepages.com/service/post_office/24922?p=1&s=NM&service_name=post_office&z=Santa+Fe. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Post Office Location – De Vargas Mall". United States Postal Service. http://usps.whitepages.com/service/post_office/34772?p=1&s=NM&service_name=post_office&z=Santa+Fe. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Post Office Location – Santa Fe Place Mall". United States Postal Service. http://usps.whitepages.com/service/post_office/55497?p=2&s=NM&service_name=post_office&z=Santa+Fe. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  34. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html. 
  35. ^ "Santa Fe Creative Tourism Experiences in New Mexico". Santafecreativetourism.org. http://www.santafecreativetourism.org/. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Santa Fe New Music". Sfnm.org. http://www.sfnm.org/silent. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  37. ^ "GiG". Gigsantafe.com. http://www.gigsantafe.com/. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Museum Hill homepage". http://www.museumhill.org. 
  39. ^ "Museum of Spanish Colonial Art homepage". http://www.spanishcolonial.org/. 
  40. ^ "Santa Fe Rodeo". rodeosantafe.org. http://www.rodeodesantafe.org/. 
  41. ^ "National Center for Genome Resources". Ncgr.org. http://www.ncgr.org/. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Complex Systems Summer School". Santafe.edu. http://santafe.edu/education/schools/complex-systems-summer-schools/. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Center For Nonlinear Studies". http://cnls.lanl.gov. 
  44. ^ Shukman, Henry (February 7, 2010). "Santa Fe, N.M., and How It Came to Be as It is". New York Times. http://travel.nytimes.com/2010/02/07/travel/07santafe.html. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  45. ^ Santuario de Guadalupe, Santa Fe, New Mexico
  46. ^ "Santa Fe.org". Santa Fe.org. February 3, 2011. http://www.santafe.org. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce". Santafechamber.com. http://www.santafechamber.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  48. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  49. ^ "Southwest Airlines Cities"]. Southwest Airlines. http://www.southwest.com/travel_center/routemap.html. 
  50. ^ "Airline Service For New Mexico Capital In Limbo". aero-news.net. November 13, 2007. http://www.aero-news.net/index.cfm?ContentBlockID=53a96a46-6131-4f4f-9ee4-5b05d42647ca. 
  51. ^ Description and Historic Context for Pre-1937 Highway Alignments at U.S. National Park Service website, excerpted from Kammer, David, "Route 66 Through New Mexico: Re-Survey Report".
  52. ^ "New Mexico Park and Ride Schedule". New Mexico Department of Transportation. December 22, 2008. http://www.nmshtd.state.nm.us/upload/images/ParkNRide/PnR%20schedule%20Northern%20for%20December%2022%202008%20FINAL.pdf. Retrieved March 23, 2009. 
  53. ^ "NCRTD Bus Routes Overview". North Central Regional Transportation District. http://www.ncrtd.org/content.asp?CustComKey=370312&CategoryKey=380122&pn=Page&DomName=ncrtd.org. Retrieved March 23, 2009. [dead link]
  54. ^ "Dale Ball Trails and Connecting Trails and Biking Trails". Santafenm.gov. http://www.santafenm.gov/index.asp?NID=1059. Retrieved May 31, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Santa Fe Waldorf School K–12". http://www.santafewaldorf.org. 
  56. ^ "Desert Academy". http://www.desertacademy.org. 
  57. ^ "Santa Fe International Elementary School K–8". http://www.santafeelementary.org. 
  58. ^ "Desert Montessori School". http://www.desertmontessorischool.com. 

Further reading

  • Hammett, Kingsley, Santa Fe: A Walk Through Time, Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2004 ISBN 1-58685-102-0
  • Dick, R. H. My Time There: The Art Colonies of Santa Fe and Taos, New Mexico 1956–2006 .(2007)
  • LaFarge, John Pen. Turn Left at the Sleeping Dog: Scripting the Santa Fe Legend, 1920–1955 (2003)
  • Larson, Jonathan, "Santa Fe", Rent, 1996
  • Lovato, Andrew Leo. Santa Fe Hispanic Culture: Preserving Identity in a Tourist Town (2007)
  • Wilson, Chris, The Myth of Santa Fe: Creating a Modern Regional Tradition, Albuquerque, NM: UNM Press, 1997 ISBN 0826317464

External links


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