2008 Ahmedabad bombings

2008 Ahmedabad bombings

Infobox civilian attack
title = 2008 Ahmedabad bombings

caption =
location = Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
coordinates =
date = 26 July 2008
time = 18:45 - 19:55
timezone = IST
type = 21 Bomb blasts [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Ahmedabad blasts claim two more victims| work =Hindustan Times| publisher =HT Media Ltd| date =2008-08-01| url =http://www.hindu.com/2008/08/07/stories/2008080759931300.htm| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-01 ]
fatalities = 56cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Gujarat police release three sketches| work =The Hindu| publisher =Kasturi & Sons Ltd| date =2008-08-06| url =http://www.khabrein.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=15625&Itemid=88| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-06 ]
injuries = 200cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Death toll in Ahmedabad serial blasts rises to 55| work =| publisher =Khabrein.info| date =2008-08-01| url =http://www.khabrein.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=15625&Itemid=88| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-01 ]
perps =
perp = Indian Mujahideen
susperps =
susperp = Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami
weapons =

The 2008 Ahmedabad bombings were a series of 21 bomb blasts that hit Ahmedabad, India, on July 26, 2008, within a span of 70 minutes. 56 people were killed and over 200 people were injured. Ahmedabad is the cultural and commercial heart of Gujarat state, and a large part of western India. The blasts were considered to be of low intensity, and were similar to the Bengaluru blasts which occurred the day before.

Several TV channels said they had received an e-mail from a terror outfit called Indian Mujahideen claiming responsibility for the terror attacks;cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =16 blasts in Ahmedabad; 49 dead, 145 injured| work =India Today Group| publisher =Living Media| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.itgo.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&issueid=&id=7098&sectionid=9&secid=0&Itemid=1| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27 ] cite web| last =Das| first =Rathin| authorlink =| coauthors =A. Sharan| title =29 killed as 17 blasts rock Ahmedabad| work =Hindustan Times| publisher =HT Media Ltd| date =2008-07-26| url =http://www.hindustantimes.com/storypage/storypage.aspx?sectionName=&id=ea524d97-da77-40aa-870e-09ca9febc619&&Headline=14+killed+as+16+bombs+go+off+in+Ahmedabad&strParent=strParentID| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-26 ] Islamic militant group Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami, however, has claimed responsibility for the attacks. [cite web|url=http://cnnwire.blogs.cnn.com/2008/07/27/india-blasts-toll-up-to-37/|title=India blasts toll up to 37|date=2008-07-27|work=CNN|publisher=Turner Broadcasting System|accessdate=2008-07-27] The Gujarat police arrested the suspected mastermind, Mufti Abu Bashir, along with nine others, in connection to the bombings. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Abu_Bashir_behind_Ahmedabad_blasts_Police/articleshow/3370648.cms Abu Bashir behind Ahmedabad blasts: Police] ]

These bombings occurred a day after the Bengaluru blasts and a day before a bomb blast in the Indian state of Jharkhand.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Five persons injured in Jharkhand blast| work =| publisher =NDTV| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058895| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27 ]

The bombings

The bombs were planted in Tiffin carriers on bicycles, a pattern similar to the 13 May 2008 Jaipur bombings.cite web|url=http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058856|title=Ahmedabad blasts: Toll rises|date=2008-07-26|publisher=NDTV|accessdate=2008-07-26] Many of the blasts targeted the city bus service, ripping apart portions of the vehicles. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Ahmedabad terror toll crosses 45, more bombs found| work =South Asia Monitor| publisher =Contemporary Studies Society| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.southasiamonitor.org/2008/July/news/28n4.shtml| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-04 ] Two blasts took place inside the premises of two hospitals, about 40 minutes after the initial series of blasts. One of the blasts in the hospitals occurred when injured victims of the initial series of blasts were being admitted there.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Indian cities on high alert after blasts| work =CNN| publisher =Turner Broadcasting System| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/07/26/india.blasts/index.html| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27 ] Another bomb was found and defused on the following day in the Hatkeshwar area. Two live bombs were also retrieved from Maninagar, Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi's constituency.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Ahmedabad serial blasts claim 45 lives| work =| publisher =NDTV| date =2008-07-28| url =http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058914| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-28 ]

Gujarat police recovered and diffused two more bombs in Surat, another major city in Gujarat, a day after the Ahmedabad blasts. Two cars filled with materials required to make explosives, including detonators, were also found, one of them parked on a roadside near a hospital, [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Live bombs defused in Ahmedabad, Surat| work =| publisher =Zee News| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=458215&sid=NAT| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27] and the other in the outskirts of Surat. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Surat on high alert; 2 cars with explosives found| work =| publisher =Rediff.com| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/27ahd11.htm| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-04]

Warning of attacks through e-mail

Several news agencies reported receiving a 14-page e-mail five minutes before the explosions with the subject line: "Await 5 minutes for the revenge of Gujarat", [cite web| last =Rosenberg| first =Matthew| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Islamic group claims India blasts that killed 45| work =| publisher =Yahoo!| date =2008-07-27| url =http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080727/ap_on_re_as/india_explosions| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27] apparently referring to the riots of 2002 which took place in Gujarat after the Godhra train burning incident. The e-mail was sent by the group known as “Indian Mujahideen” on July 26 at around 6:41pm IST from an email address alarbi_gujarat@yahoo.com. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Islamic group claims India blasts that killed 45| work =Boston Herald| publisher =Herald Media| date =2008-07-27| url =http://news.bostonherald.com/news/international/asia_pacific/view/2008_07_27_Islamic_group_claims_India_blasts_that_killed_45/srvc=home&position=recent| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27]

The contents of the e-mail warned of attacks in 5 minutes: “In the name of Allah the Indian Mujahideen strike again! Do whatever you can, within 5 minutes from now, feel the terror of Death!”cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Mukesh Ambani in Indian Mujahideen's e-mail| work =The Times of India| publisher =The Times Group| date =2008-07-27| url =http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Mukesh_Ambani_in_Indian_Mujahideens_email/articleshow/3289842.cms| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27]

The e-mail also contained threats against the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Vilasrao Deshmukh, and his deputy, R.R. Patil, with the claim, “We wonder at your memory. Have you forgotten the evening of July 11, 2006 so quickly and so easily?”

Furthermore, the threats went on to warn Indian businessman Mukesh Ambani of Reliance Industries to “think-twice” before “usurping and building a citadel on a land in Mumbai that belongs to the Waqf board...lest it turns into horrifying memories for you which you will never ever forget.”

The e-mail also reportedly threatened several Bollywood actors, asking them to stop acting.

Police reported that they questioned U.S national Ken Haywood from whose IP address the threating email was sent. Haywood's residence in the Sanpada area of Navi Mumbai was raided by ATS officials on July 27 after the IP address from which a threatening email was sent minutes before the Ahmedabad serial blasts was found to be his.cite news|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Ahmedabad_blasts_Lie_detector_narco_tests_on_US_national_Haywood/rssarticleshow/3361829.cms|title=Ahmedabad blasts: Lie detector, narco tests on US national Haywood|date=13 Aug 2008|publisher=Times of India|accessdate=2008-08-13]


56 people were killed by the bombing and over 200 people were injured.

Initially, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh sanctioned an ex gratia payment of Rs 1 lakh (US$ 2,300) to the next of kin of the dead. However upon visiting Ahmedabad, he raised the ex gratia figure to Rs 3.5 lakh (US$ 8,050). In addition, he also announced a compensation of Rs 50,000 (US$ 1,200) for those injured in the blasts. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Ahmedabad blasts: PM asks people to maintain communal harmony| work =Express India| publisher =The Indian Express Group| date =2008-07-26| url =http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Ahmedabad-blasts--PM-asks-people-to-maintain-communal-harmony/340868/| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-26]

Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi announced a compensation of Rs 5 lakh (US$ 11,500) to each victim of the bomb blasts. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =It's a war against India: Narendra Modi| work =The Times of India| publisher =The Times Group| date =2008-07-27| url =http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3286188.cms| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27]


Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami has claimed the responsibility of the blasts. The email mentioned that "the innocent Muslims arrested in the (Mumbai) bomb blast case are being tried for years and years." [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =BJP-ruled states incur wrath of terrorists| work =The Times of India| publisher =The Times Group| date =2008-07-27| url =http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/BJP-ruled_states_incur_wrath_of_terrorists/articleshow/3286115.cms| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27]

Union Home Secretary Madhukar Gupta said the Centre dispatched one team of bomb experts and decided to convene a meeting of top officials of state governments to discuss the situation arising out of the recent explosions. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Centre dispatches bomb experts team to Ahmedabad| work =Hindustan Times| publisher =HT Media Ltd| date =2008-07-26| url =http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=3094e670-18c6-40ec-80d1-8b3b5573e887&MatchID1=4728&TeamID1=2&TeamID2=3&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1191&PrimaryID=4728&Headline=Centre+dispatches+bomb+experts+team+to+Ahmedabad&strParent=strParentID| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-07]

According to the "Times of India" the intelligence community believes that both blasts of Bangalore and Ahmedabad were executed by a network of Wahabi fundamentalists masquerading as Indian Mujahideen. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Experts see Wahabis in garb of Indian Mujahideen| work =The Times of India| publisher =The Times Group| date =2008-07-28| url =http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Experts_see_Wahabis_in_garb_of_Indian_Mujahideen/articleshow/3292655.cms| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-28]

Leads in the case

* Several TV channels stated that they had received an e-mail from a terror outfit called Indian Mujahideen claiming responsibility for the terror attacks. This e-mail has been traced to a locality in Navi Mumbai cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =E-mail threat: Police raid Navi Mumbai residence| work =India Today Group| publisher =Living Media| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.itgo.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7117&Itemid=1&sectionid=9| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27] . This outfit in the past claimed responsibility for the 13 May 2008 Jaipur bombings.cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/15/india|title=Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility for Jaipur blasts|last=Ramesh|first=Randeep|date=May 15 2008|publisher=The Guardian|accessdate=2008-07-26]

* The police investigation has centered around the claims made in two phone calls.

:* A doctor who was visiting one of the hospitals where one of the blasts occurred has claimed to have overheard a person talking on his cellphone saying, "Bangalore was a failure, however Ahmedabad will be successful and we will celebrate if God wishes." [http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=458298&sid=NAT I heard the culprit speaking on phone, claims witness ] Zee News] . A sketch of this person, shown alongside, was released. The doctor described the suspected culprit as being around "30-34 years old; wearing a pink shirt; clean shaven; and seemingly an educated person."

:* A person has claimed to have received two suspicious phone calls at around 8:00pm IST . In one of the phone calls, it is reported that the caller said, "Ejaz, kaam ho gaya hai?", which translates to "Ejaz, has the job been done?"

* Two cars, both stolen Maruti Wagon R models with vehicle license plates reading "GJ-6-CD 3569" and "GJ-5-CD 2908" were also found in Surat. One of the cars had four live bombs which were defused. In addition, a wooden box with white powder, wires, a battery and shrapnel was also found near Nupur hospital [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058986 "Two cars with explosives found in Surat".] Accessed July 30, 2008.] . The cars used for bombings in Ahmedabad and those that were defused in Surat were eventually traced to Navi Mumbai, from where they had been stolen on July 7 and July 15, 2008. [cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Police defuse bombs found in Surat| work =| publisher =Yahoo!| date =2008-07-29| url =http://in.news.yahoo.com/137/20080729/736/tnl-police-defuse-bombs-found-in-surat.html| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-08-04 ] Investigations revealed that they were subsequently laden with explosives in Vadodara [cite news|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Cars_started_from_Mumbai_bombs_loaded_in_Vadodara/rssarticleshow/3299487.cms|title=Cars started from Mumbai, bombs loaded in Vadodara|accessdate=2008-07-28] , before being brought to Ahmedabad and Surat.

* On July 30, 2008, it was reported that the police had found CCTV footage of the driver of one of the cars used for the bombings. The photo was obtained from a toll booth near Pune. It had been earlier established that the bombers had stolen the cars from Navi Mumbai before driving it to Gujarat [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=3d52a9a1-d7c3-45ec-9691-bb36ad34f773&MatchID1=4727&TeamID1=2&TeamID2=3&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1191&PrimaryID=4727&Headline=Driver+of+one+of+the+terror+cars+on+CCTV&strParent=strParentID itle=Driver of one of the terror cars on CCTV|accessdate=2008-30-07] . The car used in the blast at the Ahmedabad Civil Hospital was driven 6 times between Ahmedabad and Surat between July 7 and July 24 [cite news|title=Car used in Ahmedabad Civil Hospital blast moved 6 times between cities|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Car_used_in_Ahmedabad_Civil_Hospital_blast_moved_6_times_between_cities/rssarticleshow/3307998.cms|accessdate=2008-07-31] .

* On August 4, 2008, the Gujarat police claimed to have their first breakthrough in the case with the identification of the shop from where the LPG cylinders used for the blasts were bought. The police also claimed that the crates in which the bombs were planted were made from locally purchased wood. [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=353815e4-cc37-46dd-96fa-bc6f27cd948f&&Headline=Gujarat+Police+claim+first+breakthrough+in+blasts+case&strParent=strParentID|title=Gujarat police claim their first breakthrough in blast case|accessed=2008-08-04]


* The Hindustan Times reported on July 28, 2008 that police and intelligence officials had zeroed in on three masterminds behind the blasts. The suspects, Rasool Khan Yakoob Khan Pathan "alias" Rasool ‘Party’, Sohail Khan and Mufti Sufiyan, are suspected to be key operatives of either the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) or the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI). They are also believed to have got to Pakistan after the 2002 Guajrat riots.cite web| last =Desai| first =Stavan| authorlink =| coauthors =A. Sharan| title =Ahmedabad blasts: Three masterminds under scanner| work =Hindustan Times| publisher =HT Media Ltd| date =2008-07-28| url =http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=5aefaf8b-ef1a-470e-b538-6520babd72e0&&Headline=Ahmedabad+blasts%3a+Three+masterminds&strParent=strParentID| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-28 ]

* On July 29, 2008, the police detained three suspects, Abdul Qadir, Hasil Mohammad and Hussain Ibrahim, near Limbi on Rajkot-Ahmedabad highway in Surendranagar district, while they were leaving Ahmedabad soon after the blasts [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=08b70eed-0cd0-413b-9737-64517d0ab5e3&&Headline=Ahmedabad+police+detain+three+men|title=Serial blasts: Ahmedabad police detains 3 men|accessdate=2008-07-29]

* On July 30, 2008, it was reported on Rediff that the Intelligence Bureau (IB) believed two men, Rasool Khan Parti and Mohammad Sufiya Ahmed Patangiya, who are currently living at Farahan Arcade Gulistan in Karachi were the masterminds behind both the Ahmedabad and the 2008 Bangalore serial blasts. They were previously residents of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, and are members of Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami. The Gujarat Police has been looking for them in connection to the murder of former Gujarat state minister Haren Pandyacite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/30ahd7.htm|title=IB identifies Pak-based masterminds|accessdate=2008-07-30] .

An excerpt from the Rediff article is provided below:cquote
"According to the IB, the entire operation was carried out by Indians, unlike in past instances where Pakistanis or Bangladeshis were used."

"Both Parti and Patangiya handpicked Indian youth working in the United Arab Emirates for the operation. This indicates that the youth had been picked well in advance and sent off to the UAE on the pretext of jobs there. This could have been done to avoid coming under the scanner of the Indian police, the officials say. From the UAE they were flown into Dubai from where they were taken to Muzaffarabad in Pakistan occupied Kashmir."

"The youth were divided in two groups and then trained personally by Patri and Patangiya. They were taught how to prepare bombs and execute the attacks. They called it training in alternate explosions. They were specifically taught how to make bombs using ammonium nitrate and directed to pick up the material locally. The use of RDX was ruled out since it was a problem to smuggle it across the border."

"After undergoing training for a month, the youth were flown back to Dubai and then taken to Bangladesh. They were directed to cross over into India through the porous border. Investigating agencies say they took this trouble to avoid the police and security agencies."

"Once in India, the two groups split up and undertook the operations in Bengaluru and Ahmedabad separately, although they kept in regular touch. The date and time of the attacks was fixed by Parti."

"The police are now trying to ascertain how many members were in each team and also from where they picked up the ammonium nitrate and other material required to make the bombs. The police suspect that the two teams assembled the bombs separately in the cities they attacked."

"The Bengaluru police believe that the ammonium nitrate must have been brought into Karnataka from Kerala via Mysore. However, police says the terrorists dumped a part of the consignment about 50 kilometres from Bengaluru as they feared detection. However, they managed to smuggle in enough material to carry out the blasts."

"IB sources say they are concerned by the growing number of Indian youth being lured into terror outfits. They say that intercepts from Pakistan indicate that there are many Indian youth outside Parti's home in Karachi daily."

"Investigating agencies are also looking into the statements made by SIMI activist Riazuddin Nasir aka Mohammad Ghouse. After his arrest in Karnataka earlier this year had told the police that he had met Parti in Karachi."

* On August 16, 2008, the Gujarat Police announced that they had solved the case [cite news|title=Gujarat cops crack serial blasts case|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/aug/16ahd.htm|accessed=2008-08-20] , making it the fastest terrorism case to be solved in recent years. According to the Gujarat Director General of Police P.C.Pande, Mufti Abu Bashir was the mastermind behind the blasts, and upto 10 of his accomplices had been arrested.


* Maulana Abdul Halim, a suspected Students Islamic Movement of India activist, was arrested from Dani Limda in the heart of Ahmedabad on July 27, 2008. He was alleged to be involved in instigating the Muslim youth after the 2002 Gujarat violence and sending them to Uttar Pradesh for terror training. [cite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/27ahd16.htm|title=Ahmedabad blasts: SIMI activist held|accessdate=2008-07-27] Charges have also been laid on him for sending 33 youths for terror training to Pakistan in 2003. [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=91291980-fee0-49f4-8ccf-9ce4ce4bb04a&&Headline=Serial+blasts%3a+More+bombs%2c+nation+on+alert&strParent=strParentID "More bombs, nation on alert".] ] . After his arrest, he was remanded to a 14-day police custody by the Metropolitan Magistrate in Ahmedabad [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=9c841cab-dd55-4150-bb89-481ea0f99eab&&Headline=SIMI+activist+sent+to+14-day+police+custody&strParent=strParentID|title=SIMI activist sent to 14-day police custody|accessed=2008-07-28|title=SIMI activist sent to 14-day police custody] .

* On August 15, the Gujarat police arrested Mufti Abu Bashir, and nine others, in connection to the bombings. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Abu_Bashir_behind_Ahmedabad_blasts_Police/articleshow/3370648.cms Abu Bashir behind Ahmedabad blasts: Police] ] . Bashir belongs to Binapara village in Azamgarh district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, and was believed to be a SIMI activist.


Similarities between the Bengaluru and Ahmedabad bombings were investigated, where the former suffered from eight blasts and the latter 21. Union Minister of State for Home Affairs Prakash Jaiswal told reporters in Kanpur that the similarities between this and the Bengaluru blasts was that both "blasts were of low intensity" and were planted in crowded areas.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Ahmedabad, Bangalore blasts share similarities| work =| publisher =NDTV| date =2008-07-26| url =http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058893&ch=7/27/2008%207:39:00%20AM| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-26 ] Furthermore, both states - Karnataka and Gujarat - have BJP led governments.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Bangalore, Ahmedabad blasts uncannily similar| work =CNN-IBN| publisher =Global Broadcast News and Turner International| date =2008-07-27| url =http://www.ibnlive.com/news/bangalore-ahmedabad-blasts-uncannily-similar/69675-3.html| format =| doi =| accessdate =2008-07-27 ]

Further threats

The threat of terror continued even after Ahmedabad blasts. The Gujarat police discovered an active bomb which was set to detonate at 12:00am IST in Hatkeshwar, Maninagar. A bomb squad was quick to respond and successfully managed to defuse the bomb in front of a large crowd, which rose to jubilation and applause upon bomb's defusion.


A phone call from Pakistan to a Karnataka journalist claimed there would be more blasts in Kerala on Sunday. Kerala Police chief Raman Srivastava said: "I have been informed by the DGP of Karnataka about the terror threat to Kerala. We spoke to the journalist concerned, who said he had received two calls today - one at 1 pm and another at 3:30 pm." [http://newsx.com/story/20537]


On the following Monday, just days after the Ahmedabad blasts, another bomb was found in Varacha area of Surat [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Another_live_bomb_defused_in_Surat/articleshow/3299030.cms Another live bomb defused in Surat] Times of India] . The bomb was placed near an electricity transmitter and contained a packet 700-800 grams of ammonium nitrate, a packet of shrapnel, two detonators, one battery, and a circuit . This was found after the two car bombs that were discovered immediately after Ahmedabad attacks.

On Tuesday, July 29, eighteen bombs were found in Surat, and were subsequently defused. They were found mainly in the diamond-processing and residential areas of Surat, within a span of just four hours. [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/storypage/storypage.aspx?sectionName=&id=cf744f75-8c60-4a91-a5a4-9077659d2380&&Headline=Ten+live+bombs+found%2c+panic+grips+Surat+city&strParent=strParentID|title=Ten live bombs found, panic grips Surat city|accessed=2008-07-29] [cite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/29ahd.htm|title=9 bombs defused in Surat|accessed=2008-07-29] [ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080059211&ch=633529580608247500 NDTV.com: Surat: 18 bombs found, defused; 3 detained] ] According to the Times of India, a top government official believed that the planting of so many "unexploded" bombs was probably a means to divert attention of the police from the ongoing blast probe. [cite news|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Live_bombs_an_attempt_to_distract_attention_from_probe/rssarticleshow/3302871.cms|title='Live bombs an attempt to distract attention from probe'|accessdate=2008-07-28] After Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi visited the city another bomb was found and diffused by a bomb disposal squad. All in all, 23 bombs were found in three days in Surat. [ [http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IEH20080729033307&Page=H&Title=Top+Stories&Topic=0 23 bombs defused in Surat, India remains on edge - Newindpress.com] ]

Forensic investigations revealed that the bombs had not exploded because the circuits had been wrongly assembled. The police were not sure whether that was on purpose or a way to estimate the reaction time of the bomb squad, for planning future attacks [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=c4f44e56-9b49-4269-ac5d-21f2a652f374&MatchID1=4727&TeamID1=2&TeamID2=3&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1191&PrimaryID=4727&Headline=Terror+trail%3a+Faulty+chips+saved+Surat&strParent=strParentID|title=Faulty chips saved Surat|accessdate=2008-07-30] .


Three bombs were detected on the road in Pali district, near Marwar in Rajasthan. The bombs, put in half-litre oil containers, were planted on the Marwar-Ranawas Road at gap of one km and were spotted by onlookers. The box carried a bundle of fuse wire, 30-40 marbles, 8 iron plates, and detonator. There was no timer nor any electronic devise attached to the explosives. The bombs were defused by the bomb squad. [cite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/29jai.htm|title=Three bombs defused in Rajasthan|accessdate=2008-29-07] .

Tamil Nadu

In Tamil Nadu, Sheikh Abdul Ghaffoor, 39, was arrested with an alleged plan of carrying out bombings on Independence Day, August 15, 2008. [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080059005 "Terror module busted in Tamil Nadu, 1 held".] Accessd July 30, 2008.] The plot included bombing the state capital Chennai along with three other cities in Tamil Nadu and at least six trains. Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai is believed to be on top of the list for such terror attack. [ [http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IE920080727230310&Page=9&Title=Chennai&Topic=0 Chennai next terror target? Bomb-maker held in Nellai] ] The man was detained with a large cache of explosives and two timer devices. Apparently, it is believed that the plot was revealed by an arrested leader, P Ali Abdullah, of a banned organisation, who has been serving sentences in an Indian jail since 2003. Chennai city police later on 1 August 2008 announced that the arrests were not linked with either the Ahmedabad or Bangalore blasts. [ [Chennai arrests have no links with Ahmedabad, Bangalore blasts: police - Indian Express] ]


An E-Mail was sent to Kolkata on 29 July, 2008 to bomb 8 different locations in Kolkata. Subsequently, High Alert was placed in Kolkata but the E-mail turned out to be a hoax. High Alert is still placed in the region as every major checkpoint is monitored by the police.

New Delhi

Another E-mail was sent to the Japanese Embassy in New Delhi on 30 July, 2008 to bomb several locations in Delhi. The mail was soon forwarded to the Delhi Police from the Japanese Embassy and the city was placed under a Red Alert. The E-Mail threatened to bomb Sarojini Nagar which was a target in the October 2005 bombings. Further to these threats Japan closed its embassy in New Delhi on 31 July 2008 and also issue warning to its citizens living in India to avoid crowded places like markets and train stations. [ [http://in.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idINBOM5747520080731 UPDATE 1-Japan closes India visa office, warns over bombings- Reuters] ] Nevertheless the initial examination of a youth arrested for sending emails to the Japanese embassy indicated that he might suffer from some mental problems. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Youth_held_for_sending_email_threat_to_Japanese_Embassy/articleshow/3311417.cms Youth held for sending email threat to Japanese Embassy - Times of India] ] Delhi police revealed that the youth who sent the email was frustrated of a failed visa application to the embassy and the email threat was an hoax. [ [http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14727552 Terror email to Japanese Embassy a hoax: Police - Sify News] ]


In criticizing the central government Ajai Sahni, executive director of the Institute for Conflict Management said "India's police to population ratio is one of the lowest in the world, barring the poorer African countries. There is a high deficit of personnel in intelligence gathering. The IB has barely 3,500 field officers. We need to address these shortcomings."Security expert Prakash Singh added "they (terrorists) have no fear of being detected, arrested or prosecuted." PR Chari, a research professor at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies, said "the blasts were a demonstration of their (terrorists) capabilities and a terse reminder of the state's helplessness." [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/BJP-ruled_states_incur_wrath_of_terrorists/articleshow/3286115.cms] BJP president Rajnath Singh also blamed the UPA government for its "soft approach" to terrorism that has allowed terrorists to grow bolder. He also took the government to task for repealing POTA and for "sleeping over the anti-terror laws like GUJCOCA (an anti-terror law adopted by the Gujarat Assembly)". [ [http://www.ibnlive.com/news/bangalore-ahmedabad-blasts-uncannily-similar/69675-3.html Bangalore, Ahmedabad blasts uncannily similar] ] Gujarat Congress chief Siddharth Patel said: "'The Gujarat government has failed miserably on the law and order front." Adding that the terror attack pointed to the "total failure' of the state's intelligence machinery." [ [http://www.indiaenews.com/politics/20080726/134686.htm "Gujarat Congress blames Modi government for blasts".] "India eNews". Accessed July 30 2008.]

Conspiracy theories

Sushma Swaraj, a senior leader of the BJP, at a press conference in Delhi, claimed the ruling UPA government had a conspiratorial hand in the blasts to divert attention from the allegations of bribery as well as to gain Muslim votes. [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=cc5386c6-fb16-46c8-aeba-c12f5e8cf68d&&Headline=Blasts+in+B'lore%2c+Ahmedabad+a+conspiracy%3a+BJP&strParent=strParentID Blasts in B'lore, Ahmedabad a conspiracy: BJP] ] Times of India called her comments as "scandalous" and "outrageous remarks". [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Opinion/Editorial/Below_The_Belt/articleshow/3303306.cms Below the Belt - Times of India] ] The Congress party's spokesman, Shakeel Ahmed said that Sushma Swaraj should be "tried for treason" and her comments have "given a clean chit to terrorists and anti-national, disruptive forces both within and outside India". [ [http://www.thestatesman.net/page.news.php?clid=2&theme=&usrsess=1&id=216286 BJP distances itself from Sushma remarks, Cong screams ‘treason!’ - The Statesman] ] Later on 31 July 2008, BJP's spokesperson, Prakash Javdekar, clarified that the allegation of conspiracy made by Sushma Swaraj was her personal view and to the contrary the party viewed the attacks not as a conspiracy of the Congress party but as an "an attack on the nation". [ [http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Red-faced-BJP-clears-the-air--says-blasts-no-conspiracy/342864/ Red-faced BJP clears the air, says blasts no conspiracy - Indian Express] ] Although Sushma Swaraj's comments were critically commented by some media and her own party, T. K. Arun, a columnist of The Economic Times suggested that investigations should also look into her point that some of the blasts occurred in Muslim locals of Ahmedabad and "that a large share of those getting slaughtered by the terrorists are Muslims". [ [http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Columnists/T_K_Arun_Sushma_makes_a_point/articleshow/3307960.cms Sushma Swaraj makes a point - The Economic Times] ] The US national to whom the suspicious e-mail was traced escaped from India even after a lookout notice was issued. [http://www.timesnow.tv/Newsdtls.aspx?NewsID=13921]


Hindu-Muslim Unity

It is widely believed that the attacks were carried out to bring about the levels of unrest Gujarat had seen after the Godhra train burning [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Blasts_aimed_at_destroying_social_fabric_PM/articleshow/3298331.cms "Blasts aimed at destroying social fabric: PM".] "The Times of India". Accessed July 30, 2008.] . It is believed that by targeting communally sensitive [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200807271654.htm "Toll rises to 45, army conducts flag marches in Ahmedabad".] Accessed July 30, 2008.] areas such as Sharkej, Hindus and Muslims, attackers wanted to provoke and reignite communal disharmony and riots. However, the people of Gujarat stood tall in unity against such violence. Peaceful demonstrations held across Gujarat by both Hindus and Muslims called attacks an act of cowardice. [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/PhotoGallery/Photos_Storypage.aspx?category=SerialblastsrockAhmedabad Hindustantimes.com : Photos > Pictures, Wallpapers and Calendars from India’s leading portal] ] Such demonstrations of unity were also held in Delhi and Bhopal where Hindus and Muslims held candle light vigils. [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshowpics/3292325.cms]

Upon his visit to the region, PM Singh praised Gujarat's unity saying "I commend the people of Gujarat for the resilience they have shown. These terrorist acts are aimed at destroying our social fabric, undermining communal harmony and demoralising our people" [ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080059138 NDTV.com: PM praises people of Gujarat for their resilience] ] .


*President Pratibha Patil condemned the blasts and "expressed deep shock at the incident and said that perpetrators were targeting the peace and harmony of the country" [cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200807261965.htm|title=President deplores blasts, asks people to maintain peace|date=July 26, 2008|publisher=The Hindu|pages=1|language=English|accessdate=2008-07-26] .
*Prime Minister Manmohan Singh condemned the blasts, and appealed for calm [cite web|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jul/26ahd2.htm|title=President, PM condemn blasts|date=July 26, 2008|publisher=Rediff|language=English|accessdate=2008-07-26]
*Home Minister Shivraj Patil said: "This is a time when we should not feel frightened and we should assess the situation correctly and try to help the people, who have suffered and plan to see that these things do not happen afterwards." [http://howrah.org/india_news/20061.html "Political reactions to Ahmedabad blasts".] Acceseed July 30, 2008.]
*Chief Minister Narendra Modi also condemned the attack and called for calm. He also added: "The enemies of the nation have today stained with blood the soil of Mahatma Gandhi's Gujarat. Terrorists have continued their war against India... Killing innocent people is not only a crime but is a form of enmity with the humanity. All those who believe in humanity should prepare themselves for a long war - while maintaining peace." He went on to say, "I have spoken to the prime minister and the home minister. There is a similar pattern in all recent terrorist attacks [in the country] . There must be a mastermind operating behind them all." He asserted that those responsible for the blasts will be punished, and urged the people of Gujarat to answer them by "quickening the pace of Gujarat's economic development." [http://www.indiaenews.com/politics/20080727/134703.htm]
*Vice-President Hamid Ansari also condemned the blasts and said that "such acts of terrorism intend to disturb the peace and harmony in the country and should be thwarted." [cite web|url=http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=592593|title=Vice President condemns serial blasts in Ahmedabad|date=July 26, 2008|publisher=Outlook India|pages=1|language=English|accessdate=2008-07-26]
*Head of the congress party Sonia Gandhi expressed "deep shock" over the blasts. She also added that this was an "act of desperation with a view to disturb the peace and harmony in the country". [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=e8033298-ca23-415f-958a-03c778f6a3ab&ParentID=ea524d97-da77-40aa-870e-09ca9febc619&&Headline=Sonia+condemns+Ahmedabad+serial+blasts "Sonia Gandhi condemns Ahmedabad serial blasts".] Accessed July 30, 2008.]
*Opposition Bharatiya Janata Party leader L. K. Advani condemned the blasts as dastardly acts by terrorists and pointed towards the sinister designs of terrorists. [cite web|url=http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=458166&sid=NAT|title=Govt, BJP condemn Ahmedabad blasts|date=July 26, 2008|publisher=Zee News |pages=1|language=English|accessdate=2008-07-26] He also added that "It looks like our anti-terror legal framework is not up to the mark and it get exposed." In criticizing the government he said after the abolition of POTA, Gujarat has adopted a Maharashtra-type anti-terror law which has been awaiting Presidential assent for four years. He demanded that both Gujarat and Rajasthan should be allowed to go for their own anti-terror legislation. [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=4bb09b61-110d-4adf-bf70-c7906bd2bfb3&ParentID=ea524d97-da77-40aa-870e-09ca9febc619&&Headline='Lack+of+tough+anti-terror+law%2c+weak+intelligence+cause+of+blasts']
*Minister of State for Home Affairs Shakeel Ahmed said: "We are surprised and shocked. Yesterday, it was Bangalore. Today it is Ahmedabad. This happened even after the government of India issued high alerts to all sensitive states.” He also condemned the blasts and called for the return of normalcy while assuring the Gujarat government "of all possible assistance." He said a report of the state government was awaited befor further comment. [ [http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14724645 Centre 'surprised' over Ahmedabad blasts - Sify.com] ]
*Union Minister of State for Home Affairs Prakash Jaiswal termed the attack as being aimed at disrupting communal harmony and hurt India's economic growth.
*CPI M also condemned the blasts saying there was a "conspiracy" to destabilise the country. The party Politburo said of the blasts: "Coming so soon after the blasts in Jaipur and Bangalore, it is clear that there is a conspiracy to destabilise the country and create communal disharmony." Adding that it was "unfortunate that despite a series of such attacks, the government and the intelligence agencies are unable to crack down on those responsible for these heinous crimes." [http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14724629 "CPM slams serial blasts in Ahmedabad".] "Sify news". Accessed July 30, 2008.]
*BJP spokesperson Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi said: "The Centre must bring in a new law as the country requires it in the wake of 42 big incidents of blasts, triggered by the terrorists during the past four-and-a-half years' rule of the UPA in the country." When asked why the BJP-ruled states were targeted in the recent series of blasts, Naqvi said "it is because of the party's firm determination to end terrorism." [ [http://newsx.com/story/20530 Advani calls for revival of POTA | NewsX] ]
*The Bahujan Samaj Party said: "There was a time when the intelligence agencies would know of a conspiracy to assassinate the Chief Minister and they would be killed in encounter before reaching Gandhinagar. How could such alert system not get a hint of Saturday's blast conspiracy? Why does not the state Congress ask the UPA to approve GUJCOC as demanded by the state government?"
*Jamat-e-Islami Hind said: "Find out the culprits and hand them the deserving punishment. But care must be taken that innocent are not harassed. No conclusions should be drawn before thorough investigation because this leads investigation to a particular direction only."
*The Vishwa Hindu Parishad said: "VHP, which plans to start a nationwide anti-jehadi movement from July 28, said that if the government did not meet its demands, Hindus would have to act themselves democratically to protect themselves and their Bharat. They are out to destroy India's economy, infrastructure and majority Hindus. The government must act now before it is late." Praveen Togadia added, "being soft towards terrorists is equally dangerous as terrorism, as both would destroy the country." He also asked the government to snap all ties with countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh, which he alleged promote terrorism. All the while he said the VHP was not against minorities imparting religious education to their children but that most madrassas "are training ground for terrorists". [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/004200807280326.htm "Togadia accuses Govt. of being soft on terrorists".] Accessed July 30, 2008.]
*BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha: "Let the God give them good sense and such incidents are not repeated in future. Appeal to maintain peace and stay away from all sorts of rumours."
*Maninagar Shree Swaminarayan Gadi Sansthan: "It has organised Janmagal Shantipath in all temples in India and abroad. Swami Purushottampriyadasji, now in America, has appealed to his devotees to donate blood generously for the victims."
*JamiatUlma-I-Gujarat: "The anti-humanity blasts need to be investigated thoroughly, impartially and not necessarily in only one direction, because terrorists do not follow any religion."
*Students Islamic Organisation of India: "Harassment of the innocent in the name of investigations will only help actual criminals. Media should do its duty with a sense of responsibility because it has a major role in diverting such issues from reality."
*AIADMK General Secretary J. Jayalalithaa said: "In view of the serial blasts that have rocked the states in quick succession, I reiterate that, in order to defend and maintain the territorial integrity of the nation, a special act like POTA should be revived and allowed to remain in our statute books to effectively counter terrorists and extremist outfits...These dastardly acts of terrorists must be condemned by us in the strongest terms. I urge the central and state governments to make a thorough probe to nab the culprits. We must solemnly resolve to stand firm and united against such acts of mindless terror". [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/004200807271760.htm "Jayaalithaa demands revival of POTA".] Accessed July 30, 2008.]
*Sri Sri Ravi Shankar said: "The Indian people cannot tolerate such violent acts of terrorism any more." He appealed to Muslim leaders "to play a proactive role and isolate the misguided elements spreading terror in the name of religion". [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200807271763.htm The Hindu News Update Service] ]
*Hurriyat conference leader Zaffar Akbar Bhat described the blasts as "inhuman acts against innocent people." He add that it is the innocent Kashmiri students and traders who have to bore the brunt of police action in the wake of the blasts. "Kashmiri people are made the soft targets." Bhat also condemned the Thursday’s blast of Batmaloo in Kashmir which killed five memebrs of a family. He went to say "The way BJP and right wing groups are unleashing terror on Muslims in Jammu and expelling them from Jammu is deplorable." [ [http://www.greaterkashmir.com/full_story.asp?Date=28_7_2008&ItemID=41&cat=21 "Hurriyat (M) condemns B’lore, Ahmadabad blasts".] Accessed July 30, 2008.]
*A statement from the All India Muslim Forum said the group "strongly condemns the dastardly terrorist blasts at Banglore and Ahmedabad, claiming scores of innocent lives and injuring hundreds, and appeals to the people to maintain communal harmony in the face of these sinister moves which aim at tearing apart the country's social fabric." [ [http://southasiacontactgroupachieve.blogspot.com/2008/07/re-southasiacontact-condemnation-of.html South Asia Contact Group Achieve: Re: [SouthAsiaContact Condemnation of Banglore and Ahmedabad Blasts - Dr.M.K.Sherwani] ]

A host of others who condemned the blasts include Sanchetna, Sahrwaru, Safar, AMWA, Muslim Majlise Mushavirat, Sarkhej Muslim Welfare Organisation, Ahmedabad Muslim Welfare Society, Sirat Committee, Aman Samuday, Anhad, Swabhiman Andolan, Lok Kala Manch, Samarpan, Sarvoday Sanskrutik Manch, Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan, Bharatiya Moolnivasi Janjagran Abhiyan, and Action Aid (Gujarat). [ [http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Political-parties-social-organisations-condemn-blasts/341357/ "Political parties, social organisations condemn blasts".] Accessed July, 2008.]


flagicon|United Nations United Nations
*Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has condemned in the "strongest terms" the series of bombings in Bengaluru and Ahmedabad and stressed that no cause or grievance can justify terrorist acts. [ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080059035 NDTV.com: Ban Ki-moon condemns blasts in India] ]
*Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gillani condemned the bomb attacks in Bangalore and Ahmedabad, describing them as "acts of senseless violence against innocent persons".
*The Foreign Ministry released a statement saying, "Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gillani has strongly condemned the acts of terrorist violence in the Indian cities of Ahmedabad and Bangalore and expressed deep sympathies with the bereaved families and the victims of these dastardly acts of senseless violence against innocent persons." [ [http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080058880&ch=7/26/2008%2011:50:00%20PM NDTV.com: Pak PM condemns Bangalore, Ahmedabad blasts] ]
* The US embassy released a statement "The US condemns the vicious terror attacks in Bangalore on Friday and Ahmedabad on Saturday" and extended condolences to the families of the bereaved. [http://www.itgo.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7122&Itemid=1&sectionid=9 US, Pak condemn serial blasts] India Today Group Online]
*European Union condemed the attack in a statement saying "The Presidency of the Council of European Union presents its deepest condolences to India, its government and its people, as well as to the victims and their families" [http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=458320&sid=NAT Int`l community says terror attacks in India "unacceptable" ] Zee News] .
*Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa condemned the serial blasts in a statement saying "I unreservedly condemn the cowardly terrorist attacks in Ahmedabad, India, yesterday, killing and injuring a large number of persons, as well as the terrorist attacks in Bangalore the previous day" .
*The Executive President said "These wanton acts of terror by the forces are ranged against democracy...Sri Lanka being a country gravely affected by the scourge of terrorism for more than two decades, we understand well how the manipulators of terror seek to destroy harmonious relations among communities and the democratic traditions that prevail in our societies...My Government and I share the determination and commitment of the Government and people of India not to yield to this sustained threat of terror from those who seek to achieve their ends by inflicting maximum damage to the lives and limbs of civilians, disrupting their day to day lives and society at large."
*Afghan President Hamid Karzai called for a "collective struggle against terrorism which threatens the stability of the region. Terrorism is a serious threat against the international community and this evil phenomenon must be fought collectively."
*French President Nicolas Sarkozy wrote a letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and offered to further strengthen cooperation in the battle against terrorism. He condemned the blasts saying they were "blind, cowardly and inhuman". In his letter he said, “On this occasion, I wish to assure you of the full solidarity of the 27 member-states of the EU and their determination to fight alongside the Indian government to eradicate the scourge of terrorism" [cite news|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?sectionName=&id=0da41747-0be5-41a5-843f-830052fa03b2&&Headline=Sarkozy+writes+to+PM+over+terror+attacks&strParent=strParentID|title=Sarkozy writes to PM over terror attacks|accessdate=2008-07-28]

ee also

* List of terrorist incidents, 2008
* Abdul Subhan Qureshi

External links

* [http://www.itgo.in/index.php?option=com_registration&exist=yes&task=homegallery&assignedid=172&thumbid=172 Ahmedabad Blasts in pictures] India Today


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