Anthocyanin


Anthocyanin

"Not to be confused with Anthocyanidin, their sugar free counterparts."

Anthocyanins (from Greek: "polytonic|ἀνθός (anthos)" = flower + "polytonic|κυανός (kyanos)" = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue according to pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthoxanthins are their clear, white to yellow counterparts occurring in plants.

Function

In flowers, bright reds and purples are adaptive for attracting pollinators. In fruits, the colorful skins also attract the attention of animals, which may eat the fruits and disperse the seeds. In photosynthetic tissues (such as leaves and sometimes stems), anthocyanins have been shown to act as a "sunscreen", protecting cells from high-light damage by absorbing blue-green and UV light, thereby protecting the tissues from photoinhibition, or high-light stress. This has been shown to occur in red juvenile leaves, autumn leaves, and broad-leaved evergreen leaves that turn red during the winter. It has also been proposed that red coloration of leaves may camouflage leaves from herbivores blind to red wavelengths, or signal unpalatability, since anthocyanin synthesis often coincides with synthesis of unpalatable phenolic compounds.

In addition to their role as light-attenuators, anthocyanins also act as powerful antioxidants. However, it is not clear whether anthocyanins can significantly contribute to scavenging of free-radicals produced through metabolic processes in leaves, since they are located in the vacuole, and thus, spatially separated from metabolic reactive oxygen species.

Occurrence

Anatomically, anthocyanins are found in the cell vacuole, mostly in flowers and fruits but also in leaves, stems, and roots. In these parts they are found predominantly in outer cell layers such as the epidermis and peripheral mesophyll cells.

Most frequent in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and petunidin. Roughly 2% of all hydrocarbons fixated in photosynthesis are converted into flavonoids and their derivatives such as the anthocyanins. There is no less than 109 tons of anthocyanins produced in nature per year.Fact|date=May 2008 Not all land plants contain anthocyanin; in the Caryophyllales (including cactus, beets, and amaranth), they are replaced by betalains.

Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry and bilberry, Rubus berries including black raspberry, red raspberry and blackberry, blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape and muscadine grape, red wine, red cabbage and violet petals. Anthocyanins are less abundant in banana, asparagus, pea, fennel, pear and potato, and may be totally absent in certain cultivars of green gooseberries.

The highest recorded amount appears to be specifically in the seed coat of black soybean ("Glycine max" L. Merr.) containing some 2,000 mg per 100 g [cite journal |author=Choung MG, Baek IY, Kang ST, "et al" |title=Isolation and determination of anthocyanins in seed coats of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) |journal=J. Agric. Food Chem. |volume=49 |issue=12 |pages=5848–51 |year=2001 |month=Dec |pmid=11743773 |doi= |url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf010550w] and in skins and pulp of black chokeberry ("Aronia melanocarpa" L.) (table). However, the Amazonian palmberry, açaí, having about 320 mg per 100 g [cite journal |author=Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, "et al" |title=Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai) |journal=J. Agric. Food Chem. |volume=54 |issue=22 |pages=8598–603 |year=2006 |month=Nov |pmid=17061839 |doi=10.1021/jf060976g |url=] (of which cyanidin-3-glucoside is the most prevalent individual anthocyanin (approximately 10 mg per 100 g), [cite journal |author=Del Pozo-Insfran D, Brenes CH, Talcott ST |title=Phytochemical composition and pigment stability of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) |journal=J. Agric. Food Chem. |volume=52 |issue=6 |pages=1539–45 |year=2004 |month=Mar |pmid=15030208 |doi=10.1021/jf035189n |url=] is also a high-content source for which only a small fraction of total anthocyanins has been determined to date.

Nature and food science have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-fleshed potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots and corn. Anthocyanins can also be found in naturally ripened olives, and are partly responsible for the purple color seen in Kalamata and Alfonso olives, although no studies to date have have quantified their amount.

Autumn leaf color

Many science textbooks incorrectly state that all autumn coloration (including red) is simply the result of breakdown of green chlorophyll, which unmasks the already-present orange, yellow, and red pigments (carotenoids, xanthophylls, and anthocyanins, respectively). While this is indeed the case for the carotenoids and xanthophylls (orange and yellow pigments), anthocyanins are not present until the leaf begins breaking down the chlorophyll, during which time the plant begins to synthesize the anthocyanin, presumably for photoprotection during nitrogen translocation.

Structure

Anthocyanidins: Flavylium cation derivatives

"See Anthocyanidins article".

Anthocyanins: Glucosides of anthocyanidins

The anthocyanins, anthocyanidins with sugar group, are mostly 3-glucosides of the anthocyanidins.The anthocyanins are subdivided into the sugar-free anthocyanidin aglycones and the anthocyanin glycosides. As of 2003 more than 400 anthocyanins had been reported [cite journal
author=Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R |title=Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins |journal=Phytochemistry |volume=64 |issue=5 |pages=923–33 |year=2003 |month=Nov |pmid=14561507 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031942203004382
doi = 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00438-2
] while more recent literature (early 2006), puts the number at more than 550 different anthocyanins. The difference in chemical structure that occurs in response to changes in pH is the reason why anthocyanins are often used as pH indicator, as they change from red in acids to blue in bases.

Biosynthesis

#Anthocyanin pigments are assembled like all other flavonoids from two different streams of chemical raw materials in the cell:
#* One stream involves the shikimate pathway to produce the amino acid phenylalanine. "(see phenylpropanoids)"
#* The other stream produces 3 molecules of malonyl-CoA, a C3 unit from a C2 unit (acetyl-CoA).
#These streams meet and are coupled together by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which forms an intermediate chalcone via a polyketide folding mechanism that is commonly found in plants.
#The chalcone is subsequently isomerized by the enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI) to the prototype pigment naringenin.
#Naringenin is subsequently oxidized by enzymes such as flavanone hydroxylase (FHT or F3H), flavonoid 3' hydroxylase and flavonoid 3' 5'-hydroxylase.
#These oxidation products are further reduced by the enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) to the corresponding leucoanthocyanidins.
#It was believed that leucoanthocyanidins are the immediate precursors of the next enzyme, a dioxygenase referred to as anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) or leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX). It was recently shown however that flavan-3-ols, the products of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), are the true substrates of ANS/LDOX.
#The resulting, unstable anthocyanidins are further coupled to sugar molecules by enzymes like UDP-3-O-glucosyl transferase to yield the final relatively stable anthocyanins.

More than five enzymes are thus required to synthesize these pigments, each working in concert. Any even minor disruption in any of the mechanism of these enzymes by either genetic or environmental factors would halt anthocyanin production.

Potential food value

Anthocyanins are considered secondary metabolites as a food additive with E number 163.

Anthocyanins are powerful antioxidants "in vitro". This antioxidant property may be conserved even after the plant which produced the anthocyanin is consumed by another organism, possibly explaining why fruits and vegetables with colorful skins and pulp are considered nutritious. However, it has not yet been scientifically demonstrated that anthocyanins are beneficial to human health.

Dye-sensitized solar cells

Anthocyanins are being used in organic solar cells because of their ability to absorb light and convert it into electrons [cite journal
url = http://solideas.com/papers/JPhysChemB.pdf
author = Nerine Cherepy, Greg Smestad, Michael Gratzel, Jen Zhang
title = Ultrafast Electron Injection: Implications for a Photoelectrochemical Cell Utilizing anAnthocyanin Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrode
date = 1997
journal = Journal of Physical Chemistry |volume=101 |pages=9342-51
accessdate = 2008-07-27
] . There are many benefits to using dye-sensitized solar cells instead of the traditional silicon cells, such as abundance of anthocyanins, the projected 90% efficiency, and the ability to bend or print these inks [cite journal
url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W79-49MDXVF-1&_user=38557&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000004358&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=38557&md5=e224f29c8b4ba3d7a83ef3a7c1464c9d
author = Grätzel M
title = Dye-sensitized solar cells
year = 2003 |doi=10.1016/S1389-5567(03)00026-1 |volume=4 |issue=2 |month=Oct |year=2003 |pages=145-53
journal = Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology
accessdate = 2008-07-27
] .

Research

Richly concentrated as pigments in berries, anthocyanins were the topics of research presented at a 2007 symposium on health benefits that may result from berry consumption [cite web
url = http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx?articleid=18944&zoneid=201
author = Gross PM
title = Scientists zero in on health benefits of berry pigments
date = 2007
publisher = Natural Products Information Center
accessdate = 2007-07-27
] . Scientists provided laboratory evidence for potential health effects against

* cancer
* aging and neurological diseases
* inflammation
* diabetes
* bacterial infections

Cancer research on anthocyanins is the most advanced, where black raspberry ("Rubus occidentalis" L.) preparations were first used to inhibit chemically induced cancer of the rat esophagus by 30-60% and of the colon by up to 80%. Effective at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of tumor development, black raspberries are a practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source, as they contain the richest contents of anthocyanins among native North American Rubus berries.

Work on laboratory cancer models has shown that black raspberry anthocyanins inhibit promotion and progression of tumor cells by

# stalling growth of pre-malignant cells
# accelerating the rate of cell turnover, called apoptosis, effectively making the cancer cells die faster
# reducing inflammatory mediators that initiate tumor onset
# inhibiting growth of new blood vessels that nourish tumors, a process called angiogenesis
# minimizing cancer-induced DNA damage.

On a molecular level, berry anthocyanins were shown to turn off genes involved with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. [cite journal |author=Hou DX |title=Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins |journal=Curr. Mol. Med. |volume=3 |issue=2 |pages=149–59 |year=2003 |month=Mar |pmid=12630561 |doi= |url=http://www.bentham-direct.org/pages/content.php?CMM/2003/00000003/00000002/0004M.SGM] [cite journal |author=Karlsen A, Retterstøl L, Laake P, "et al" |title=Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocytes and reduce plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults |journal=J. Nutr. |volume=137 |issue=8 |pages=1951–4 |year=2007 |month=Aug |pmid=17634269 |doi= |url=http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17634269] [cite journal |author=Neto CC |title=Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases |journal=Mol Nutr Food Res |volume=51 |issue=6 |pages=652–64 |year=2007 |month=Jun |pmid=17533651 |doi=10.1002/mnfr.200600279 |url=]

In 2007, black raspberry studies entered the next pivotal level of research – the human clinical trial – for which several approved studies are underway to examine anti-cancer effects of black raspberries and cranberries on tumors in the esophagus, prostate and colon [cite journal
author=Stoner GD, Wang LS, Zikri N, "et al" |title=Cancer prevention with freeze-dried berries and berry components |journal=Semin. Cancer Biol. |volume=17 |issue=5 |pages=403–10 |year=2007 |month=Oct |pmid=17574861 |doi=10.1016/j.semcancer.2007.05.001 |url=
] .

ee also

*Phenolic compounds in wine

References

* Andersen, O.M. "Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications". CRC Press, Boca Raton FL 2006.
*cite journal
author=Robinson GM, Robinson R |title=A survey of anthocyanins. I |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=25 |issue=5 |pages=1687–705 |year=1931 |pmid=16744735 |pmc=1260797 |doi= |url=

External links

* [http://www.charlies-web.com/specialtopics/anthocy.jpgAnthocyanin biosynthesis]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1310369.htm Red leaves - why do Autumn leaves turn red?]
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060801054550.htm Super blackcurrants with boosted vitamin C]
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041220122203.htm Chemicals found in cherries may help fight diabetes]
* [http://www.science.edu.sg/ssc/detailed.jsp?artid=5970&type=6&root=4&parent=4&cat=37 A discussion of the role of anthocyanins in hydrangea coloration]
* [http://madsci.org/FAQs/anthocyanins.html Anthocyanins FAQ "MadSci Network"]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Anthocyanin — An tho*cy a*nin, n. Same as {Anthokyan}. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • anthocyanin — [an΄thōsī′ən, an΄thəsī′ənan΄thōsī′ə nin΄, an΄thō sī′ə nin΄] n. [ ANTHO + Gr kyan(os), blue (see CYANO ) + IN1] a water soluble, reddish or blue pigment in flowers, plants, and some insects: also anthocyan [an΄thōsī′ən, an΄thəsī′ən] …   English World dictionary

  • Anthocyanin — Durch Anthocyane blau gefärbte Brombeere Anthocyane (engl. anthocyanins, von griech. anthos = Blüte, Blume, kyáneos = dunkelblau) sind wasserlösliche Pflanzenfarbstoffe, die in nahezu allen höheren Pflanzen vorkommen und den Blüten und Früchten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • anthocyanin — Cyanin Cy a*nin (s? ? n?n), n. [See {Cyanic}.] (Chem.) The blue coloring matter of flowers; called also {anthokyan} and {anthocyanin}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • anthocyanin — antocianinas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Augalų ląstelių spalvinė medžiaga, antocianidino glikozidas. atitikmenys: angl. anthocyanin rus. антоцианин …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • anthocyanin — antocianinas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Grupė flavonoidų grupės pigmentų, esančių daugelio augalų ląstelių sultyse ir suteikiančių žiedams, vaisiams – mėlyną, raudoną ar violetinį atspalvį. atitikmenys: angl. anthocyanin rus.… …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • anthocyanin — noun Etymology: Greek anthos + kyanos dark blue Date: 1839 any of various soluble glycoside pigments producing blue to red coloring in flowers and plants …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • anthocyanin — /an theuh suy euh nin/, n. Biochem. any of a class of water soluble pigments that give flowers the colors ranging from red to blue. Also, anthocyan /an theuh suy euhn/. [1830 40; ANTHO + CYANIN(E)] * * * …   Universalium

  • anthocyanin — noun Any of many water soluble red to violet plant pigments related to the flavonoids. Syn: E163, food colouring …   Wiktionary

  • Anthocyanin — An|tho|cy|a|nin [↑ in (3)], das; s, e: ↑ Anthocyan …   Universal-Lexikon


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