- Mods and Rockers
The Mods and Rockers were two conflicting British youth subcultures of the early-mid 1960s. Mods and rockers fighting in 1964 sparked a moral panic about British youths, and the two groups were seen as folk devils. The rockers were motorcyclists, wearing clothes such as black leather jackets. The mods were scooter riders, wearing suits and cleancut outfits. By the late 1960s, the two subcultures had faded from public view and media attention turned to two new emerging youth subcultures — the hippies and the skinheads.
Rockers wore leather jackets and rode heavy motorcycles, while the mods often wore suits and rode scooters. The rockers considered mods to be weedy, effeminate snobs, and mods saw rockers as out of touch, oafish and grubby. Musically there was not much common ground. Rockers generally favoured 1950s rock and roll, mostly by artists like Elvis Presley, Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent. Mods listened to 1960s ska music, soul and R&B, as well as British bands such as The Who, The Small Faces and The Kinks.
In the United Kingdom, rockers were often engaged in brawls with mods. BBC News stories from May 1964 stated that mods and rockers were jailed after riots in seaside resort towns on the south coast of England, such as Margate, Brighton, Bournemouth and Clacton. Mods sometimes sewed fish hooks or razor blades into the backs of their lapels to shred the fingers of assailants; the same thing was done by Teddy Boys in the 1950s. Weapons were often in evidence; coshes, bike chains and flick knives being favoured.
The mods and rockers conflict led sociologist Stanley Cohen to develop the term moral panic in his study Folk Devils and Moral Panics, which examined media coverage of the mod and rocker riots in the 1960s. Although Cohen admits that mods and rockers had some fights in the mid-1960s, he argues that they were no different to the evening brawls that occurred between youths throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, both at seaside resorts and after football games. He claims that the UK media turned the mod subculture into a negative symbol of delinquent and deviant status.
The conflict came to a head at Clacton during the Easter weekend of 1964. Round two took place on the south coast of England, where Londoners head for seaside resorts on Bank Holidays. Over the Whitsun weekend (May 18 and 19, 1964), thousands of mods descended upon Margate, Broadstairs and Brighton to find that an inordinately large number of rockers had made the same holiday plans. Within a short time, marauding gangs of mods and rockers were openly fighting, often using pieces of deckchairs. The worst violence was at Brighton, where fights lasted two days and moved along the coast to Hastings and back; hence the Second Battle of Hastings tag. A small number of rockers was isolated on Brighton beach where they – despite being protected by police – were overwhelmed and assaulted by mods. Eventually calm was restored and a judge levied heavy fines, describing those arrested as sawdust Caesars.
Newspapers described the mod and rocker clashes as being of "disastrous proportions", and labelled mods and rockers as "sawdust Caesars", "vermin" and "louts". Newspaper editorials fanned the flames of hysteria, such as a Birmingham Post editorial in May 1964, which warned that mods and rockers were "internal enemies" in the UK who would "bring about disintegration of a nation's character". The magazine Police Review argued that the mods and rockers' purported lack of respect for law and order could cause violence to "surge and flame like a forest fire".
Cohen argues that as media hysteria about knife-wielding, violent mods increased, the image of a fur-collared anorak and scooter would "stimulate hostile and punitive reactions". As a result of this media coverage, two British Members of Parliament travelled to the seaside areas to survey the damage, and MP Harold Gurden called for a resolution for intensified measures to control hooliganism. One of the prosecutors in the trial of some of the Clacton brawlers argued that mods and rockers were youths with no serious views, who lacked respect for law and order. Cohen says the media used possibly faked interviews with supposed rockers such as "Mick the Wild One". As well, the media would try to get mileage from accidents that were unrelated to mod-rocker violence, such as an accidental drowning of a youth, which got the headline "Mod Dead in Sea"
Eventually, when the media ran out of real fights to report, they would publish deceptive headlines, such as using a subheading "Violence", even when the article reported that there was no violence at all. Newspaper writers also began to associate mods and rockers with various social issues, such as teen pregnancy, contraceptives, amphetamines, and violence.
- ^ Covach, John, What's That Sound: An Introduction to Rock and its History, http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/rockhistory/outlines/ch04.htm
- ^ On this Day, London, England: BBC, May 18, http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/18/newsid_2511000/2511245.stm
- ^ Bridgeman Savate - Improvisation
- ^ (PDF) BFC, Film Education, http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:Eu5AvNsexUwJ:www.filmeducation.org/filmlib/BFC.pdf
- ^ a b Cohen, Stanley. Folk Devils and Moral Panics, p. 27.
- ^ My Brighton and Hove | Topics | 1960s | Mods and Rockers
- ^ BBC - h2g2 - Mods - 1960s Fun Lovin' Criminals - A707627
- ^ a b c Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. By Stanley Cohen. Published by Routledge, 2002 ISBN 0415267129, 9780415267120. Available at: http://books.google.ca/books?id=K9OxSYJQGXwC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=mod++rockers+brawl+1964&source=web&ots=TlcxrbjQC1&sig=FZudmfy3zz_m0BACv_umHo-2OUI&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA61,M1
- ^ Cohen, Stanley. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. page 28
- ^ Cohen, Stanley. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. page 31
- ^ Cohen, Stanley. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. page 29
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