- Guillaume Marie Anne Brune
Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, 1st Comte Brune (
March 13, 1763— August 2, 1815) was a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France.
The son of a
lawyer, he was born at Brive-la-Gaillarde, Corrèze. Brune settled in Parisbefore the French Revolution, studied law, and became a political journalist. Following the French Revolutionhe joined the Cordeliersand was a friend of Georges Danton. He was appointed Brigadier Generalin 1793 and took part in the fighting of the 13th Vendémiaire against royalist insurgents in Paris.
In 1796 he fought under Napoleon Bonaparte in the , and was promoted "Général de Division" for good service in the field. He commanded the French army which occupied
Switzerlandin 1798 and established the Helvetic Republic, and in the following year he was in command of the French troops in defence of Amsterdamagainst the Anglo-Russian expedition under the Duke of York, which was completely successful - the invaders were defeated in the Battle of Castricum, and compelled, after a harsh retreat, to re-embark. He rendered further good service in Vendéeand in the Italian Peninsuladuring the years 1799 - 1801.
In 1802 Napoleon dispatched Brune to Constantinople as ambassador to the
Ottoman Empire. During his two-year diplomatic service, he initiated relations between France and Persia.
Following his coronation as Emperor of the French in 1804, Napoleon made Brune a field marshal ("Maréchal d'Empire"). In 1807 Brune held a command of troops fighting in the North German campaign and occupied
Swedish Pomerania, but Brune's staunch republicanism and a meeting between Brune and Gustav IV Adolf of Swedenraised Napoleon's suspicions, and he was not afterwards employed during the Empire.
Brune was recalled to active service in 1815, during the
Hundred Days, and as commander of the army of the Var, he defended the south of France against the forces of the Austrian Empire. He was murdered by royalists during the White Terror at Avignon, during the opening stage of the Bourbon Restoration. His body was thrown in the river Rhône, but was later recovered and buried in a pyramid-shaped tomb in the cemetery of Saint-Just-Sauvage.
*1911 The 1911 "Encyclopaedia Britannica", in turn, gives the following references:
**"Notice historique sur la vie politique et militaire du marechal Brune" (Paris, 1821).
**Paul-Prosper Vermeil de Conchard, "L'Assassinat du marechal Brune" (Paris, 1887).
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