- Confederate colonies
Confederate colonies were made up of emigrants from the Confederate States of America who fled the United States after the Union won the American Civil War (1861-1865). They settled in many Latin American countries like Brazil and Mexico.
Many Southerners had lost their land during the war and were unwilling to live under the government of the United States of America. They did not expect an improvement in the South's economic position. Most of the emigrants were from the states of Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina.
No one has determined how many American southerners emigrated to Latin America. As noted in unpublished research, Betty Antunes de Oliveira found in port records of Rio de Janeiro that some 20,000 Americans entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Other researchers have estimated the number at 10,000. An unknown number returned to the United States after the end of Reconstruction. Most immigrants adopted Brazilian citizenship.
- A Brief History of the Confederate Colonies of Brazil
- The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico
- The Confederacy's Plan to Conqueror Latin America
- Os Confederados
- Michael L. Conniff and Cyrus B. Dawsey, editors, The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil, Auburn: University of Alabama.
- Eugene C. Harter,The Lost Colony of the Confederacy, Oxford: University Press of Mississippi.
- William Clark Griggs, The Elusive Eden: Frank McMullan's Confederate Colony in Brazil, Austin: University of Texas, 1987, about the failed Iguape Colony.
- Riccardo Orizio (Avril Bardoni, translator), Lost White Tribes: The End of Privilege and he Last Colonials in Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Brazil, Haiti, Namibia & Guadeloupe.
- Alan M. Tigay, "The Deepest South", American Heritage 49(2), April 1998, pp. 84-95
- Judith McKnight Jones, a descendant, wrote about the immigration and family trees. Her book lists some 400 families and is in Portuguese.
- Alcides Fernando Gussi, Os Norte-Americanos Confederados do Brasil.
- Auburn University in Alabama maintains a special collection of material related to the Confederado immigration, including correspondence, memoirs, genealogies, and newspaper clippings, especially related to Colonel Norris.
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