Aerospace


Aerospace

:"This article is about the field of research and industry; for the corporation, see The Aerospace Corporation"

Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space. Aerospace is a very diverse field, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. "Aerospace" is not the same as "airspace," which is a term used to describe the physical air space directly above a location on the ground.

Overview

In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a space program under the command of the government, such as NASA in the United States, ESA in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, and Iranian Space Agency in Iran.

Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, EADS, and Boeing. These companies are also involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Many countries have air transport companies, such as Air France and Air India.

History

The field of aerospace has been investigated for millennia, but modern aerospace began with the first powered flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 16, 1903, by the Wright brothers. From there, aerospace has grown to be one of the most exciting, diverse, and fast paced fields of today. From the hot-air balloons of 18th century to the first wood-and-cloth plane of Wilbur and Orville Wright to the first manned mission to the moon on Apollo 11 to the new and exciting aircraft being developed by companies like Boeing, Airbus, and Bombardier, aerospace has come a long way in a little over a century.

Aerospace manufacturing

Aerospace manufacturing is a high technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts," according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States [http://www.bls.gov Web site] . Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the US government has assigned a [https://www.bpn.gov/bincs/begin_search.asp CAGE] code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical after market vendors in the aerospace industry.

In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Thales, Dassault, Saab and Finmeccanica account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products.

In People's Republic of China, Beijing, Xian, Chengdu, Shanghai, Shenyang and Nanchang are major research and manufacture centres of aerospace industry. China has developed extensive capability to design, test and produce military aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. However, despite the experimental model of Y-10, which was abolished in 1984, China is still developing its civil aerospace industry.

In India, Bangalore is a major centre of aerospace industry, being the place where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is undertaking a project to send an orbiter to moon, due mid 2008. This project has been titled Chandrayaan (Moon Craft).

In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Irkut - which includes Beriev) are among the major global players in this industry. The historic Soviet Union was also the home of a very major aerospace industry.

The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry, making its own airliners, warplanes, etc., but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies, and it has turned into a large import customer, too, from countries like the United States.

In the United States of America, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States reported that the aerospace industry employed 444,000 waged and salaried jobs in 2004. Most of those jobs were in Washington State and in California, with Missouri and Texas also important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. and in the world are Boeing, United Technologies Corporation, and the Lockheed Martin Corp..

Important locations of the "civilian" aerospace "industry" worldwide include Washington State (Boeing), California (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc.); Montreal, Canada, (Bombardier, Pratt & Whitney Canada); Toulouse, France, (Airbus/EADS); and Hamburg, Germany, Airbus/EADS); as well as São José dos Campos, where the Brazilian Embraer company is based. Some sources place Boeing in Chicago, but that is "merely" an office space location, and not an "industrial" location. Boeing really makes its large civil airplanes on the West Coast of the United States.

Important locations in the aerospace industry in the United States should not be viewed as those of the prime contractors, because there are also quite large companies and factories that just engage in subcontracting work now - but subcontracts that produce large assemblies that are worth many millions of U.S. dollars.

Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes, etc. (e.g. the CF-100 fighter), but for some decades, it has realied on imports from the United States to fill these needs.

France has continued to make its own warplanes for its Air Force and its Navy, and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Force - especially in support of its position as a neutral country. (See SAAB.) Other European countries either team up in making fighters (See the Panavia Tornado and the Eurofighter.), or else to import them from the United States.

Pakistan is also undertaking advancements in the field of aerospace engineering. It is now fulfilling its needs in the guided missile technology. After the establishment of the [http://www.ist.edu.pk/ Institute of Space Technology] , Pakistan is looking to advance in space technology as well as aircraft design and manufacturing.

The Aircraft parts industry was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the Aerospace Manufacturer sector. Within the United States of America there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to overhaul and 'tag' a part. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. When an airline has an aircraft on the ground also known as an 'AOG', the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable. This can drive the market for specific parts. There are several online market places that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts.

ee also

* Aeronautics
* Astronautics
* Aerospace engineering
* Atmospheric reentry
* EUROAVIA
* General aviation
* Space exploration
* Space agencies
* Spacecraft
*

External links

* [http://www.isro.org Indian space Research Organization (ISRO)] India
* [http://www.suparco.gov.pk Space and Upper Atmosphere Reasearch Commission (Suparco)] Pakistan
* [http://www.nasa.gov National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)] - U.S.
* [http://www.esa.int European Space Agency (ESA)] — E.U.
* [http://www.jaxa.jp/index_e.html Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)] — Japan
* [http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs006.htm BLS website on aerospace industry]
* [http://www.aia-aerospace.org/ Aerospace Industries Association]
* [http://www.aiaa.org/ American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]
* [http://www.faa.gov/education_research/education/ Federal Aviation Administration]
* [http://www.aio.ir/ Iranian Aerospace Industries Organization]
* [http://www.ioonos.com/?LANG=EN Ioonos — YouSpace: Aerospace in Europe]
* [http://www.avmarkets.com Aerospace Marketplace]
* [http://www.av-tools.com Aerospace Parts and Tools]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • aerospace — aer‧o‧space [ˈeərəʊspeɪs ǁ ˈeroʊ ] noun [uncountable] MANUFACTURING the making of aircraft and space vehicles: • US aerospace companies are developing a new plane in cooperation with the US Air Force. * * * aerospace UK US /ˈeərəʊspeɪs/ noun [U]… …   Financial and business terms

  • aerospace — a. of or pertaining to {aerospace} in either sense. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • aerospace — ☆ aerospace [er′ō spās΄ ] n. [altered < air/space < AIR + SPACE] the earth s atmosphere and the space outside it, considered as one continuous field adj. of aerospace, or of spacecraft or missiles designed for flight in aerospace …   English World dictionary

  • aerospace — n. 1. the atmosphere and outer space considered together or as a whole. [WordNet 1.5] 2. the sector of industry that designs and builds aircraft, rockets, missiles, and devices or vehicles intended to operate in outer space. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • aerospace — (adj.) 1958, American English, from AERO (Cf. aero ) atmosphere + (outer) SPACE (Cf. space) (n.) …   Etymology dictionary

  • aerospace — ► NOUN ▪ the branch of technology and industry concerned with aviation and space flight …   English terms dictionary

  • aerospace — I. noun Date: circa 1958 1. space comprising the earth s atmosphere and the space beyond 2. a physical science that deals with aerospace 3. the aerospace industry II. adjective Date: 1958 of or relating to aerospace, to vehicles used in aerospace …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • aerospace — /air oh spays /, n. 1. the atmosphere and the space beyond considered as a whole. 2. the industry concerned with the design and manufacture of aircraft, rockets, missiles, spacecraft, etc., that operate in aerospace. adj. 3. of or pertaining to… …   Universalium

  • aerospace — aer|o|space1 [ˈeərəuspeıs US ˈerou ] adj involving the designing and building of aircraft and space vehicles ▪ the aerospace industry aerospace 2 aerospace2 n [U] the industry that designs and builds aircraft and space vehicles aerospace… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • aerospace — i. The earth’s atmosphere and the space beyond it; it is considered a zone available for the flight of aircraft and spacecraft. It extends from the earth’s surface outward through the atmosphere to the farthest part of the observable universe.… …   Aviation dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.