BTR-70


BTR-70

Infobox Weapon
name=BTR-70


caption=BTR-70
origin=Soviet Union
type=Armoured personnel carrier
is_vehicle=yes
crew=3 (+7 passengers)
length= 7.535 m
width= 2.80 m
height= 2.32 m
weight= 11.5 tonnes
armour= 9 mm (front) 7 mm (sides)
primary_armament= 14.5 mm KPVT machine gun
secondary_armament= 7.62 mm PKT machine gun
engine= gasoline ZMZ-4905
engine_power= 120 hp (88.2 kW) (x2)
suspension= wheeled 8×8
speed= 80 km/h, swim 9 km/h
pw_ratio= 20 hp/tonne
vehicle_range= 400-600 km
The BTR-70 is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier ("бронетранспортер" or "bronyetransportyor"), originally developed during the late 1970s under the industrial designator GAZ-4905 and fielded by the Warsaw Pact and allies beginning in the early 1980s. Introduced as a successor to the earlier BTR-60, it most closely resembles a BTR-60PB.Other improvements include heavier armor plating and tires less prone to puncture. In other respects, the vehicle is very similar to the BTR-60PB, with a more powerful (although still fuel hungry) petrol engine configuration and armament of a primary heavy machine gun and secondary PKT machine gun on a roof mounted turret.

The vehicle's designers moved the side troop doors. On the vehicle's predecessor, these doors were located above the beltline between the second and third pairs of wheels on both sides of the vehicle. On the BTR-70, the doors are below the beltline between the second and third pairs of wheels. As Soviet doctrine calls for unloading troops from the vehicle while it is in motion, the door location increases the chances that a soldier will be pulled under a wheel and injured or killed, although it also means that the troops can get out quicker while exposing them less to the enemy.

Like the vehicle's predecessor it is fully amphibious with minimal preparation. A licensed Romanian copy was designated the TAB-77 and had various improvements and changes to make local production easier, including a better turret and different engines.

Equipment

The BTR-70 is powered by two gasoline engines. Early production vehicles had GAZ-69B 6-cylinder engines of 115 hp each installed but most vehicles have the stronger ZMZ-49-05 V-8 engines. The vehicle is fully amphibious, propelled when afloat by a single water jet mounted at the rear of the hull. To prepare the vehicle for water, the driver erects a trim vane and switches on the bilge pumps from within the vehicle.

The standard equipment includes a central tyre-pressure regulation system that allows the driver to adjust the tyre-pressure to suit the terrain being crossed. Also fitted is an R-123M radio set and an R-124 intercom. The driver's optical equipment consists of three vision blocks TNPO-115 and a day vision device TNP-B that can be replaced by a night vision device TVNO-2B. The commander also has three TNPO-115's and a TPKU-2B day or TKN-1S night sight that works together with the infra-red search light OU-3GA-2. The turret is fitted with a PP-61AM (or 1PZ-2) periscopic sight for the gunner and the infantry group in the troop compartment is provided with TNP-B devices. The BTR-70 also has an NBC filter system FVU and a DK-3B detection device.

The armament consist of a heavy machine gun KPVT with 500 rounds and a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun PKT with 2,000 rounds. Also on board are two "Igla" or "Strela-3" MANPADS, and optionally two AGS-17 grenade launchers at the expense of two infantry men.

Variants

Russian Federation

* BTR-70 obr. 1978 - Initial version, publicly displayed in 1980.
* BTR-70 obr. 1982 - Improved model with ZMZ-49-05 V-8 engines of each 120hp instead of the original GAZ-49B 115hp 6-cylinder engines.
* BTR-70 obr. 1984 - Slightly modified model with additional TNPT-1 periscope on the turret roof.
* BTR-70 obr. 1986 - Improved version with additional periscope in left turret side and with 4 firing ports in the hull roof.
* BTR-70V - Late-production model, fitted with the BPU-1 turret of the BTR-80 with 1PZ-2 sight, but without the "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers.
* BTR-70M - Modernized version with turret, diesel engine and rear hull section of the BTR-80.
* BTR-70D - Dieselized version, developed by Muromteplovoz and powered by a YaMZ-236D 180hp diesel engine. Prototype only.
* SPR-2 "Rtut-B" ("stantsiya pomekh radiovzryvatelyam") - Electronic warfare variant, designed to detonate artillery shells with proximity fuze detonators.
** SPR-2M - Modified version with more compact equipment.
* BTR-70K ("komandnyj") - Command vehicle with additional radios, several whip antennas, navigation device and a portable generator.
* BTR-70KShM ("komandno-shtabnaya mashina") - Command and control variant, designed to be used as a mobile command post.
* 2S14 "Zhalo-S" - tank hunter, armed with a 2A62 85mm gun. Prototype only.
* SA-22 ("spetsapparatnaya mashina") - command vehicle.
* MBP ("mashina boyevogo posta") - base security vehicle for Strategic Rocket units. The original turret has been replaced by a new type with improved sight 1PN22M1, loudspeakers, IR search lights OU-3GA-2, additional periscopes TNPO-170 and an NSVT 12.7 mm machine gun.
* BTR-80

Ukraine

* BTR-70D - Upgraded from 2001 by NRMZ and fitted with a 300hp diesel engine. Ukrainian army vehicles additionally have BTR-80 style two-piece escape hatches in the hull sides.
* BTR-70DI - With Euro II 276hp diesel engine from IVECO. Can be optionally fitted with modular turrets "Ingul" or "Bug" or with the "Zaslon" active protection system.
* BTR-70M - Upgraded by Marozov and powered by a 300hp engine UTD-20. Might be fitted with a new turret like the "Grom" or BAU-23x2.
* BTR-70SM - Unarmed ambulance with re-designed hull. Three different models have been observed.

East-Germany

* SPW 70 ("Schützenpanzerwagen") - NVA designator for Romanian-made BTR-70. 1,316 delivered between 1980 and 1990. [Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) "Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA". Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02152-8]
** SPW 70(S) - Locally converted staff vehicle with 2 additional radio's, 2-3 whip antennas and a slim telescopic mast on the right side of the hull roof.
** SPW 70(SL) - Forward air control vehicle, equipped with R-809M2 radio and fitted with four whip antennas.
** SPW 70(Ch) - NBC reconnaissance vehicle with detection and marking systems. Prototype only.

lovakia/Belarus

* Cobra-K - Fitted with modular turret 2A42-Cobra. Might be optionally equipped with a new diesel engine KamAZ-7403.

Belarus

* BREM ("bronirovannaya remontno-evakuatsionnaya mashina") - During MILEX-2007, Minotaur from Minsk presented a technical support vehicle, based on the BTR-70. This version retained the turret but without the KPVT machine gun. It is fitted with tow bars, a work platform and a light crane. Prototype.

Romania

* TAB-77 ("transportorul amfibiu blindat") - Romania not only build the BTR-70 under licence (for export), but also developed its own, improved version. The TAB-77 is very similar but has the same turret with LOTA aiming system as the TAB-71. The original gasoline engines were replaced with 132hp diesel engines Saviem 797-05M1.
** TAB-77 M1983 - upgraded version with 30 mm gun and ATGM 9M14M "Malyutka". Prototype.
** TAB-77 M1984 - upgraded version with 23 mm gun and ATGM 9M14M "Malyutka". Prototype.
** TAB-77A PCOMA ("punct de commanda şi observare mobil de artilerie") - artillery command and forward observer vehicle with range finders in a big, unarmed turret. Armament consists of a single, pintle-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun on the hull roof.
** TAB-77A R-1451/M - command vehicle with radiosets R-1070 and R-1451M. Similar to basic APC but with additiopnal whip antennas and with rear-mounted generator.
** TAB-77A R-1452 - signals vehicle with R-1452 radio set, low-profile "dummy turret, 7 whip antennas, a telescopic mast, two generators at the rear and a pintle-mounted machine gun on the hull roof.
** TERA-77L ("tractor de evacuare şi reparat auto") - recovery vehicle with 5t crane and dozer blade.
**TABC-79 - shorter version with ony 4 wheels. Several variants exist.

Combat history

The BTR-70 was widely used during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and many smaller conflicts in Eastern Europe.

Operators

*ARM - 20, some upgraded with diesel engine and 23 mm gun
*AZE - 28
*BLR - 446 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/army-equipment.htm Belarus Army Equipment ] ]
*GEO - 19
*IRN - 1000
*KAZ - 45
*KGZ - 45
*MKD - 58 SPW 70, SPW 70(S) and BTR-70D
*MDA - 5
*MEX
*NEP - 135 (German vehicles, used by NEPBAT in Bosnia. Destroyed.)
*PAK - 169 (German vehicles, used by PAKBAT in Bosnia. Destroyed.)
*ROM - 170 TAB-77
*RUS - 2,000
*UKR - 1,026 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine ] ]
*UZB - 36
*TJK - 2 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/tajik-army-equipment.htm Tajik-Army Equipment ] ]
*TKM - 170

Former Operators

*USSR - Passed on to successor states.
*GDR

References

* Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) "Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA". Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02152-8
* A.V. Karpenko (1996) "Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki (1905-1995 gg.)" Nevskij Bastion

External links

* [http://www.armyrecognition.com/Russe/vehicules_a_roues/BTR-70/BTR_70_russie_description.htm BTR-70 Technical data sheet and pictures BTR-70 ArmyRecognition.com]
* [http://www.armyrecognition.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=4580&sid=89cf207bedaa76d456338119d13b8832 ArmyRecognition - Images of TAB series]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/btr-70.htm FAS page]
* [http://www.pmulcahy.com/wheeled_apcs/romanian_wheeled_apcs.htm TAB-77]
* [http://armoured.vif2.ru/btr-70.htm Description (in russian) and photo gallery at armoured.vif2.ru]
* [http://nsu.ru/vk/tp/bt/btr/70/index.htm BTR-70 in detail (in Russian)]

See also

*BTR-60, BTR-80, BTR-90, BTR-94 - closely related vehicles.


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