Los Angeles, California


Los Angeles, California

Infobox Settlement
name = Los Angeles
settlement_type = City
official_name = City of Los Angeles
nickname = L.A., The City of Angels, The Big Orange, The Entertainment Capital of the World
website = [http://www.lacity.org/ lacity.org]



image_caption = Images, from top, left to right: Los Angeles Skyline in winter, Venice Beach, Griffith Observatory, Hollywood sign



image_





image_c

map_caption = Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California
subdivision_type = State
subdivision_type1 = County
subdivision_name = California
subdivision_name1 = Los Angeles County
government_type = Mayor-Council
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Antonio Villaraigosa
leader_title1 = City attorney
leader_name1 = Rocky Delgadillo
leader_title2 = Governing body
leader_name2 = City Council
area_magnitude = 1 E8
unit_pref = Imperial
area_total_sq_mi = 498.3
area_total_km2 = 1290.6
area_land_sq_mi = 469.1
area_land_km2 = 1214.9
area_water_sq_mi = 29.2
area_water_km2 = 75.7
area_water_percent =5.8
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 3,849,378 (2nd U.S., 45th World)
population_urban =
area_urban_km2 = 4319.9
area_urban_sq_mi = 1667.9
population_urban = 12,875,587
population_metro = 17,755,322
population_blank1_title = Demonym
population_blank1 = Angeleno
population_density_km2 = 3168
population_density_sq_mi = 8205
population_footnotes
timezone = PST
utc_offset = -8
timezone_DST = PDT
utc_offset_DST = -7
latd = 34
latm = 03
lats =
latNS = N
longd = 118
longm = 15
longs =
longEW = W
elevation_m = 71
elevation_ft = 233 (city hall)
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 90001-90068, 90070-90084, 90086-90089, 90091, 90093-90097, 90099, 90101-90103, 90174, 90185, 90189
area_code = 213, 310, 323, 424, 661, 818
established_title = Settled
established_date = September 4, 1781
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2= April 4, 1850
footnotes =

Los Angeles (IPAEng|lɑˈsændʒələs, IPAEng|los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest city in the state of California and the American West as well as second largest in the United States.cite web |url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2005-01.csv |title=Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2005 Population: April 1, 2013 to July 1, 2005 |format=CSV |work=2005 Population Estimates |publisher=United States Census Bureau, Population Division |date=2006-06-20 |accessdate=2007-01-26] Often abbreviated as L.A. and nicknamed The City of Angels, Los Angeles is rated an alpha world city, has an estimated population of 3.8 million [http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv] and spans over convert|498.3|sqmi|km2|1 in Southern California. Additionally, the Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to nearly 12.9 million residents, [ [http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2007/CBSA-EST2007-05.xls Metropolitan statistical area | Population Estimates | July 1, 2007] ] who hail from all over the globe and speak 224 different languages. Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated and one of the most diverse counties [ [http://money.cnn.com/2007/08/08/real_estate/most_diverse_counties/index.htm The most ethnically diverse counties in the United States - Aug. 9, 2007] ] in the United States. Its inhabitants are known as "Angelenos" (IPAEng|ændʒəˈlinoʊz).

Los Angeles was founded September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve as "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de la Porciúncula" (The Village of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of Porziuncola). It became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its independence from Spain. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican-American War, Los Angeles and California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States; Mexico retained the territory of Baja California. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood.

Los Angeles is one of the world's centers of culture, technology, media, business, and international trade. It is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. Los Angeles leads the world in producing popular entertainment — such as motion picture, television, and recorded music — which forms the base of its international fame and global status.

History

The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (or Gabrieleños) and Chumash Native American tribes hundreds of years ago. The first Europeans arrived in 1542 under Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese-born explorer who claimed the area as the City of God for the Spanish Empire. However, he continued with his voyage and did not establish a settlement. [Willard, C. D., "The Herald's History of Los Angeles" (Los Angeles: Kingsley-Barnes, 1901): 22.] The next contact would not come until 227 years later, when Gaspar de Portola, along with Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. Crespí noted that the site had the potential to be developed into a large settlement. [ [http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/historic/crespi.html Father Crespi in Los Angeles] ]

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra built the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel near Whittier Narrows, in what is now called San Gabriel Valley. [ After a 1776 flood, the mission was moved to its present site in San Gabriel] In 1777, the new governor of California, Felipe de Neve, recommended to Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, viceroy of New Spain that the site noted by Juan Crespí be developed into a "pueblo". The town was founded on September 4, 1781, by a group of forty-four settlers known as "los Pobladores". They were escorted by four Spanish colonial soldiers and their families. It was named "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula" (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels on the Porciúncula River). [ [http://www.laavenue.com/LAHistory.htm The History of Los Angeles County] ] These pueblo settlers came from the common Hispanic culture that had emerged in northern Mexico among a racially-mixed society. Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto, and therefore, had African and Indian ancestry. More importantly, they were intermarrying. ["Of the first forty-six "pobladores" (settlers), twenty-six were African or part-African. The remainder further demonstrates the city's multiracial beginnings: one was a Chinese from Manila, two were "español", and the rest were Indian or part-Indian. […] The families settling Los Angeles were racially mixed, revealing that intermarriage was already absorbing the African stock." Forbes, Jack D. "The Early African Heritage in California" in Lawrence Brooks de Graaf, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor, eds., "Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California" (Los Angeles: Autry Museum of Western Heritage, 2001), 79. ISBN 9780295980836] The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820 the population had increased to about 650 residents. [ [http://www.socalhistory.org/Socalhistory.org%20_mainfolder/Chronology/Chronology.htm Los Angeles Historical Chronology] ] Today, the "pueblo" is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. [Acuna, Rodolfo, "Anything But Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles" (New York: Version, 1996): 22.]

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the "pueblo" continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico, made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capitol. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847.

Railroads arrived when the Southern Pacific completed its line to Los Angeles in 1876. [Mulholland, Catherine, "William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000): 15.] Oil was discovered in 1892, and by 1923 Los Angeles was producing one-quarter of the world's petroleum. [ [http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/signal_hill/signal_hill2.html The Story of Oil in California] ]

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000 people, [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20080206033006/http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twps0027/tab13.txt Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1900] ] putting pressure on the city's water supply. [ [http://www.american.edu/TED/mono.htm The Los roches Aqueduct and the Owens and Mono Lakes (MONO Case)] ] 1913's completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city.

In the 1920s, the motion picture and aviation industries flocked to Los Angeles. In 1932, with population surpassing one million, [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20080205005417/http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twps0027/tab16.txt Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1930] ] the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

The post-war years saw an even greater boom, as urban sprawl expanded the city into the San Fernando Valley. [Bruegmann, Robert, "Sprawl: A Compact History" (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005): 133.] In 1969, Los Angeles became one of the birthplaces of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from UCLA to SRI in Menlo Park. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_n33_v20/ai_21173953 Was L.A. really Internet's ground zero?] ]

Also in the 1980s, Los Angeles became the center of the heavy metal music scene, especially glam metal bands. In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. It became the most financially successful Olympics in history, and only the second Olympics to turn a profit — the other being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.

During the remainder of the 1970s into the 1980s, Los Angeles was plagued by increasing gang violence, drug trades, and police corruption. Racial tensions erupted again in 1992 with the Rodney King controversy and the large-scale riots that followed the acquittal of his police attackers. In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. [Reich, Kenneth, "Study Raises Northridge Quake Death Toll to 72," "Los Angeles Times 20 December 1995: B1.]

Voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city in 2002. [ [http://www.laalmanac.com/election/el22.htm City of Los Angeles Secession Votes - 2002] ]

Gentrification and urban redevelopment have occurred in many parts of the city, most notably Hollywood, Koreatown, Silver Lake, Echo Park and Downtown. [ [http://www.laweekly.com/general/features/welcome-to-gentrification-city/14285/ Welcome to Gentrification City] ]

Geography

Los Angeles is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of convert|498.3|sqmi|km2|0|sp=us, comprising 469.1 square miles (1,214.9 km²) of land and 29.2 square miles (75.7 km²) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). It is the only major city in the United States bisected by a mountain range.

The highest point in Los Angeles is Mount Lukens, also called Sister Elsie Peak. [original.britannica.com/eb/topic-764513/Mount-Lukens] Located at the far reaches of the northeastern San Fernando Valley, it reaches a height of 5,080 ft (1,548 m). The major river is the Los Angeles River, which begins in the Canoga Park district of the city and is largely seasonal. The river is lined in concrete for almost its entire length as it flows through the city into nearby Vernon on its way to the Pacific Ocean.

Geology

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability produces numerous fault lines both above and below ground, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year. [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/facts.php Earthquake Facts] ] Citation broken|date=July 2008 One of the major fault lines is the San Andreas Fault. Located at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, it is predicted to be the source of Southern California's next big earthquake. [ [http://www.physorg.com/news70114196.html San Andreas Fault Set for the Big One] ] Major earthquakes to have hit the Los Angeles area include the 2008 Chino Hills earthquake, 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake near Sylmar, and the 1933 Long Beach earthquake. Nevertheless, all but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt.Citation broken|date=July 2008 The most recent earthquake felt was the 5.4 Chino Hills earthquake on July 29th 2008. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to Pacific Ocean tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the Valdivia earthquake in 1960. [ [http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/web_tsus/19600522/damage.htm May 22, 1960 Tsunami from NOAA] ]

The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. [cite web|url=http://quake.usgs.gov/research/deformation/modeling/socal/index_gerald.html |title=Earthquake and Volcano Deformation and Stress Triggering Research Group home page |publisher=Quake.usgs.gov |date= |accessdate=2008-10-06]

Climate

Los Angeles has a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer subtropical zone (Köppen climate classification "Csb" on the coast, "Csa" inland). Los Angeles receives plenty of sunshine, with 325 sunny days and only 27 rainy days on average every year.

Summers are warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 81 - 84°F (27 - 29°C) and lows of 63°F (16°C), however temperatures sometimes exceed 90°F (32°C) during the summer.Winters are mild and somewhat rainy with high temperatures of 68 - 70°F (20 - 21°C) and lows of 48 - 50°F (9 - 10°C). Spring and autumn bring mild days and cool evenings.

The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomenon typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18°F (10°C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile from the coast inland.

Rainfall occurs mainly in the winter and spring months (February being the wettest month), with light rainfall, but sometimes as thunderstorms. Los Angeles averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation per year, but is lower at the coast and higher at the mountains. Tornadoes are extraordinarily rare downtown, though waterspouts can be seen during severe storms at beaches. Snow is extraordinarily rare in the city basin, but the mountainous slopes within city limits typically receive snow every year. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932. [Burt, Christopher. "Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book". New York: Norton, 2004: 100.]

Infobox Weather |single_line=Yes |location=Los Angeles, California (downtown)
Jan_Hi_°F = 68 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F = 95
Feb_Hi_°F = 70 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F = 95
Mar_Hi_°F = 70 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F = 98
Apr_Hi_°F = 73 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F = 106
May_Hi_°F = 75 |May_REC_Hi_°F = 102
Jun_Hi_°F = 80 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F = 112
Jul_Hi_°F = 84 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F = 107
Aug_Hi_°F = 85 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F = 105
Sep_Hi_°F = 83 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F = 110
Oct_Hi_°F = 79 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F = 108
Nov_Hi_°F = 73 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F = 100
Dec_Hi_°F = 69 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F = 92
Jan_Lo_°F = 48 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F = 28
Feb_Lo_°F = 50 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F = 25
Mar_Lo_°F = 52 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = 35
Apr_Lo_°F = 54 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F = 39
May_Lo_°F = 58 |May_REC_Lo_°F = 43
Jun_Lo_°F = 61 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F = 49
Jul_Lo_°F = 65 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F = 53
Aug_Lo_°F = 66 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F = 51
Sep_Lo_°F = 65 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F = 50
Oct_Lo_°F = 60 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F = 41
Nov_Lo_°F = 53 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F = 38
Dec_Lo_°F = 49 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F = 24
Jan_Precip_inch = 3.33
Feb_Precip_inch = 3.68
Mar_Precip_inch = 3.14
Apr_Precip_inch = 0.83
May_Precip_inch = 0.31
Jun_Precip_inch = 0.06
Jul_Precip_inch = 0.01
Aug_Precip_inch = 0.13
Sep_Precip_inch = 0.32
Oct_Precip_inch = 0.37
Nov_Precip_inch = 1.05
Dec_Precip_inch = 1.91
source = The Weather Channel.cite web |url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USCA0638
title=MONTHLY AVERAGES for Los Angeles, CA |publisher="The Weather Channel"|accessmonthday=August 7 |accessyear=2008
] |accessdate=August 2008

Flora

The Los Angeles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversity in habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent botanical environment is coastal sage scrub, which covers the hillsides in combustible chaparral. Native plants include: California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Coast Live Oak, and giant wild rye grass. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though they are not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the tropical Coral Tree and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise, Strelitzia reginae. [ [http://www.sandiegozoo.org/CF/plants/species_detail.cfm?ID=130 San Diego Zoo] ]

Environmental issues

Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources. [ [http://www.laweekly.com/index.php?option=com_lawcontent&task=view&id=8115&Itemid=122 How Smog Forms in Los Angeles] ] Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (381 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emission vehicles. [ [http://www.driveclean.ca.gov/en/gv/driveclean/bguides.asp Driveclean from the California Government web site] ]

As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. [http://lungaction.org/reports/sota06_table2.html People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution.] American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.] [http://lungaction.org/reports/sota06_table2a.html People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution.] American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.] In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. [cite web|title= Pittsburgh and Los Angelesthe most polluted US cities|url=http://www.citymayors.com/environment/polluted_uscities.html] In addition, the groundwater is increasingly threatened by MTBE from gas stations and perchlorate from rocket fuel. With pollution still a significant problem, the city continues to take aggressive steps to improve air and water conditions. [Lopez, Theresa Adams. "PDFlink| [http://www.portoflosangeles.org/Press/REL_Air_Quality_Update_2-16-06.pdf Air Quality Programs at the Port of Los Angeles saw Refinement in 2005 with Focus on Ramping up in 2006] ." "Port of Los Angeles (News Release)." February 17, 2006.] [Staff Writer. " [http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?ContentID=4180 Air Quality Protections Take Off] ." " [http://www.environmentaldefense.org/ Environmental Defense] ." December 6, 2004.]

Cityscape

The city is divided into many neighborhoods, many of which were towns that were annexed by the growing city. There are also several independent cities in and around Los Angeles, but they are popularly grouped with the city of Los Angeles, either due to being completely engulfed as enclaves by Los Angeles, or lying within its immediate vicinity. Generally, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles, Northeast - including Highland Park and Eagle Rock areas, the Eastside, South Los Angeles (still often colloquially referred to as South Central by locals), the Harbor Area, Hollywood, Wilshire, the Westside and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys.

Some well-known communities of Los Angeles include West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice Beach, the Downtown Financial District, Los Feliz, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood and the more affluent areas of Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, and Brentwood.

Landmarks

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include Chinatown, Koreatown, Little Tokyo, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Tower, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium and La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.



Demographics

USCensusPop
1850 = 1610
1860 = 4385
1870 = 5728
1880 = 11183
1890 = 50395
1900 = 102479
1910 = 319198
1920 = 576673
1930 = 1238048
1940 = 1504277
1950 = 1970358
1960 = 2479015
1970 = 2816061
1980 = 2966850
1990 = 3485398
2000 = 3694820
estimate = 3849378
estyear = 2006
The censusGR|2 of 2000 recorded 3,694,820 people, 1,275,412 households, and 798,407 families residing in the city, with a population density of 7,876.8 people per square mile (3,041.3/km²). There were 1,337,706 housing units at an average density of 2,851.8 per square mile (1,101.1/km²).Los Angeles has become a multiethnic/diverse city, with major new groups of Latino and Asian immigrants in recent decades. As of the 2000 US Census, the racial distribution in Los Angeles was 46.9% White American, 11.2% African American, 10.5% Asian American, 0.8% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 25.7% from other races, and 5.2% from two or more races. 46.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino (of any race).cite web|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=16000US0644000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US06&_street=&_county=Los+Angeles&_cityTown=Los+Angeles&_state=04000US06&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=|title=Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights for Los Angeles, California|year=2000|publisher=United States Census Bureau|accessdate=2008-08-07]

42.2% spoke English, 41.7% Spanish, 2.4% Korean, 2.3% Filipino, 1.7% Armenian, 1.5% Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) and 1.3% Persian as their first language. [ [http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=6&county_id=&mode=&zip=&place_id=44000&cty_id=&ll=&a=&ea=&order=r Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Los Angeles, California] Modern Language Association] Since the mid-1980s, Los Angeles has been a minority-majority city.

According to the census, 33.5% of households had children under 18, 41.9% were married couples, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% were non-families. 28.5% of households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size 3.56.

The age distribution was: 26.6% under 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 34.1% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32. For every 100 females there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 97.5 males.

The median income for a household was $36,687, and for a family was $39,942. Males had a median income of $31,880, females $30,197. The per capita income was $20,671. 22.1% of the population and 18.3% of families were below the poverty line. 30.3% of those under the age of 18 and 12.6% of those aged 65 or older were below the poverty line.

Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. [ [http://www.lacity.org/mayor/deliveringresults/results_cibasic.htm City basics, lacity.org] ] Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little India, Little Tokyo, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.

Economy

The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, recorded music), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Los Angeles is also the largest manufacturing center in the United States. [http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Los-Angeles-Economy.html City-data.com] ] The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the most significant port in North America. They are some of the most important ports in the world, and vital to trade within the Pacific Rim. Other significant industries include media production, finance, telecommunications, law, health medicine, and transportation.

The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's largest private sector employer. [Evan George, [http://www.downtownnews.com/articles/2006/12/11/news/news05.txt Trojan Dollars: Study Finds USC Worth $4 Billion Annually to L.A. County] , "Los Angeles Downtown News", December 11, 2006.]

Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include 20th Century Fox, Latham & Watkins, Univision, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, O’Melveny & Myers; Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Tokyopop, The Jim Henson Company, Paramount Pictures, Robinsons-May, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Fox Sports Net, Capital Group, 21st century Insurance and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Korean Air's United States passenger operations and cargo operations headquarters are located in two separate offices in Los Angeles. [" [http://www.koreanair.com/local/na/ld/eng/au/ci/Contact_Info.htm Contact Info] ." "Korean Air". Accessed September 20, 2008.]

The metropolitan area contains the headquarters of companies who moved outside of the city to escape its taxes but keep the benefits of proximity. [PDFlink| [http://www.muniservices.com/consulting/LA_Final%20Evaluation%20Report%20January%2015.pdf EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES TO THE CITY’S GROSS RECEIPTS BUSINESS TAX] UT Strategies, et al. "Competitiveness of City Taxes and Fees". 1997.] For example, Los Angeles charges a gross receipts tax based on a percentage of business revenue, while many neighboring cities charge only small flat fees. ["Competitiveness" 22.] The companies below benefit from their proximity to Los Angeles, while at the same time avoiding the city's taxes (and other problems). Some of the major companies headquartered in the cities of Los Angeles county are Shakey's Pizza (Alhambra), Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Beverly Hills), City National Bank (Beverly Hills), Hilton Hotels (Beverly Hills), DIC Entertainment (Burbank), The Walt Disney Company (Fortune 500 – Burbank), Warner Bros. (Burbank), Countrywide Financial (Fortune 500 – Calabasas), THQ (Calabasas), Belkin (Compton), Sony Pictures Entertainment (parent of El Segundo), DirecTV (El Segundo), Mattel (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), Unocal Corporation (Fortune 500 – El Segundo), DreamWorks (Glendale), Sea Launch (Long Beach), ICANN (Marina del Rey), Cunard Line (Santa Clarita), Princess Cruises (Santa Clarita), Activision (Santa Monica), and RAND (Santa Monica).

Culture

The people of Los Angeles are known as "Angelenos". Nighttime hot spots include places such as Downtown Los Angeles, Silver Lake, Hollywood, and West Hollywood, which is the home of the world-famous Sunset Strip.

Some well-known shopping areas are the Hollywood and Highland complex, the Beverly Center, Melrose Avenue, Robertson Boulevard, Rodeo Drive, Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica, The Grove, Westside Pavilion, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center and Venice Boardwalk.

Religion

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country. [Pomfret, John. " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/01/AR2006040101206.html Cardinal Puts Church in Fight for Immigration Rights] ." Washington Post. April 2, 2006, accessed May 28, 2007] Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, completed in 2002 at the north end of downtown. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout the city.

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Mormon temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed. [ [http://www.ldschurchtemples.com/losangeles/ LDS - Los Angeles California Temple] ] The grounds includes a visitors' center open to the public, the "Los Angeles Regional Family History Center", also open to the public, and the headquarters for the Los Angeles mission.

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the American Jews third largest population of Jews in the United States. [cite web |url=http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_judaism.html |title=The Largest Jewish Communities |accessdate=2007-08-13] [http://www.simpletoremember.com/vitals/world-jewish-population.htm World Jewish Population from SimpleToRemember.com] ] Many synagogues of the Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist movements can be found throughout the city. Most are located in the San Fernando Valley and West Los Angeles. The area in West Los Angeles around Fairfax and Pico Boulevards contains a large number of Orthodox Jews. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades. [ [http://www.isjm.org/jhr/no1/america.htm "Washington Symposium and Exhibition Highlight Restoration and Adaptive Reuse of American Synagogues"] Jewish Heritage Report Issue No. 1 / March 1997] (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.) [ [http://www.isjm.org/jhr/IInos1-2/breedstreet.htm "Los Angeles’s Breed Street Shul Saved by Politicians"] Jewish Heritage Report Vol. II, Nos. 1-2 / Spring-Summer 1998)] The Kabbalah Centre, devoted to one line of Jewish mysticism, is also in the city.

Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world.

Media

The major daily newspaper in the area is the "Los Angeles Times"; "La Opinión" is the city's major Spanish-language paper. "Investor's Business Daily" is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa Del Rey. There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the "Daily News" (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), "LA Weekly," "Los Angeles CityBeat," "L.A. Record" (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles area), "Los Angeles" magazine, "Los Angeles Business Journal," "Los Angeles Daily Journal" (legal industry paper), "The Hollywood Reporter" and "Variety" (entertainment industry papers), and "Los Angeles Downtown News." In addition to the English- and Spanish-language papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese and Japanese. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include "The Daily Breeze" (serving the South Bay), and "The Long Beach Press-Telegram."

Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have all seven VHF allocations possible assigned to them. [ [http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/A/htmlA/allocation/allocation.htm Allocation information, The Museum of Broadcast Communications] ]

The city's first television station (and the first in California) was KTLA, which began broadcasting on January 22, 1947. The major network-affiliated television stations in this city are KABC-TV 7 (ABC), KCBS 2 (CBS), KNBC 4 (NBC), KTTV 11 (FOX), KTLA 5 (The CW), and KCOP-TV 13 (MyNetworkTV), and KPXN 30 (i). There are also three PBS stations in the area, including KCET 28, KOCE-TV 50, and KLCS 58. World TV operates on two channels, KNET-LP 25 and KSFV-LP 6. There are also several Spanish-language television networks, including KMEX-TV 34 (Univision), KFTR 46 (TeleFutura), KVEA 52 (Telemundo), and KAZA 54 (Azteca América). KTBN 40 (Trinity Broadcasting Network), is a religious station in the area.

Several independent television stations also operate in the area, including KCAL-TV 9 (owned by CBS Corporation), KSCI 18 (focuses primarily on Asian language programming), KWHY-TV 22 (Spanish-language), KNLA-LP 27 (Spanish-language), KSMV-LP 33 (variety)—a low power relay of Ventura-based KJLA 57—KPAL-LP 38, KXLA 44, KDOC-TV 56 (classic programming and local sports), KJLA 57 (variety), and KRCA 62 (Spanish-language).

ports

Los Angeles is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Sparks of the WNBA, the Los Angeles Riptide of Major League Lacrosse, and the Los Angeles Avengers of the Arena Football League. Los Angeles is also home to the USC Trojans and the UCLA Bruins in the NCAA, both of which are Division I teams in the Pacific-10 Conference. Several more teams are in the greater Los Angeles media market: the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim of Major League Baseball and the Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League are both based in nearby Anaheim; and the Los Angeles Galaxy and Club Deportivo Chivas USA of Major League Soccer are both based in neighboring Carson. The city is the largest in the U.S. without an NFL team.

There was a time when Los Angeles boasted two NFL teams, the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis and the Raiders heading back to Oakland. Los Angeles is the second-largest city and television market in the United States, but has no NFL team (see List of television stations in North America by media market). Prior to 1995, the Rams called Memorial Coliseum (1946-1979) and Anaheim Stadium (1980-1994) home; [ [http://www.stlouisrams.com/History/HomesOfTheRams/ St. Louis Rams] ] and the Raiders played their home games at Memorial Coliseum from 1982 to 1994. [Hong, Peter. "Few Tears Here." "Los Angeles Times" 29 June 1995: B1.]

Since the franchise's departures the NFL as an organization, and individual NFL owners, have attempted to relocate a team to the city. Immediately following the 1995 NFL season, Seattle Seahawks owner Ken Behring went as far as packing up moving vans to start play in the Rose Bowl under a new team name and logo for the 1996 season. The State of Washington filed a law suit to successfully prevent the move. [ "Business Wire". [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1996_Feb_2/ai_17922281 "Seattle Seahawks owner Ken Behring announces move of NFL franchise"] 2 Feb 1996. (Accessed 3 September 2007)] In 2003, then NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue indicated L.A. would get a new expansion team, a thirty-third franchise, after the choice of Houston over L.A. in the 2002 league expansion round. [Satzman, Darrell. "Los Angeles Business Journal". [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_4_25/ai_97616093 "NFL's interest in returning to L.A. long on desire, far from reality - Up Front"] . 27 Jan 2003. (Accessed 3 September 2007)] When the New Orleans Saints were displaced from the Superdome by Hurricane Katrina media outlets reported the NFL was planning to move the team to Los Angeles permanently. [Joyner, James. "Outside the Beltway". [http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/2005/10/nfl_may_move_saints_to_los_angeles/ "NFL May Move Saints to Los Angeles"] . 27 Oct 2005. (Accessed 3 September 2007)] Despite these efforts, and the failure to build a new stadium for an NFL team, L.A. is still expected to return to the league through expansion or relocation.

Los Angeles has twice played host to the summer Olympic Games, in 1932 and in 1984. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city as well as soccer's international World Cup in 1994.

Los Angeles also boasts a number of sports venues, including Staples Center, a sports and entertainment complex that also hosts concerts and awards shows such as the Grammys. Staples Center also serves as the home arena for the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA, the Los Angeles Sparks of the WNBA, the Los Angeles Kings of the NHL and the Avengers of the AFL.

Government

The city is governed by a mayor-council system. The current mayor is Antonio Villaraigosa. There are 15 city council districts. Other elected city officials include the City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo and the City Controller Laura N. Chick. The city attorney prosecutes misdemeanors within the city limits. The district attorney, elected by county voters, prosecutes misdemeanors in unincorporated areas and in 78 of the 88 cities in the county, as well as felonies throughout the county.

The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) polices the city of Los Angeles, but the city also maintains four specialized police agencies; The Office of Public Safety, within the General Services Department (which is responsible for security and law enforcement services at city facilities, including City Hall, city parks and libraries, the Los Angeles Zoo, and the Convention Center), the Port Police, within the Harbor Department (which is responsible for land, air and sea law enforcement services at the Port of Los Angeles), the Los Angeles City Schools Police department which handles law enforcement for all city schools, and the Airport Police, within the Los Angeles World Airports Department (which is responsible for law enforcement services at all four city-owned airports, including Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), LA/Ontario International Airport (ONT), LA/Palmdale Regional Airport (PMD), and Van Nuys Airport (VNY), (the busiest general aviation airport in the country).Clarifyme|date=July 2008

Neighborhood councils

Voters created Neighborhood Councils in the Charter Reform of 1999. First proposed by City Council member Joel Wachs in 1996, they were designed to promote public participation in government and make it more responsive to local needs.

The councils cover districts which are not necessarily identical to the traditional neighborhoods of Los Angeles.

Almost ninety neighborhood councils (NCs) are certified and all "stakeholders" — meaning anyone who lives, works or owns property in a neighborhood — may vote for members of the councils' governing bodies. Some council bylaws allow other people with a stake in the community to cast ballots as well.

The councils are official government bodies and so their governing bodies and committees must abide by California's Brown Act, which governs the meetings of deliberative assemblies.

The first notable concern of the neighborhood councils collectively was the opposition by some of them in March 2004 to an 18% increase in water rates by the city's Department of Water and Power. This led the City Council to approve only a limited increase pending independent review. More recently, some of the councils petitioned the City Council in summer 2006 to allow them to introduce ideas for legislative action, but the City Council put off a decision.

The neighborhood councils have been allocated $50,000 each for administration, outreach and approved neighborhood projects.

Crime and safety

Los Angeles has been experiencing significant decline in crime since the mid-1990s, and hit a record low in 2007, with 392 homicides. [cite web|url=http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2008/jan/04/ventura-countys-homicide-rate-at-record-low-in/ |title=Ventura County's homicide rate at record low in 2007 : Local News : Ventura County Star |publisher=Venturacountystar.com |author=Adam Foxman (Contact) Friday, January 4, 2008 |date= |accessdate=2008-10-06] The LAPD makes live crime statistics available on the [http://www.lapdcrimemaps.org/ LAPD crimestats and epolice web site] .

Current mayor Antonio Villaraigosa is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition. [cite web |url=http://www.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/html/about/members.shtml |title=Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members]

According to a May 2001 Drug Threat Assessment by the National Drug Intelligence Center, Los Angeles County is home to 152,000 gang members organized into 1,350 gangs. [" [http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs0/668/overview.htm California Central District Drug Threat Assessment : Overview] ." "National Drug Intelligence Center." May, 2001.] Among the most infamous are the 18th Street, Mara Salvatrucha, Crips, Bloods, and the Surenos street gangs. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America." [ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08492271.htm "Police target 11 worst Los Angeles street gangs"] - Reuters AlertNet]

Education

Colleges and universities

There are three public universities located within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).Private colleges in the city include the American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy - Los Angeles campus, Antioch University's Los Angeles campus, Art Center College of Design (Art Center), Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU is also the parent university of Loyola Law School located in Los Angeles), Mount St. Mary's College, National University of California, New York Film Academy in Universal City, CA, Occidental College ("Oxy"), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, and University of Southern California (USC).

The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College and West Los Angeles College.

chools and libraries

Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population over 800,000. [ [http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/saipe/district.html US Census, District information] ] After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools. [ [http://media.www.dailytrojan.com/media/storage/paper679/news/2005/01/26/News/Magnet.Schools.Just.As.Competitive.As.Private.Schools-841415.shtml Magnet schools just as competitive as private schools] ] Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. [ [http://www.lapl.org/branches/ LA Public Library] ]

Transportation

Public transportation

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined daily ridership of 1.7 million. [PDFlink| [http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/riderep/documents/06q2rep.pdf "APTA TRANSIT RIDERSHIP REPORT" APTA.] ] The majority of this (1.4 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 319,000 boardings per weekday. [ [http://www.metro.net/news_info/ridership_avg.htm LACMTA ridership, June 2008] ] Altogether, public transit ridership is much lower than other large cities, with 11% of Los Angeles commuters riding public transportation. [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en US Census] ] Failed verification|date=October 2008

The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's third busiest.American Public Transportation Association, [http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/riderep/documents/08q1hr.pdf Heavy Rail Transit Ridership Report] , First Quarter 2008.]

The rail system includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold, Blue, and Green light rail lines. The Metro Rapid buses are a bus rapid transit program with stops and frequency similar those of a light rail.

Air transportation

The main Los Angeles airport is Los Angeles International Airport airport codes|LAX|KLAX. The fifth busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled over 61 million passengers and 2 million tons of cargo in 2006. [ [http://www.lawa.org/lax/volTraffic.cfm LAX Volume of air traffic] ]

Other major nearby commercial airports include:
* LA/Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Los Angeles; serves the Inland Empire.
* Bob Hope Airport, formerly known as "Burbank Airport"; serves the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys
* Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area
* John Wayne Airport of Orange County.
* LA/Palmdale Regional Airport is owned by the city of Los Angeles and serves the northern outlying communities of the Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys.

The world's third busiest general-aviation airport is also located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport airport codes|VNY|KVNY. [ [http://www.lawa.org/vny/ Los Angeles World Airports] ]

Harbors

The Port of Los Angeles is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (30 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km²) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the "Los Angeles – Long Beach Harbor". There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along L.A.'s coastline. Safety is provided at the only beach controlled by Los Angeles City by the highly trained [http://lacitylifeguards.pyroinnovations.com/ Los Angeles City Lifeguards] .

The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.

ister cities

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, [" [http://www.lacity.org/SisterCities/ Sister Cities of Los Angeles] ." Retrieved on March 26, 2008.] ranked by year joined:
* Eilat, Israel (1959)
* Nagoya, Japan (1959)
* Salvador, Brazil (1962)
* Bordeaux, France (1964)
* Podgorica, Montenegro (.)
* Berlin, Germany ()
* Lusaka, Zambia (1968)
* Mexico City, Mexico (1969)
* Auckland, New Zealand (1971)
* Busan, South Korea (1971)
* Mumbai, India (1972)
* Tehran, Iran (1972)
* Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1979)
* Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (1981)
* Athens, Greece (1984)
* Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984)
* Vancouver, Canada (1986)
* Giza, Egypt (1989)
* Jakarta, Indonesia (1990)
* Kaunas, Lithuania (1991)
* Makati, Philippines (1992)
* Split, Croatia (1993)
* San Salvador, El Salvador (2005)
* Beirut, Lebanon (2006)
* Ischia, Italy (2006)
* Yerevan, Armenia (2007)

In 2007, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa also recognized a cultural exchange partnership with Tel-Aviv, Israel. [cite web|url=http://www.jewishla.org/Tel_Aviv_LA_Partnership.cfm|title=Tel Aviv/Los Angeles Partnership|year=2007|publisher= [http://www.jewishla.org/ The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles] |accessdate=2008-08-07]

See also

* Greater Los Angeles
*Los Angeles County

References

Further reading

*Reyner Banham, "Los Angeles: The Architecture of the Four Ecologies", University of California Press, 1971.
*Mike Davis, "", Vintage Books, 1992
*Torin Monahan, PDFlink| [http://torinmonahan.com/papers/LA_Studies.pdf Los Angeles Studies: The Emergence of a Specialty Field] , City & Society XIV (2): 155-184, 2002
*Lynell George, "No Crystal Stair: African Americans in the City of Angels", Verso, 1992
*Paul Glover, [http://www.ithacahours.com/losangeles.html "Los Angeles: A History of the Future"] , Eco-Home Press, 1989
*Norman M. Klein, "The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory", Verso, 1997
*Leonard Pitt & Dale Pitt, "Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County", University of California Press, 2000
*Peter Theroux, "Translating LA: A Tour of the Rainbow City", Norton, 1994
*David L. Ulin (ed), "Writing Los Angeles: A Literary Anthology", Library of America, 2002
*Richard White, "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A New History of the American West", University of Oklahoma Press, 1991
*Marc Reisner, "," Penguin Books, 1986.
*Robert M. Fogelson, "The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles 1850-1930", University of California Press, 1967
* [http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hhb/HHBindex.htm California History, Bancroft]

External links

* [http://www.lacity.org/ City of Los Angeles Official Website]
* [http://www.lachamber.org/ Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.lacvb.com/ Los Angeles Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [http://www.lacityneighborhoods.com/map.htm# Los Angeles Neighborhood Councils]
*
* [http://www.experiencela.com/ ExperienceLA.com]
* [http://www.laonmap.com/ Los Angeles Sightseeing Map]
* [http://www.lamag.com/ Los Angeles magazine]
* [http://www.la2day.com/ Los Angeles Online Magazine LA2day]

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