List of doping cases in cycling

List of doping cases in cycling

The following is an incomplete list of doping cases in cycling, where doping means "use of physiological substances or abnormal method to obtain an artificial increase of performance". It is neither a 'list of shame' nor a list of illegality, as the first laws weren't passed until 1965 and their implementation is an ongoing developing process. Thus the list contains doping incidents, those who have tested positive for a illegal performance-enhancing drugs, prohibited recreational drugs or have been suspended by a sporting body for failure to submit to mandatory drug testing. It also contains and clarifies cases where subsequent evidence and explanation has shown the parties to be innocent of illegal practice.

In 1963 the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping.

"Doping means to make use of physiological substances in immoderate quantity or abnormal method from healthy people whose only aim is to obtain an artificial increase of the performance during the competition". or ...

"The administration of or use by a competing athlete of any substance foreign to the body or any physiologic substance taken in abnormal quantity or taken by an abnormal route of entry into the body with the sole intention of increasing in an artificial and unfair manner his/her performance in competition. When necessity demands medical treatment with any substance which, because of its nature, dosage, or application is able to boost the athlete’s performance in competition in an artificial and unfair manner, this too is regarded as doping.".

1800s

1886

In 1886 an English cyclist is reputed to have died after drinking a blend of cocaine, caffeine and "stricnina", supposedly in the Bordeaux to Paris race. It was the believed to be the first death because of doping during a competition, although during this period it was common practice [http://www.ioa.org.gr/books/reports/1997/1997_068.pdf Historical Evolution of Doping Phenomenon by Lorella Vittozzi (ITA)] ] . This is alternatively reported as trimethyl poisoning [http://www.law.duke.edu/sportscenter/wadler.pdf Doping in Sport: From Strychnine to Genetic Enhancement, It’s a Moving Target, by Gary I. Wadler, M.D., FACP, FACSM, FACPM, FCP. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, New York University School of Medicine] ] . However the main Bordeaux-Paris race did not start until 1891, and the cyclist who supposedly died in 1886 actually died in 1896 from typhoid fever. [http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Dope/Daniel-M-Rosen/e/9780313345203/?itm=3 barnes and Noble, Synopsis of "Dope: A History of Performance Enhancement in Sports from the Nineteenth Century to Today" by Daniel M. Rosen] ] The truth of the story may be lost or apocryphal.

1896

Nitroglycerine was used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and was credited with improving riders' breathing. [ Novich, Max M., "Abbotempo", UK, 1964] Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and perhaps the drugs. The American champion Marshall Taylor refused to continue a New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand." [Bearings, US, 24 December 1896, cited Ritchie, Andrew, "Major Taylor", Bicycle Books, US, 1988 ]

1910s

1911

*Paul Duboc of France was doped/poisoned during the Tour de France. He was favourite but collapsed in a ditch in the Pyrenees after drinking from a spiked/poisoned bottle, allegedly given by a rival team manager. He finished in second place.

1920s

1924

*Henri Pélissier, Francis Pélissier, Charles Pélissier of France. In 1924, following their abandon of the Tour de France, the first real drug scandal arose when the Pélissier brothers gave an extraordinary interview to journalist Albert Londres. They said that they used Strychnine, cocaine, chloroform, aspirin, "horse ointment" and others drugs to keep going. The story was published in 'Le Petit Parisien' under the title 'Les Forçats de la Route' ('The Convicts of the Road'). Francis is reported as saying "In short, we run on dynamite." Henri is reported as saying "Do you know how we keep going? Look, this is cocaine, chloroform, too. And pills? You want to see pills? Here are three boxes - We run on dynamite." Francis Pélissier said much later: "Londres was a famous reporter but he didn't know about cycling. We kidded him a bit with our cocaine and our pills." Even so, the Tour de France in 1924 was no picnic. [Woodland, Les: "Yellow Jersey Guide to the Tour de France", Yellow Jersey, London, 2007 ] [De Mondenard, Dr Jean-Pierre: "Dopage, l'imposture des performances, Chiron, France, 2000 ] [http://www.abcc.co.uk/Articles/DrgsTdeF.html Association of British Cycling Coaches (ABCC), Drugs and the Tour De France by Ramin Minovi] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2003/jul/03/1 The Guardian, July 2003, Science, If this year's Tour de France is 100% clean... ...then that will certainly be a first. By Matt Seaton and David Adam] ] . See Doping at the Tour de France - The Convicts of the Road.

1930s

1930

The acceptance of drug-taking in the Tour de France was so complete by 1930 that the rule book, distributed by Henri Desgrange, reminded riders that drugs would not be provided by the organisers. [Maso, Benji:Zweet van de Goden, Holland]

1940s

1949

*Fausto Coppi of Italy admitted in a television interview (date unknown) that he used 'la Bomba' as there was no alternative if you wanted to remain competitive. This referred to amphetamines, which had been developed for military use during the World War II to keep aircrew, merchant seamen and submariners awake, alert and energetic. After the war they found a ready market among endurance sportsmen. Coppi also said, "One day I will take the wrong pill and pedal backward." [ [http://vault.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1082575/2/index.htm Sports Illustrated magazine, June 30th 1969, Something Extra On The Ball] ] He also joked on camera that he only took drugs when absolutely necessary, which is nearly always [ [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1mf5eEG0nRUC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=coppi+amphetamine&source=web&ots=OAAqvB6CW9&sig=09GEhhfSq9UjR-jUlaMG9TZCuNg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result On Speed: The Many Lives of Amphetamine By Nicolas Rasmussen] ] [http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/jul/01/cycling.features1 The Guardian, July 2001, Sport, "Tour de farce" by Geoffrey Wheatcroft] ] .

1950s

1955

*Jean Malléjac of France collapsed on Mont Ventoux during the 1955 Tour de France, it was widely attributed to drug abuse. Ten kilometres from the summit he was: "Streaming with sweat, haggard and comatose, he was zigzagging and the road wasn't wide enough for him... He was already no longer in the real world, still less in the world of cyclists and the Tour de France."Woodland, Les "Yellow Jersey Guide to the Tour de France", Yellow Jersey, London] Malléjac collapsed, falling to the ground with one foot still trapped in a pedal. The other leg pedalled on in the air. He was "completely unconscious, his face the colour of a corpse, a freezing sweat ran on his forehead.Chany, Pierre (1988) "La Fabuleuse Histoire du Tour de France", Éditions La Martinière, France] He regained consciousness after 15 minutes attention, oxygen, water, and an injection of solucamphre (a decongestant) [ [http://www.wipo.int/ipdl/en/madrid/key.jsp?KEY=139961 World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) - Registration(139961) Solucamphre] ] . In the ambulance he insisted that he had been drugged against his will and that he wanted to start legal proceedings. He denied wrongdoing right up to his death in September 2000.

1956

In 1956, following the 14th Stage of the 1956 Tour de France, the entire Belgian team went down with a mystery illness. It was officially attributed to their having eaten 'bad fish' at dinner, an excuse also used in 1962 and 1991.

1958

*Roger Rivière of France admitted, after his career was finished, to having taken "amphetamines and solucamphre" during his hour record of 1958 -- including taking tablets during the attempt.Jean-Paul Olivier, La Tragedie du Parjour: Roger Riviere (Glenat, 1992)]

1959

*Charly Gaul from Luxembourg was implicated in July when French customs confiscated pills that were destined for him. [ [http://www.gva.be/dossiers/-d/doping/40jaar.asp Antwerp Gazette, 02/04/1999, Doping - Amfetamines, cortisone, hormonen en EPO] ]

1960s

1960

*Knud Enemark Jensen of Denmark participated in the 1960 Summer Olympic Games in Rome riding under the influence of amphetamines, he collapsed during the 100km team time trial during the Games, fracturing his skull, and in a nearby Rome hospital shortly thereafter, he was pronounced dead. The autopsy showed he had taken amphetamine and another drug, Ronicol (Ronicol Retard, (Nicotinyl alcohol tartrate) A direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. [ [http://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/Ronicol+Retard.asp?q=Ronicol+Retard Online Medical Dictionary, Ronicol Retard] ] (He was also reported as swallowing 8 pills of phenylisopropylamine, 15 pills of amphetamine and coffee.) The chairman of the Dutch cycling federation, Piet van Dijk, said of Rome that "dope - whole cartloads - [were] used in such royal quantities." [ Van Dijk, Pieter: "Doping bestaat en doen we eraan", Het Vrije Volk, Holland, 13 December 1961 ] [ [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/2007-02-28-timeline-drugs-athlete_x.htm USA Today - Timeline: A century of drugs and the athlete] ] Jensen's death led to pressure on the International Olympic Committee, which studied a report on doping drawn up by doctors demanding dope controls.

*Gastone Nencini of Italy, was discovered by Tour de France doctor Pierre Dumas in his bedroom with plastic tubes running from each arm to a bottle of blood, retransfusion was a legal practice at the time. [Woodland, Les (1980) Dope, the use of drugs in sport, David and Charles, UK] . In the 1930s Scandinavian runners were believed to have used retransfusion to increase the number of corpuscles that carry oxygen to the muscles. In 1972, Dr Björn Ekblom of the Sport and Gymnastics Institute in Stockholm found that retransfusing cells increased oxygen uptake by nine per cent and athletic potential by 23 per cent.

*Roger Rivière of France, admitted that his career ending crash on the 1960 Tour de France was probably attributable to using Palfium (Dextromoramide), a painkiller that affects reflexes and judgment, during the descent of the Col de Perjuret on Mont Aigoual. Palfium was used to deaden pain in leg muscles where it was directly injected, (sometimes while riding). It was suggested that it had so numbed Riviere's fingers so that he couldn't feel the brake levers.

1962

The Wiel's-Groene Leeuw affair. At the stage from Luchon to Carcassonne of the 1962 Tour de France, twelve riders fell ill and said 'bad fish' was the cause. Tour doctor Pierre Dumas realized they had all been given the same drug by the same soigneur. Hans Junkermann of Germany had been ill overnight so the start was delayed by 10 minutes, but at the first hill he got off his bike and sat by the roadside, telling onlookers "I ate bad fish at the hotel last night." [Doping at the Tour de France#The Wiel's affair] Eleven other riders abandoned the Tour that day, including the former leader, Willy Schroeder, the 1960 winner Gastone Nencini and a future leader, Karl-Heinz Kunde. Jacques Goddet wrote that he suspected doping but nothing was proven - other than that none of the hotels had served fish the previous night.

1964

Testing began at the Tour de France. Raymond Poulidor was the first rider to be tested in the Tour. He said "I was strolling down the corridor in ordinary clothes when I came across two guys who asked if I was a rider. They made me go into a room, I pissed into some bottles and they closed them without sealing them. Then they took my name, my date of birth, without asking for anything to check my identity. I could have been anyone, and they could have done anything they liked with the bottles." [Poulidor, Raymond: "J'appartiens à le légende", L'Équipe, France, 12 July 1999 ] Next morning, on the way to the Pyrenees the riders climbed off, began walking and shouting protests.

France passed its first anti-doping law in November 1964"The Unknown Tour de France" by Les Woodland, Van der Plas Publications, 2000. isbn 1-892495-26-0] ]

1965

*Jacques Anquetil of France never hid that he took drugs - a common practice at the time - and in a debate with a government minister on French television said that only a fool would imagine it was possible to ride Bordeaux-Paris on just water. He and other cyclists had to ride through "the cold, through heatwaves, in the rain and in the mountains", and they had the right to treat themselves as they wished, he said in a television interview, before adding: "Leave me in peace; everybody takes dope." [Cited in "Les Miroirs du Tour", French television, 2003] There was implied acceptance of doping right to the top of the state: the president, Charles de Gaulle, said of Anquetil: "Doping? What doping? Did he or did he not make them play the Marseillaise [the national anthem] abroad?" [Cited "L'Équipe Magazine" 23 July 1994] The veteran reporter Pierre Chany said: "Jacques had the strength - for which he was always criticised - to say out loud what others would only whisper. So, when I asked him 'What have you taken?' he didn't drop his eyes before replying. He had the strength of conviction." [Penot, Christophe (1996): Pierre Chany, l'homme aux 50 Tours de France, Éditions Cristel, France ]

*André Bayssière, a French amateur, collapsed in the Tour de l'Avenir in July and was banned when he confessed to using amphetamines.

*Charly Grosskost, a French amateur, collapsed in the Tour de l'Avenir in July and was banned when he confessed to using amphetamines.

*Peter Post of the Netherlands acknowledged that he had doped at the Tour de France [ [http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/35548104/ History of the Tour de France and the Great Slikken., Geschiedenisportaal of the VPRO (Dutch Ref -Geschiedenis van de Tour de France en het Grote Slikken.)] ] .

Performance-enhancing drugs became illegal on 1st June 1965. The first riders to be caught were three amateurs, two Spanish and one British, who were thrown out of the Milk Race when they tested positive for amphetamines after Professor Arnold Beckett first applied sensitive gas chromatographic techniques to monitor drug abuse.

1967

*Tom Simpson of Great Britain died of exhaustion on the slopes of Mont Ventoux during the 13th stage of the 1967 Tour de France. The post mortem found that he had taken amphetamines and alcohol, a diuretic combination which proved fatal when combined with the hot conditions, the notoriously hard climb of the Ventoux and a pre-existing stomach complaint. Investigators discovered more drugs in his hotel room at Sete and the pockets of his jersey [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/northeast/series6/cycling.shtml BBC Inside out, Cycling] ] [*cite book
author=William Fotheringham
title=Put Me Back on My Bike: In Search of Tom Simpson
publisher=Random House
location=New York
year=2002
pages=
isbn=0-224-06187-9
oclc=
doi=
accessdate=2007-07-28
]

1969

*Eddy Merckx of Belgium tested positive for the stimulant Reactivan at Savona during the 1969 Giro d'Italia, after leading the race through 16 stages. Merckx was found positive at doping control and expelled from the Giro. The controversy began to swirl when his test results were not handled in the ordinary manner. The positive doping control was released to the press before all parties (Merckx and team officials) involved were notified. [ [http://www.cyclingrevealed.com/timeline/Race%20Snippets/GdI/GdI_1969.htm Cycling Revealed, Timeline, 1969, 52nd Giro d'Italia 1969 By Barry Boyce, Merckx DQ'd] ]

1970s

1972

*Jaime Huélamo of Spain finished third in the of the 1972 Summer Olympics men's individual road race but was later disqualified after he tested positive for coramine. [ [http://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/historia/contextos/3685.htm Arte Historia, Castille et Leon, El "doping"] ] [ [http://library.thinkquest.org/27850/library/sydney2000/issues/drugs_positive.shtml ThinkQuest Sydney 2000 Drug Test results] ]

*Aad van den Hoek [ [http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aad_van_den_Hoek Aad van den Hoek at Dutch Wikipedia] ] of the Netherlands tested positive for Coramine at the Munich Olympics, a drug allowed by the International Cyclists' Union but not the IOC. [ [http://www.bangladeshobserveronline.com/new/2004/08/14/sports.htm Bangladesh Observer, Sports news, Sept 2004] ] [ [http://www.times-olympics.co.uk/communities/cycling/cyclinghistory.html The Times, Olympic Review] ] [ [http://www.newindpress.com/sports/olympics2004/News.asp?Topic=320&Title=Tears+and+Joy&ID=IE$20040818124923&nDate=8/19/2004&Sub=-----No+Sub+Category-----&Cat=& New India Review of Olympic drug abuse] ] .

1974

In 1974, an advance in testing caught 13 prominent riders including Herman van Springel.

*Roger Legeay of France tested positive for Amphetamines at the Paris - Nice race. [ [http://www.cycling4fans.de/?id=1365 Cycling Fans - Database of Doping - Legeay, Roger] ] .

*Claude Tollet of France tested positive for Amphetamines at the Tour de France [ [http://www.cycling4fans.de/?id=1365 Cycling Fans - Database of Doping - Tollet, Claude] ] .

1975

*Bernard Thévenet of France won the 1975 Tour de France by using cortisone. In 1982, after retiring from racing, he said "I was doped with cortisone for three years and there were many like me"... "The experience ruined my health".Chany, Pierre: L'angoissant combat de Bernard Thévenet, "Vélo", France, no 125, 1978 ]

*Erik de Vlaeminck of Belgium, never failed a drugs test in his racing career, but he was treated after it for amphetamine addiction at a psychiatric institute. Many stories circulate about his supposed wild behaviour after races and after his career was over and when he returned to racing, the Belgian federation would offer him a licence for only a day at a time until it saw how his life would progress. He refuses to speak of this period of his life.

1976

*Rachel Dard of France was reported to have raced across France to avoid a positive dope finding and then ended up in a row which exposed organised drug-taking in cycling in the 1970s. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/?id=2006/woodland_dard Cycling News, December 2006, Tales from the Peloton - Cheats aren't meant to prosper] ] Dard and a team-mate, Bourreau, were caught trying to defraud the doping control with a condom of untainted urine in their shorts to give the impression they were urinating. [Wielerrevue, Holland, De Koerier van Dax, undated cutting ] A few weeks later Dard went to "L'Équipe" and spilled the inside story, incliuding the prescriptions for dope that Bellocq, the team doctor, had given him. [L'Équipe, 22 November 1976] He said riders treated with cortisone and steroids were now in "a pitiful state". [de Mondenard, Jean-Pierre, Dictionnaire du Dopage, Masson, France] .

1977

*Bernard Thévenet of France won the 1977 Tour de France with the aid of cortisone.

*Joop Zoetemelk of the Netherlands tested positive for Pemoline (steroid) in the 1977 Tour de France, although Pemoline was a legal substance at that time. In the 1979 Tour de France he tested positive for 'hormones'. [ [http://www.nrc.nl/sport/article743456.ece/Doping_in_de_Tour_is_van_alle_tijden NRC Sports News - Doping in the Tour] ] [ [http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lijst_van_Nederlandse_dopinggevallen Dutch Wiki, List of Dutch Doping] ]

In 1977 the Belgian doctor, Professor Michel Debackere, perfected a test for pémoline, an amphetamine-like drug, and caught three of the biggest names in Belgium: Eddy Merckx, Freddy Maertens and Michel Pollentier.

1978

*Maarten Ducrot was a Dutch professional road bicycle racer. In January 2000, on the Dutch TV-show "Reporter", he admitted that he had used cortisone and testosterone, as well as Synacthen, "a very bad medicine," and he still regrets using it. Ducrot said he experimented with synacthen in 1982 when he was an amateur. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/jan00/jan1news.shtml Cycling News, January 2000] ]

*Michel Pollentier of Belgium was caught trying to cheat the drugs control with someone else's urine in a rubber bulb in his shorts after victory at L'Alpe d'Huez. He was ejected from the Tour. Ironically his own urine tested negative."See Doping at the Tour de France - The Pollentier incident"

*José Nazabal of Spain anticipated a positive test at the Tour de France, and so left the race immediately after being tested. "See Doping at the Tour de France - The Pollentier incident"

*Antoine Gutierrez of Spain caused doctor Le Calvez to be suspicious during a test, thus raising his jersey to reveal a system of tubes and a bottle of urine. "See Doping at the Tour de France - The Pollentier incident"

*Gilbert Glaus of Switzerland, the World Amateur Champion, tested positive for steroids.

*Jean-Luc van den Broucke of Belgium confessed that "In the Tour de France, I took steroids. That is not a stimulant, just a strengthener. If I hadn't, I would have had to give up. What do you think? I'm on the bike all year from February onwards, I have to do well in the classics in all the little races, and also in the Tour de France. On the first rest day, before we went into the Pyrenees, I had a first hormone injection. I had another one on the second day, at the start of the last week. You can't call that medically harmful, not if it's done under a doctor's control and within reason." [Soetaert, Eddy: De biecht van Jean-Luc van den Broucke, "Het Volk", Belgium, 18 October 1978.] "See Doping at the Tour de France - Steroids and allied drugs"

1980s

1980

*Vicente López Carril of Spain, died on March 29, 1980 aged 37 from a heart attack. His death was noted by Willy Voet in his book "Massacre à la chaîne" although he acknowledged the impossibility of proving the link between these early deaths and the drugs taken while racing [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/may99/may20.shtml Cycling News review of "Massacre à la chaîne" by Willy Voet] ] .

*Freddy Maertens of Belgium, admitted to the French newspaper L'Équipe, after his retirement, that "like everyone else", he had used amphetamines in round-the-houses races but he insisted that he had ridden without drugs in important races - not least because he knew he would be tested for them.

*Dietrich Thurau ("Didi") of Germany tested positive on 3 occasions in 1980 and again in 1987. [ [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietrich_Thurau German Wikipedia - Dietrich Thurau] ] [ [http://www.bikecircle.com/forums/racing/27797-didi-admists-doping.html Bike Circle, 2005/10/21 Dietrich Thurau Admits Doping] ]

1982

*Angel Arroyo of Spain, received a 10 minute penalty for testing positive for the stimulant Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on stage 17 of the 1982 Vuelta a España. This effectively stripped him of his victory and placed him 13th.cite web|url= http://www.lavuelta.com/05/ingles/historia/82infor.asp?a=1982&s=infor&t=infor&e=1|title=1982 General Information|publisher=La Vuelta.com|accessdate=2008-01-18] .

*Vicente Belda of Spain was said said to have tested positive for Methylphenidate (Ritalin), a stimulant on the Vuelta a España. Methylphenidate was a popular drug for doping in cycling at that time.cite paper|title=Doping in cyclism: results of unannounced controls in Flanders (1987-1994).
author=Delbeke FT.|publisher=International Journal Sports Medicine|date=August 1996|id=17(6):434-8
]

*Marc Demeyer of Belgium died on 20 January 1982, aged 31 from a heart attack. His death was noted by Willy Voet in his book "Massacre à la chaîne" although he acknowledged the impossibility of proving the link between these early deaths and the drugs taken while racing.

*Alberto Fernández of Spain was said to have tested positive for Methylphenidate (Ritalin), a stimulant on the Vuelta a España.

*Marino Lejarreta of Spain tested positive on stage 17 of the 1982 Vuelta a España for the stimulant Methylphenidate (Ritalin).

*Michel Pollentier of Belgium tested positive on stage 17 of the 1982 Vuelta a España for the stimulant Methylphenidate (Ritalin).

*Pedro Muñoz Machín Rodríguez of Spain was said said to have tested positive for Methylphenidate (Ritalin), a stimulant on the Vuelta a España.

*Steven Rooks was a Dutch cyclist whose professional career ran from from 1982-1995. On the Dutch TV-show "Reporter" in 2000, Rooks admitted (together with Maarten Ducrot and Peter Winnen that they had doped in their careers. Rooks said he used testosterone and amphetamines during his whole 13 year career. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/jan00/jan1news.shtml Cycling News, January 2000, Dutch Stars Come Clean] ]

*Willy Voet wrote about Bert Oosterbosch riding the 1982 Grand Prix des Nations in his 2002 book "Massacre à la Chaîne" ("Breaking The Chain"). "Oosterbosch was flat from the start due to the Synacten he had taken. The drugs initially blocked his ability to work hard. An hour after the injection it started working as planned and his tempo increased." [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/may99/may20.shtml cyclingnews.com - News for May 20, 1999: Willy Voet goes for the jugular in his book] ] Note - Voet may have been referring to the 1979 or 1984 events. [http://www.memoire-du-cyclisme.net/disparues/anc_gp_nations.php Palmares of the Grand Prix des Nations at memoire-du-cyclisme.net] ]

1982 Vuelta a España - Angel Arroyo won the 1982 Vuelta a España, but 48 hours later it emerged that in the doping control that was conducted after the stage 17 Arroyo tested positive. Three other riders also failed the doping test after stage 17: Alberto Fernández, Vicente Belda and Pedro Muñoz Machín Rodríguez. The four riders were said to have tested positive for Methylphenidate (which is also known as Ritalin), a stimulant. Methylphenidate was a popular drug for doping in cycling at that time. Arroyo and his team denied the allegations and asked for a second analysis of the sample. The B analysis confirmed the first positive test. Arroyo was assigned a 10 minute penalty and stripped of his Vuelta win which was given to Lejarreta. With the 10 minute penalty Arroyo went down to 13th place in the classification. [cite web|url=http://www.velonews.com/race/int/articles/9203.0.html|title=Heras won’t be the first to lose the Vuelta after the fact|publisher=Velonews.com|accessdate=2008-01-18] The disqualification of the winner of the Vuelta has been called the worst scandal that has ever hit the race on the official La Vuelta website.

1983

*Adri van der Poel the Dutch world cyclocross champion and Tour de France stage winner tested positive for Strychnine. He said that his father-in-law, had served a pigeon pie for Sunday lunch, and only when he tested positive did he realise that the pigeons had been doped with strychnine. [ [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/15.01/dopingexcuses.html Wired article "The Doping Excuses Hall of Fame"] ] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_19991212/ai_n13942989 The Sunday Herald, Dec 12, 1999 "A drugs cheat? not me!" by Richard Bath] ] [ [http://cadencenutrition.com/news/downloads/Doping_97_101.pdf Cadence Nutrition, Pdf] ]

1984

*Francesco Moser of Italy broke the hour record of Eddy Merckx in 1984. In 1999, he admitted blood doping to prepare for the attempt, helped by sports doctor Francesco Conconi. Such doping had not been declared illegal at the time.

1986

*Peter Winnen is a Dutch former road racing cyclist. He was professional from 1980 until 1991. In January 2000, on the Dutch TV-show "Reporter", Winnen admitted that he had doped. He came third in the 1983 Tour de France (undoped) but he said that in the 1986 Tour de France "I was very bad and had the choice: go back to home or to provide me with testosterone." - Winnen reached Paris. During his career with Raleigh, Panasonic and Buckler, Winnen used testosterone,amphetamines and corticosteroids.

1987

*Kim Andersen of Denmark tested positive for doping in 1987, and was banned for life, a sentence that was later changed to a one year quarantine. In 1992 he was tested positive again, and fired from his team. He rode as an individual for the rest of the year, before finally retiring. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Fakte, Danish Politik, Cycling article] ]

1988

*Pedro Delgado of Spain tested positive for probenecid at the 1988 Tour de France. Probenicid interferes with chemicals which the kidneys secrete, and thus aroused a suspicion that he was using it as a masking agent for steroid use. Though other sports governing bodies, such as the IOC, recognized probenecid as a doping agent, the UCI, which oversaw cycling, did not, and thus Delgado was allowed to continue in the event without sanction. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2003/jul/03/1 The Guardian, July 2003] ]

*Gert-Jan Theunisse of the Netherlands tested positive for testosterone during the Tour de France and received a ten-minute penalty which moved him from fourth to eleventh place overall. [cite web|url=http://www.abcc.co.uk/Articles/DrgsTdeF.html|title= Drugs and the Tour de France] He admitted in 2000 to using illegal substances during his career, according to an interview published by the Dutch regional newspaper Dutch "Eindhovens Dagblad". He confessed "to having used a great deal of Celestone," a corticoid, but he denied to having taken testosterone. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/jan00/jan6news.shtml Cycling New, January 2000, Theunisse confesses] ]

*Geert Van de Walle of Belgium died on 26 November 1988, aged 22, from a heart attack. His death was noted by Willy Voet in his book "Massacre à la chaîne" although he acknowledged the impossibility of proving the link between these early deaths and the drugs taken while racing.

*In 1988, the first rider was banned for using EPO. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/archives/jan97/25_1.html CyclingNews news article about the beginning of EPO testing] ] .

The Emergence of EPO - In the late 1980s a genetically engineered drug created for people suffering from kidney failure became a substance abused by athletes seeking enhanced stamina and performance. The drug is recombinant erythropoietin, known as EPO, which was developed by the Amgen company. Recombinant EPO is a genetically engineered copy of a hormone normally produced in the kidney and was not detectable by any test at the time.cite web
title = Stamina-Building Drug Linked to Athletes' Deaths
publisher = The New York Times
date = 19 May 1991
url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE7DF123DF93AA25756C0A967958260&sec=health&pagewanted=all
accessdate = 2008-07-15
]

EPO stimulates the bone marrow in order to increase red blood cell production and thus the body's ability to carry oxygen. A study of 15 Swedish athletes by the Stockholm Institute of Gymnastics and Sports found an improvement of nearly 10 percent in aerobic performance. The increased thickness of the blood also increases the risk of blood clotting which can block blood vessels causing a heart attack or stroke, especially in the middle of the night when the heart's rate is lowest. Doctors and blood specialists concluded that the drug could have been implicated in the deaths of as many as 18 European professional bicycle racers between 1987 and 1991. One of them was Johannes Draaijer, a 27-year-old Dutch rider who finished 130th in the 1989 Tour de France. Although the autopsy did not specify the cause of death Draaijer’s wife later told the German news magazine Der Spiegel that her husband became sick after using EPO. [James Deacon & Paul Gains, A Phantom Killer, Maclean Hunter Limited, Nov. 27, 1995, at 58.] ]

1989

*Laurent Fignon of France tested positive for amphetamines at the Grand Prix de la Liberation in Eindhoven on September 17th 1989. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE1D9173FF934A35753C1A96F948260 New York Times, 7th October 1989, Fignon Drug Results] ] [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/1993/09/29/bike.php International Herald Tribune, September 29th, 1993, Fignon:French Cycling's Angry Young Man Coasts to the End of His Bumpy Road] ]

*Bert Oosterbosch of the Netherlands died on August 18, 1989, aged 32, from a heart attack and poor health. His death was noted by Willy Voet in his book "Massacre à la chaîne" (translated as "Breaking the Chain". A more accurate translation would be "Systematic Massacre" - literally "Chain massacre", reference to both the bicycle chain and to "chainsaw massacre") although he acknowledged the impossibility of proving the link between these early deaths and the drugs taken while racing. It is widely presumed, but not proven, that the death is attributable to EPO use [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/archives/jan97/doping1.html Cycling News - news article on EPO deaths] ] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2003/06/29/sotour29.xml Daily Telegraph, "Tour de France: Cycle of cynicism keeps rolling on" by Simon Hart 28 June 2003] ] but this is disputed. [ [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ns4u0-N0q4MC&pg=PA190&lpg=PA190&dq=bert+oosterbosch+epo&source=web&ots=_R6fpcMdpb&sig=evGZqFnZkhsBnFTaKZK0zDHcMpU&hl=enhas Lactate Threshold Training By Peter Janssen, Peter G. J. M. Janssen, p. 190] ] Voet also talked about Oosterbosch riding the 1982 Grand Prix des Nations. "Oosterbosch was flat from the start due to the Synacten he had taken. The drugs initially blocked his ability to work hard. An hour after the injection it started working as planned and his tempo increased." In fact, Voet may have been referring to the 1979 or 1984 events.

*Johan van der Velde of the Netherlands undertook hospital treatment for his addiction to amphetamines at the end of his career. He said in an interview with the author Jan Siebelink ("Pijn is genot") that he had trouble coping when that success began to dry up. Van der Velde said he remembered shivering at the start of an Italian race, the skin of his arms wrinkled in goosebumps, because of the amphetamine he had taken just to start. He was also disqualified from the 1981 Liege-Bastogne-Liege race. [ [http://www.cycling4fans.de/?id=1365 Cycling for Fans - Database of Doping Incidents] ]

1990s

1990

*Johannes Draaijer from the Netherlands. It is widely presumed, but not proven, that his death was attributable to EPO use. The autopsy did not specify the cause of death, but Draaijer’s wife later told the German news magazine, Der Spiegel, that her husband became sick after using EPO.

The PDM Affair, In November, 1997 Cyclingnews.com reported about an inquiry that had just been made public in The Netherlands.cite web|url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/archives/nov97/nov28a.html |title=Drug Scandal in the Netherlands|publisher=cyclingnews.com|accessdate=2007-11-11] This inquiry appeared to reveal doping in the PDM cycling team. The doctor of the team from between 1990 and 1991 was Wim Sanders who was the centre of the investigation which was reported to have been initiated when the General Manager of the team, Manfred Krikke, called the FIOD (Fiscal Information and Investigation Service) to investigate the medical business of the team. It was said that Wim Sanders supplied anabolic steroids and EPO to the team and was responsible for the "‘intralipid affair’"of the 1991 Tour de France, when the entire team withdrew due to what was reported at the time as food poisoning. [cite web|url= http://www.iht.com/articles/1991/07/17/tour.php|title=Illness Forces Breukink out of Tour|publisher=International Herald Tribune|accessdate=2007-11-11] In a 2008 TV documentary [cite web|url=http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/programmas/2899536/afleveringen/38951974/|title=De bedorven kip van PDM", in Andere Tijden; broadcast on Jan 17, 2008|publisher=NOS/VPRO, Dutch public television|accessdate=2008-04-01 (in Dutch)] ; team members and team doctor Wim Sanders explain how the cause was in fact careless storage of Intralipid, a nutritional aid with which the team members had been injected.cite web|url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/archives/nov97/nov29a.html|title=The Dutch Doping Scandal – Part 3|publisher=cyclingnews.com|accessdate=2007-11-11]

According to cyclingnews.com, 1990 was the height of the drug taking in the team and during this year, two riders had to stop with acute heart problems; whether this refers to stopping with professional cycling or performance enchaning drugs is unclear. Team manager Gisbers denied any knowledge of doping in the team.

1991

*Carey Hall, the Australian track cyclist, tested positive for the use of banned substances and lost the medal he won in the World Championship at Stuttgart and placed on probation for 6 months [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE3D9103BF934A2575BC0A967958260&n New York Times] ] .

*Seán Kelly of Ireland was described in Willy Voet's book 'Massacre a la Chaine' thus "He won the Tour of Lombardy three times (1983, 1985, 1991 (also won amateur version in 1976)) and on at least one of times he did it with the help of a corticoide injection. Kelly was positive after Paris-Bruxelles in 1984 and that came as a surprise because he used the urine of a mechanic. But the mechanic was using banned substances himself because he had to work long hours at night and needed the lift to stay awake." [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/may99/may20.shtml Cycling News, May 1999, Cycling News and Analysis, Willy Voet goes for the jugular in his book] ]

*Stephen Pate, the Australian track cyclist, tested positive for the use of banned substances and lost the medal he won in the World Championship at Stuttgart and placed on probation for 6 months.

*Jesper Skibby of Denmark released his autobiography in November, in which he confessed [cite news | last = Baunø | first = Piet | coauthors = | title = Jesper Skibby indrømmer dopingmisbrug | work = | pages = | language = Danish | publisher = Ekstra Bladet | date = 2006-11-19 | url = http://ekstrabladet.dk/sport/cykling/article244809.ece | accessdate = 2006-11-21 ] to having used doping for more than 10 years. In 1991 he started using steroids, in 1992 growth hormones and testosterone, and finally by 1993 he was also using EPO. He claimed that he requested the drugs himself, and he did not name any other riders or contacts in the book.

PDM. Some teams used sophisticated recovery techniques whereby riders were put on a drip during the night and fed nutrients such as Vitamin B12. This practice was blamed when the entire PDM team went down with a fever on the 10th Stage of the Tour de France. PDM management blamed a virus although only riders were infected. Ten days later a press release stated that the team had used recovery substances which were past their sell-by date.

1992

*Jesper Worre from Denmark tested positive for use of amineptine, a stimulant drug, which had been prohibited on 1st January that same year. He admitted the offence and received a conditional quarantine. He is now particularly known for his strong and uncompromising struggle against the use of doping in professional cycling. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Danish Politik, Cycling article] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/dec07/dec12news Cycling News December 2007] ]

1993

*Claudio Chiappucci from Italy, confessed in 1997 that he had used drugs from 1993 - 1995, but later retracted that statement. [http://limburg.hbvl.be/nieuws-sport-wielrennen/2004/03/11/vrijgesproken-conconi-moreel-veroordeeld-door-italiaanse-gerecht.html Vrijgesproken Conconi moreel veroordeeld door Italiaanse gerecht] ] Chiappucci used the practice of doctor Conconi [ [http://www.prorider.org/chiapucci.htm Chiapucci ] ] , who was accused of applying EPO to cyclists. [ [http://www.team-csc.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=5013 Doping affairs in cycling from 1980-1998] ] [http://www.wilhelm-gym.de/html/sport/doping/it28_10.htm Conconi wird wegen Epo-Dopings der Prozess gemachtde icon] Conconi was found 'morally guilty', but was acquitted, because the crime had aged. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/mar04/mar20news1 Judge calls Italian professor "morally guilty"] The judge had looked at medical reports of 33 cyclists in the period 1993-1995, including Chiappucci's, and all blood tests showed largely fluctuating hematocrit-values, indicative for EPO-use. [ [http://www.dewielersite.nl/db2/wielersite/nieuwsfiche.php?nieuwsid=1203 Conconi vrijgesproken na proces van vijf jaarnl icon] ]

*Lennie Kristensen from Denmark tested positive for a stimulant drug. The Danish Cycling organisation banned him but the UCI did not. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Danish Politics, Cycling article] ]

*Stephen Roche of Ireland. According to an investigation in Italy into the practices of Francesco Conconi, Roche was involved in the case, having received EPO in 1993 [cite web|url=http://www.the-kingdom.ie/news/story.asp?j=12987|title=Tour de Farce as Roche linked to doping scandal] In May 1990, Paul Kimmage published "Rough Ride" exposing apparently endemic drug use in the peloton, and Roche threatened litigation. It was reported in the Rome newspaper, La Republica, in January 2000 that Francesco Conconi, a professor at the University of Ferrara involved with administering EPO to riders on the Carrera team with which Roche had some of his best years, had provided riders including Roche with EPO. Roche denied the allegations. [cite web|url=http://www.rte.ie/news/2000/0103/sport.html|title=Sport: Roche denies use of E.P.O.|publisher=RTE.ie|accessdate=2008-04-11] This was further reported in the Irish Times several days later, Roche again denying EPO. [cite web|url=http://www.rte.ie/sport/2000/0109/doping.html|title=Cycling: Roche's name again to forefront in doping investigation|publisher=RTE.ie|accessdate=2008-04-11] In March 2000 the Italian judge Franca Oliva published a report detailing the investigation into sports doctors including Conconi.cite web|url=http://www.sportpro.it/doping/inchieste/procuraconidicenta05.htm|title=Ufficio della procura antidoping del coni|publisher=sportpro.it|accessdate=2007-07-20] This official judicial investigation concluded that Roche was administered EPO in 1993, his last year in the peloton.cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/article1052710.ece?token=null&offset=12|title=Sad end to Roche's road|publisher=Timesonline|accessdate=2007-07-20] Files part of the investigation allegedly detail a number of aliases for Roche including Rocchi, Rossi, Rocca, Roncati, Righi and Rossini. [cite web|url=http://www.rte.ie/news/2000/0109/sport.html|title=Roche's name again to forefront in doping investigation|publisher=rte.ie|accessdate=2007-07-20] In 2004 Judge Oliva alleged that Roche had taken EPO during 1993 but due to the statute of limitations, neither Roche nor his team-mates at Carrera would be prosecuted. [cite web|url=http://www.rte.ie/tv/20moments/moment_00s_stephen_roche.html|title=No.12 - Tour de France winner Stephen Roche denies allegations by an Italian judge of taking performance enhancing drugs|publisher=RTE.ie|accessdate=2008-04-11]

1994

* Joachim Halupczok from Poland - died, aged 26, on February 5, 1994. In 1988 he was the World Champion cyclist, Olympic Silver medalist, and was voted 'best athlete in Poland'. In 1990 he turned professional and took part in the World Championships in Japan, but in autumn that year health problems (heart arrhythmia) caused his retirement from the sport, aged 24. It was suspected that the problems was associated with the abuse of drugs (EPO). [cytuj stronę|url=http://www.olimpijski.pl/pl/subpages/displayfid/294_785.html|tytuł=Sylwetka Halupczoka - Polish Olympic Committee|data dostępu=2008-01-08] [ [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joachim_Halupczok Joachim_Halupczok at Polish Wikipedia] ] . His death was also noted by disgraced soigneur Willy Voet in his book "Massacre à la chaîne" although he acknowledged the impossibility of proving the link between these early deaths and the drugs taken while racing.

1995

*Bo Hamburger from Denmark admitted taking EPO from 1995-1997 in his 2007 autobiography. He had vociferously denied taking banned substances throughout his active career. [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news.php?id=news/2004/sep04/sep22news Cycling News - Bike Zone, September 2004] ] [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/11/07/sports/doping7.php Internagtional Herald Tribune, Danish cyclist Bo Hamburger admits using EPO in mid-1990s ] ]

*Marco Pantani of Italy recorded a haematocrit level of 60.1% in the Milan-Turin race in October, about twenty percent higher than his natural level. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20000607/ai_n14319124 The Independent, June 7th 2000, Pantani faces trial for blood doping] ]

1996

*Rolf Aldag of Germany admitted having used Erythropoietin (EPO) in preparation for the 1996 Tour de France on 24 May 2007, . In the press conference with Erik Zabel they said that he experimented with EPO.cite news| url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may24news2 |title=Zabel and Aldag confess EPO usage |date=2007-05-24 |accessdate=2007-05-24 |work=cyclingnews.com |first=Susan |last=Westemeyer] http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/6687307.stm BBC Sports News, Zabel admits to doping at Telekom] ]

*Udo Bölts of Germany confessed publicly on May 23 2007 to having used EPO and growth hormones in preparation for the Tour de France in 1996 when he was with Team T-Mobile, and continued in 1997. Consequentially Bölts resigned as the sports director of Team Gerolsteiner on May 24 2007 [http://www.sueddeutsche.de/sport/weitere/artikel/754/115639/ Bölts tritt zurück] Süddeutsche Zeitung, 24. Mai 2007 (German)]

*Bert Dietz of Germany confessed publicly on May 23 2007 to having used EPO in preparation for the Tour de France in 1996 when he was with Team T-Mobile, and continued in 1997.cite web | last =Starcevic | first =Nesha | title =Two more former Telekom riders admit to doping | work =Associated Press | date =May 24 2007 | url = http://sports.yahoo.com/sc/news;_ylt=AqmFvq1S49.Q8FxHCAQQP8N.grcF?slug=ap-germany-doping&prov=ap&type=lgns | accessdate = 2007-05-24] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/6687307.stm BBC News] ] [ [http://english.pravda.ru/news/sports/22-05-2007/91911-telekom_doping-0 Pravda, Sports News, May 2007] ] .

*Christian Henn of Germany used banned substances (including EPO) while riding for the T-Mobile team in the mid 1990s. He admitted this in May 2007.cite web | title =Brian Holm also admits EPO doping | work =Cyclingnews.com | date =May 25, 2007 | url =http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may25news2 | accessdate = 2007-05-28]

*Brian Holm of Denmark admitted doping during the 1990s in his 2002 autobiography. This did not cost him his job as manager for the Danish national team, despite some concern about him being a role model for the young riders. In May 2007 he admitted having used erythropoietin (epo) on two occasions in 1996 at Team Telekom.

*Rita Razmaite of Lithuania, tested positive for Bromantan. She was suspended, along with a Russian coach and a Belarussian doctor, by the International Olympic Committee. [ [The Independent,(London), Aug 3, 1996, Bromantan is Russians' 'rocket fuel' by Pat Butcher] ]

*Bjarne Riis of Denmark won the 1996 Tour de France under the effects of EPO, growth hormone and cortisone. On May 25 2007 he admitted "for a time doping was a part of everyday life for me".cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/6915683.stm |title=Tour hit by fresh doping failure |publisher=BBC News |date=2007-07-26 |accessdate=2007-07-26]

*Filippo Simeoni of Italy admitted in 2002 that he was instructed by doctor Michele Ferrari in 1996 and 1997 on how to use the EPO and Human Growth Hormone that were prescribed. He also testified in court that he had used doping since 1993. Dr. Ferrari was also Lance Armstrong's doctor and this lead to a public falling out at the 2002 Tour de France. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/2002/feb02/feb13news.php Simeoni testifies: "Dr Ferrari prescribed EPO"] , "CyclingNews", February 13, 2002] In 2001 and 2002 Simeoni was suspended for several months for doping use.

*Erik Zabel of Germany, on 24 May 2007, admitted having used Erythropoietin (EPO) in preparation for the 1996 Tour de France. In the press conference he said that he experimented with EPO for a week, but did stop then due to severe side effects. Zabel also publicly apologized for having lied about his use of EPO in the past.

The Telekom Affair, In May 2007, several former riders admitted to using banned substances (including EPO) while riding for the team in the mid 1990s, including Erik Zabel, Rolf Aldag, Brian Holm, Bjarne Riis, [cite web
title =Former Tour de France winner Riis admits doping
work =Cyclingnews.com
date =2007-05-25
url =http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may26news
accessdate = 2007-05-28
] Bert Dietz, Udo Bölts and Christian Henn including the seasons in which Riis and Ullrich won the Tour de France. Team doctors Andreas Schmid and Lothar Heinrich has also confessed to participating and administering banned substances. The latter was Team Telekom's sporting director until May 3, 2007 when he was suspended following allegations published in former team member Jef d'Hont's book. [cite web | last = | first =Nesha | title =Heinrich follows Schmid's confession | work =Cyclingnews.com | date =May 24 2007 | url =http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may24news2 | accessdate = 2007-05-25]

On May 25, 2007 Riis issued a statement confessing to taking EPO, growth hormone and cortisone for 5 years, from 1993 to 1998, including during his victory in the 1996 Tour de France. [cite web|url=http://www.team-csc.com/ny_news.asp?n_id=1337 |title=Team CSC Press Release |date=2007-05-25 |accessdate=2007-05-25] Earlier in the week, five of Riis' former teammates from Team Telekom confessed to having used banned substances during the 1990s when Riis won the Tour. [cite web
url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=aG.4N3TyZIVM&refer=europe
title=Riis, Tour de France Champ, Says He Took Banned Drugs
publisher = Bloomberg.com
date=2007-05-25
accessdate=2007-05-26
] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/6692779.stm BBC SPORT | Riis confesses to doping offences] ] Riis said that he bought and injected the EPO himself, and team coach Walter Godefroot turned a blind eye to the drug use on the team. [cite web|url=http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=309530&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__sport/|title=Former Tour de France winner Riis admits doping|date=2007-05-25|accessdate=2007-05-26] . Riis removed from the official record books of Tour de France, [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jun07/jun07news2 Cycling News, June 2007] ] but in July 2008 he is written back in the books along with additional notes about his use of doping.

1997

*Djamolidine Abdoujaparov from Uzbekistan became the first rider to be disqualified from the 1997 Tour de France for taking banned substances after testing positive for Bromantan [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19960803/ai_n14070868 Independent, The (London), Aug 3, 1996 by Pat Butcher - Bromantan is Russians' 'rocket fuel'] ] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19980127/ai_n9651405 Independent, The (London), Jan 27, 1998 - Cycling: Tashkent Express derailed] ] and the anabolic steroid, Clenbuterol. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/archives/tour97/stage7.html Cycling News, July 1997, Uzbekistan's Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, expelled from the Tour de France for doping,] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1998/jan98/jan27a.html Cycling News, January 98,Abdoujaparov out for a year] ] It was later revealed that he had tested positive for drugs after six races in 1997, including the Tour de France. He was subsequently banned for a year after the UCI appealed against a six-month ban imposed by the Uzbekistan Cycling Federation, claiming it was too lenient. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19980127/ai_n9651405 The Independent (London), Jan 27, 1998, Cycling: Tashkent Express derailed] ]

*Gilles Bouvard of France admitted on July 28 1998 that he had doped when with his former team Festina.

*Brian Dalgaard Jensen of Denmark confessed in a DR TV documentary in March 2003, to using EPO during his career, especially during his 1997 success in Belgium. In 2004 he was awarded an anti-doping prize for his openness. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Danish Politics - News article] ]

*Rune Jogert of Norway tested positive for Ephedrine during a stage race in Germany (the Berliner 4-Etappen-Fahrt). He was suspended for 2 months from February 1, 1998, fined 500 Swiss francs ($US345) and lost 15 UCI ranking points. Additionally the Norwegian Cycling Federation was fined 5,000 Swiss francs (about $US3,500) because it had not taken any action against Rune Jogert and not told the UCI [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19980127/ai_n9651405 The Independent (London), Jan 27, 1998, Cycling: Norwegian rider also suspended] ] .

*Emmanuel Magnien of France admitted on July 28 1998 that he had doped when with his former team Festina.

*Michael Skelde from Denmark tested positive for testosterone. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece danish Politike, Cycling Article] ]

1998

*Laurent Brochard of France was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On July 24th he confessed to using performance enhancing drugs. On December 15, 1998 he was suspended by the French Cycling Federation for six months.

*Francesco Casagrande of Italy was caught in March 1998 with a positive testosterone finding. He was suspended for 6 months, later increased to 9 months, and sacked by Cofidis. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/jan99/jan10.shtml Cycling News Jan 1999] ]

*Laurent Dufaux of France was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On July 24th he confessed to using performance enhancing drugs.

*Pascal Hervé of France was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On October 25, 2000 he admitted to doping during the 1998 Tour de France. [cite web|url=http://www.cyclisme-dopage.com/actualite/2000-10-25-afp-yahoo.htm|title=Festina - Pascal Hervé: "Oui je me suis dopé"|publisher=Cyclisme-dopage.com|accessdate=2008-05-25]

*Luc Leblanc of France, the 1994 world champion, admitted to the court in the Festina trial he had used performance-enhancing erythropoetin (EPO) to prepare for the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Spanish Vuelta over the last six years (1992-1998). He took EPO in 1994 to compete in the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia. "It is true, but I could have taken a lot more to win these races," said Leblanc. He also insisted that his Rainbow Jersey was not won on illegal substances. [ [http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/cycling/news/2000/10/24/virenque2/ Sports Illustrated article] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/oct00/oct25news.shtml CyclingNews, October 25 2000] ]

*Rodolfo Massi of Italy tested positive for Cortisone during the 1998 Tour de France and received a 6 month suspension from the Italian Cycling Federation. He was also fined around $US1800, thrown out of the Tour while wearing the Mountain's jersey and arrested by police. He was accused of being one of the drug dealers in the peloton. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1998/nov98/nov4.shtml CyclingNews, November 1998] ]

*Armin Meier of Switzerland was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On July 24th he confessed to using performance enhancing drugs.

*Christophe Moreau of France team was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On July 24th he confessed to using EPO [cite web|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19980725/ai_n14163112|title=Tour riders down wheels over drug use|publisher=London independent|accessdate=2007-07-28] . [cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/1998/07/13/drugs.t.php|title=A hint of doping at Tour de France|publisher=Herald Tribune|accessdate=2007-07-19] Confessing alongside the other team members - except Richard Virenque - Moreau served a six-month suspension before returning to racing. [cite web|url=http://www.humanite.fr/1998-12-15_Sports_CYCLISME-1|title=Dopage 2|publisher=Humanite|accessdate=2007-07-29] . On December 15, 1998 he was suspended by the French Cycling Federation for six months.

*Per Pedersen of Denmark who raced the Tour de France on four occasions and worked for Team CSC as a directeur sportif in 2001, confessed to taking substances that are now prohibited. "It concerned cortisone," he admitted in December 2006. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Politic Denmark, Cycling Facts] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/dec06/dec27news Cycling News, December 6th, 2006] ]

*Didier Rous of France was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On December 15, 1998, he was suspended by the French Cycling Federation for six months.

*Richard Virenque of France was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On October 24, 2000, he admitted to doping at the 1998 Tour de France [cite web|url=http://www.humanite.fr/2000-10-25_Sports_-L-AVEU-Richard-Virenque-a-fini-par-admettre-s-etre-dope-Luc|title=L’AVEU Richard Virenque a fini par admettre s’être dopé. Luc Leblanc lui a emboîté le pas|publisher=Humanite.fr|accessdate=2007-12-31] but on December 22, 2000, he was cleared by the French court [cite web|url= http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/dec00/dec23news.shtml |title= Festina judgment handed down |publisher=Cyclingnews.com |accessdate=2008-05-25] . On December 30, 2000 the Swiss cycling federation gave him a nine month ban and a 4,000 Swiss franc fine. [cite web|url= http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/dec00/dec30news.shtml |title= Virenque given nine month ban |publisher=Cyclingnews.com |accessdate=2008-05-25]

*Alex Zülle of Switzerland was ejected from the Tour de France on July 17, 1998 with the entire Festina team. On July 24th he confessed to using performance enhancing drugs. His hematacrit level was recorded as 52.3%, whereas the maximum allowed figure is 50%. He also stated in court that he has been employing EPO for four years, including during his time with ONCE. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/jan99/jan13.shtml Cycling News, January 1991, Danish TV claim Riis used drugs in 1995] ]

The Festina Affair is the events that surround several doping scandals, doping investigations and confessions of riders to doping that occurred during and after the 1998 Tour de France. The affair began when a large haul of doping products was found in a car of the Festina cycling team just before the start of the race which led to an investigation, this was followed by the re-opening of a separate case into the TVM team and a subsequent searching of many teams during the race. The affair highlighted systematic doping and suspicion of a widespread network of doping in many teams of the Tour de France and was characterised by the constant negative publicity of the case, police searches of hotels, a spate of confessions by retired and current riders to doping, the detainment and arrest of many team personnel, protests by riders in the race as well as mass withdrawal of several teams from the race.

1999

*Uwe Ampler tested positive for steroids and high testosterone level during the Sachsen Tour in August 1999. He admitted his error, blaming a cocktail of drugs taken during a bout of influenza. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/1999/aug99/aug9.shtml Cycling News - August 1999] ]

*Frankie Andreu admitted in September 2006 that he had taken EPO to help prepare for the 1999 Tour de France, when he was riding for the US Postal team. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/12/sports/othersports/12cycling.html New York Times, September 2006] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/sep06/sep12news2 Cycling News - Sept 2006] .]

*Lance Armstrong tested positive for corticoids during the 1999 Tour de France. The small amounts of corticoids in a urine sample were explained by the prescription for skin cream (saddle sores / boil / allergy) that he subsequently presented to the UCI, thus he was cleared of any offence. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sport/tour_de_france/400344.stm BBC -Tour de France, Thursday, July 22, 1999 Armstrong cleared over drug use] ] .

*Ludo Dierckxsens was removed from the Tour de France by his Lampre team after winning the 11th stage. At the post race drugs test he told the race doctor about his use of the corticoid Synacthene (Tetracosactide) under prescription to treat a knee injury from the previous month. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04EFDD1E3FF933A15754C0A96F958260&sec=&spon= New York Times, July 1999] ]

*Claus Michael Møller of the Dutch TVM team tested positive for banned substances and received a 2 year ban [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Danish Politike, Cycling article] ]

*Marco Pantani, winner of 1998 Giro d'Italia and Tour de France, faced an automatic two-week suspension while leading the 1999 Giro d'Italia for a suspiciously high red blood cell count which suggested that the rider had taken the banned substance EPO. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0DE4D61539F935A35755C0A96F958260 New York TimesJune 6th, 1999, Sports, Cycling, Racers Express Shock At Italian's Suspension, By Samuel Abt] ] He died of a cocaine overdose in 2004.

*Laurent Roux is a French former road bicycle racer. In 1999, he was found guilty of using amphetamines and was suspended for six months.cite web
title = Cycling: Roux admits drug use and dealing
publisher = www.iht.com
date = 20 June 2006
url = http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/20/sports/bike.php
accessdaymonth = 22 November | accessyear=2007
] In 2002, he was tested non-negative for amphetamines after an out of competition control. [cite web
title = Laurent Roux non-negative for amphetamines
publisher = www.cyclingnews.com
date = 30 June 2002
url = http://www.cyclingnews.com/road/2002/tour02/?id=news/jun02/jun30
accessdaymonth = 22 November | accessyear=2007
] In 2006 he also confessed at a doping trial in Bordeaux that he used EPO, human growth hormone, cortisone and testosterone.

1999 Tour de France - In 2005 the French sports daily L'Équipe accused Lance Armstrong of using the performance-enhancing drug EPO during 1999 Tour de France. For years, it had been impossible to detect the drug, called erythropoietin, until UCI began using a urine test for EPO in 2001. According to the newspaper, tests on 1999 urine samples were done to help scientists improve their detection methods. The newspaper said 12 samples had revealed EPO use, including six from Armstrong. [ [http://www.lequipe.fr/Cyclisme/DOPAGE_ARMSTRONG_2.html L'EQUIPE.FR Cyclisme - CYCLISME - Dopage ] ] [ [http://velonews.com/article/8740 VeloNews | L'Equipe alleges Armstrong samples show EPO use in 99 Tour | The Journal of Competitive Cycling ] ] In 2006 a UCI appointed independent lawyer, Emile Vrijman, released a report in 2006 claiming that Lance Armstrong should be cleared of any suspicion surrounding the retrospective testing of the 1999 Tour de France. Vrijman denounced the manner in which the doping laboratory in Châtenay-Malabry carried out its research, claiming that there were too many procedural and chain of custody gaps. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/2006/jun06/vrijmanreport.pdf Rapport Armstrong.indd ] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/may06/may31news2 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ] The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) rejected it, calling it "defamatory" to WADA and its officers and employees, as well as the accredited laboratory involved. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/jun06/jun03news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

In 2005, French daily 'Le Journal du Dimanche' reported that Spanish rider Manuel Beltrán, Danish Bo Hamburger and Colombian Joaquim Castelblanco were suspected of being among those whose frozen urine samples reportedly tested positive. [ [http://www.velonews.com/article/8870/ VeloNews | Beltran and others deny EPO use in '99 Tour | The Journal of Competitive Cycling ] ]

2000s

2000

*Eugeni Berzin was prevented from starting the 2000 Giro d'Italia because of Haematocrit level (EPO) above 50% [ [http://www.cbc.ca/sports/story/2000/05/13/cycling000513.html CBC Sports News] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2000/may00/may14news.shtml Cycling News - May 2000] ]

*Neil Campbell tested positive at a World Cup track meeting in Turin on July 13 and at the British Championships on July 29. Both samples showed higher concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) than permitted. [ [http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/newswire/2000/09/08/825253014632_afp/ Sports Illustrated] ]

*Jan Hruska from the Czech Republic was thrown out of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games after testing positive for an unspecified banned substance. [http://www.rediff.com/sports/2000/sep/30drugs.htm Rediff Olympic News - Roll of Dishonour] ]

*Emmanuel Magnien of France was banned for three months by the International Cycling Union (UCI) after testing positive for corticoids during Tour de France. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics2000/cycling/897866.stm BBC Cycling News - Sydney 2000] ]

*Tammy Thomas, US track cyclist, tested positive for testosterone at the 2000 US Olympic trials, and in 2001 tested positive for a previously unseen steroid Norbolethone. She received a lifetime ban from the sport. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/dec06/dec15news Cycling News, December 2006, Tammy Thomas indicted in steroids case] ]

2001

*Niklas Axelsson tested positive for EPO in the 2001 UCI Road World Championships in Lisbon and later admitted his guilt [ [http://www.trap-friis.dk/cykling/sweden.Axelsson.htm Trap Friis, Cycling Niklas axelsson] ] . He was suspended for four years by the Swedish Cycling Federation but made an early comeback in 2004.

*Riccardo Forconi tested positive for blood doping/EPO use prior to the Giro d'Italia. [ [http://le-grimpeur.net/blog/archives/11 Le Grimpeur, Doping on March 8th, 2007, Doping and climbing: Marco Pantani - part 1] ]

*Dario Frigo was expelled from the Giro d'Italia after police discovered banned substances in his hotel room [ [http://www.cbc.ca/sports/story/2001/06/07/cycling010607.html CBC Sports News, June 2001 Giro d'Italia stage cancelled after police raid cyclists' hotel] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2001/jun01/jun09news.shtml Cycling News June 2001, Frigo out of Giro for drug possession] ] . In 2005 he was arrested and banned from the Tour de France after police found 10 doses of erythropoietin (EPO) in his wife's car. [ [http://www.tdfblog.com/2005/07/dario_frigo_arr.html BBC - Tour de France news>] .

*Marcin Gebk of Poland was excluded from the 2001 Peace Race after failing a hematocrit test prior to the event. He was one of three riders for the Polish CCC Mat team who received a two week ban.

*Bjoern Glasner of Germany and Team Cologne was excluded from the 2001 Peace Race after failing a hematocrit test prior to the event. He received a two week ban.

*Bo Hamburger becomes the first rider to test positive for EPO under a new system introduced by the UCI in 2001. Hamburger was later acquitted by the Danish Sports Federation after irregularities in the handling of Hamburger's B sample analysis. [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news.php?id=news/2004/sep04/sep22news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ] Hamburger denied ever taking any banned substances, but in 2007 he published a book and revealed that he took EPO from 1995 to 1997. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/11/07/sports/doping7.php International Herald Tribune, November 2007, Danish cyclist Bo Hamburger admits using EPO in mid-1990s] ]

*Pascal Hervé tested positive for EPO after the prologue in 2001 Giro d'Italia.

*Roland Meier from Switzerland tested positive for EPO at the end of la Flèche Wallonne on April 18. The Swiss Cycling Federation (SRB) stated that the B sample 'counter-evaulation' was carried out by the IUML (University Institute of Forensic medicine) in Lausanne and it confirmed the first analysis. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2001/jun01/jun09news.shtml Cycling News - June 2001] ] . He was suspended for 8 months by the SRB. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20010829/ai_n14419160 The Independent Newspaper, August 29, 2001] ]

*In 2002 Gianpaolo Mondini was sacked from US Postal after it was known that police found EPO and growth hormones in his hotel room during 2001 Giro d'Italia. He admitted using illegal substances. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2002/apr02/apr07news Mondini sacked from US Postal] .]

*Marco Pantani was banned for six months after an insulin syringe was found in his room at the Giro d'Italia [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1374544.stm BBC News | EUROPE | Italy drugs raid on cyclists' hotel ] ] [http://www.reuters.com/article/sphereNews/idUSL1975623220070920?sp=true&view=sphere TIMELINE: Doping problems to hit major Tours | Reuters ] ] .

*Piotr Przydzial of Poland was excluded from the 2001 Peace Race after failing a hematocrit test prior to the event. He was one of three riders for the Polish CCC Mat team who received a two week ban.

*Ondřej Sosenka of the Czech Republic was excluded from the 2001 Peace Race after failing a hematocrit test prior to the event. He was one of three riders for the Polish CCC Mat team who received a two week ban. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/results/2001/may01/may12news.shtml Cycling News, May 2001, Peace race expels four] ] [ [http://www.bikeradar.com/blogs/article/save-the-hour-record-18316 ProCycling - Bike Radar, Save the hour record] ]

*Tammy Thomas, US track cyclist, tested positive for a previously unseen steroid Norbolethone. She received a lifetime ban from the sport.

2001 Giro d'Italia - The Giro was overshadowed by a series of scandals related to doping. Police raided the hotels of several teams during the race, uncovering a variety of banned substances. Italian Dario Frigo, who was fighting for the race lead at the time, was expelled from the race as a result. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/sports/story/2001/06/07/cycling010607.html Giro d'Italia stage cancelled after police raid cyclists' hotel ] ] The week prior to the raid saw Pascal Hervé and Riccardo Forconi expelled from the race after testing positive for EPO. Italian police carried out anti-drugs raids on a number of hotels in the town of San Remo where the participants of the race were staying. About 200 officers were involved in the raid. Police officers search the rooms of riders from all 20 teams, confiscating medicines. The organizers decided to cancel the 18th stage after second-placed Dario Frigo was sacked by Fassa Bortolo team after illegal drugs were found in his room. Frigo later admitted carrying them as security in case he needed a boost during the final stages of the race. Italian Marco Pantani was banned for six months after an insulin syringe was found in his room.

2002

*Nicola Chesini was detained by Italian police as part of an investigation into the supply of performance-enhancing drugs during the 2002 Giro d'Italia. Chesini was taken from his hotel near Cuneo after the fifth stage of the Giro d'Italia. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/1994653.stm BBC SPORT | CYCLING | Chesini arrested in drugs probe ] ]

*Stefano Garzelli, the 2000 Giro d'Italia winner, tested positive for the banned diuretic and masking agent probenecid, and was expelled from the Giro d'Italia. He was given a nine-month ban. [ [http://www.foxsports.com.au/story/0,8659,22131086-23218,00.html Vinokourov tests positive - Other Sports - Fox Sports ] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/riders/2003/interviews/?id=stefano_garzelli03 Cycling News, 2003] ]

*Jef D'hont was a masseur to professional cycling teams. In 1998 he was involved in the doping scandal during the Tour de France (festina affair). For his involvement in doping in the team Française des Jeux, he got a 9 month prison term on probation in December 2000. In April 2007 he exposed the doping practises of the Team Telekom in the 1990s, and admitted his own use of amphetamines in 1963. [ [http://www.bikeradar.com/news/article/latest-dhont-book-tinkoff-say-yes-to-hamilton-and-jaksche-9346 Bike Radar, Review of D'Hont Book] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/mar07/mar26news2 Cycling News, March 2007, Doping in the 90's, according to Belgian TV] ]

*David McCann, from Northern Ireland, tested positive for the Norandrosterone in 2002 during the Tour of Austria, which returned a reading 3 nanograms above the permitted level of the substance. Laboratory tests showed a legal glutamine supplement he was using contained norandrosterone not listed on the label. This evidence led to him being given the minimum allowed six month suspension and fined 2000 Swiss Francs.

*Gianpaolo Mondini was sacked from US Postal after it was known that police found EPO and growth hormones in his hotel room during 2001 Giro d'Italia. He admitted using illegal substances. The Italian Olympic Committee demanded suspension of up to four and a half years for possession and use of the drug EPO and possession of insulin. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20020406/ai_n12620807 The Independent Newspaper, April 6, 2002] ]

*Lars Brian Nielsen tested positive for high levels of caffeine and was removed from the Danish National Team for the World Championships in Ballerup in September. [ [http://politiken.dk/cykling/cykling_fakta/article312262.ece Danish Politics - Cycling review] ] [http://www.cyclingnews.com.au/news/?id=2002/aug02/aug30news Cycling News, August 2nd 2002] ] It was the second time Nielsen has been caught. In 1997 he was found to have taken nandrolone and was suspended for two years.

*Kirk O'Bee of Ada, Michigan tested positive for an elevated testosterone-epitestosterone ratio at the 2001 USPRO Championships in Philadelphia on June 10, 2001 and received a 1 year suspension. [ [http://www.usantidoping.org/what/management/sanctions.aspx US Antidoping Authority, Offences list] ] O'Bee declared that his positive drug test "resulted from a special training regimen recommended by his coach, which involved dietary supplements and exercise." [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news/?id=2002/jul02/jul19news Cycling News, July 19, 2002] ]

*Juan Pineda of the USA tested positive for 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone at the First Union Invitational in Lancaster, PA on June 4, 2002. He received a 2 year suspension on September 25th 2002 from the USADA. [ [http://www.usantidoping.org/what/management/sanctions.aspx USAntidoping - Test results database] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2002/sep02/sep26news Cycling News, Sept 2nd, 2002, Pineda suspended for two years] ]

*Piotr Przydzial from Poland (CCC-Polsat) tested "non-negative" for EPO, at the 55th Peace Race/Course de la Paix in the Czech Republic. He was tested after the fourth stage that finished in Chemnitz on May 13 2002. Both Przydzial's A and B samples showed signs of EPO and he faced a two year ban. Prior to the start of the 1991 Peace Race, Przydzial and Sosenka failed a hematocrit test (above 50%) and were not allowed to start. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2002/jun02/jun06news Cycling News, June 6th 2002] ]

*Raimondas Rumsas was given a four-month suspended prison sentence in January 2006 by the Bonneville court for the importation of prohibited doping substances during the 2002 Tour de France wher he finished third. His wife Edita was given the same sentence with a 3,000 euros fine on identical charges, while Polish doctor Krzysztof Ficek was handed a 12-month suspended sentence for prescribing the drugs. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/4650428.stm BBC SPORT | Other Sport... | Cycling | Rumsas given suspended sentence ] ] Edita Rumsas was arrested and gaoled for 3 months after French police discovered a cocktail of performance-enhancing drugs including growth hormone and EPO in her car. She had claimed that the drugs were for her mother-in-law. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2006/01/27/1556123.htm ABC News, January 2006 Cycling drug cheats handed suspended jail terms] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2003/jul/03/1 The Guardian, July 2003, If this year's Tour de France is 100% clean....then that will certainly be a first. By Matt Seaton and David Adam] ]

*Stefan Rütimann of Switzerland was given a 4 year ban by the Swiss Olympic Committee (COS) after testing positive for testosterone on May 5 during the Tour de Romandie. Rütimann declined to have his B test analysed, and was given a heavy suspension as he had also tested positive for banned substances in May 2001, when he was suspended for seven months. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2002/jun02/jun11news Cycling News, June 2002, Four year ban for Stefan Rütimann] ]

*Roberto Sgambelluri was expelled from the Giro d'Italia after becoming the first professional cyclist to be caught using NESP, a stronger and longer lasting form of EPO. However, NESP is not produced naturally by the body, and is therefore easy to detect by doping tests as it stays in the body for a long time. [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news/?id=2002/may02/may26news Bike-Zone, May 2002] ]

*Gilberto Simoni, the 2001 Giro d'Italia winner, tested positive for cocaine and was withdrawn from the Giro d'Italia, but was later cleared by the Italian Cycling Federation. [ [http://www.foxsports.com.au/story/0,8659,22131086-23218,00.html Fox Sports] ]

*Frank Vandenbroucke was arrested after the Belgium state highway patrol intercepted Bernard Sainz for travelling in excess of the speed limit and found a large quantity of amphetamines and syringes in the car. Sainz, known in the cycling world as "Doctor Mabuse", said he was leaving Frank Vandenbroucke's home, which lead to the police searching the cyclist's residence, where they found EPO, morphine and clenbuterol. [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jul07/jul11news2 Bike Zone, News, July 2007] ] On March 21 Vandenbroucke was handed a six month ban and a 10,000 Swiss francs fine by the Belgian federation. [ [http://velonews.com/article/2484 VeloNews article] ] [ [http://www.cyclingpost.com/rider/article_004076.shtml Cycling Post - Frank Vandenbroucke admits use of doping] ]

*Faat Zakirov was expelled from the Giro d'Italia after becoming the first professional cyclist to be caught using NESP, a stronger and longer lasting form of EPO. However, NESP is not produced naturally by the body, and is therefore easy to detect by doping tests as it stays in the body for a long time. [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news/?id=2002/may02/may26news Bike-Zone, News, May 2002] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/3748973.stm BBC Sport, Cycling] ] [ [http://www.bike-zone.com/news/index.php?id=2002/may02/may21news Cycling News, May 2002, Garzelli's counter-analysis due on Tuesday] ] He received a one-year ban plus a one-year suspended ban from the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), the International Cycling Union (UCI) announced on April 17th 2003. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/news/archive/2003/04/18/default_7.htm ABC News, April 2003, Russian rider receives one-year ban.] ]

2003

*Mario De Clercq of Belgium was implicated in a doping affair involving both trafficking and taking banned performance-enhancing drugs, human growth hormone and Aranesp, a synthetic drug which increases red blood cell levels. The ring included six riders plus four others including the chief defendant, Belgian veterinarian Jose Landuyt. De Clercq used used human growth hormone and Aranesp, a synthetic drug which increases red blood cell levels, which Museeuw obtained from Landuyt. On 24 January 2007, Museeuw confessed to these charges. [http://www.dewielersite.net/db2/wielersite/nieuwsfiche.php?nieuwsid=5681 Museeuw confesses to have used doping (in Dutch language)] ] The court proceedings were adjourned until September 23, 2008, pending a ruling from the Constitutional Court on the point of law. [http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/23102007/58/museeuw-trial-suspended.html Museeuw trial suspended - Yahoo! Eurosport UK ] ]

*Igor González de Galdeano of Spain missed the Tour de France because of a six-month doping ban imposed on him by France's Council for Prevention and Fight against Doping (CPLD) after testing positive for Salbutamol during the 2002 Tour de France, as well after the final stage of the 2002 Midi Libre. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/2702255.stm BBC Sport, Cycling News, June 29th 2003, Gonzalez injured] ] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/08/sports/othersports/09landiscnd.html?_r=1&ref=sports&oref=slogin New York Times, February 8, 2007, By Graham Bowley Landis Agrees Not to Race in Tour de France This Year ] ] The UCI did not consider the Tour de France positive as a doping offense, and began a face-off with the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which insisted the case was indeed one of doping. The UCI declared that there was no limit placed on the amount salbuamol used under prescription. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2003/mar03/mar24news2 Cycling News, March 2003,Gonzalez de Galdeano facing possible suspension] ]

*Philippe Gaumont of France admitted during police interrogation to an ongoing pattern of EPO use that continued into the 2003 Tour de France [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/jan04/jan23news Cycling News, January 2004] ] This was the end of a career in which in 1996 he tested positive for nandrolone in two races. In 1998 he tested positive twice for the nandrolone drug, but the case was dismissed. In 1999, a blood test conducted in the "Docteur Mabuse" justice case showed he was positive for amphetamines. In 2005 he wrote a book, "Prisonnier du dopage" ("Prisoner of doping") describing doping methods, masking methods and financial pressures [ [http://www.abcc.co.uk/Reviews/prisoner_dope.html ABCC review of "Prisoner of Doping" by Philippe Gaumont] ] .

*Geneviève Jeanson of Canada recorded a hematocrit level in excess of the allowable limit while with the Canadian National Team preparing for the World Championships in Hamilton, Ontario, in late 2003. She was required to withdraw from competition for two weeks. She explained the finding by reference to an oxygen tent which she used as part of her conditioning and training program. After years of denial, in an investigative documentary broadcast on Radio-Canada (the French-language CBC) on September 20, 2007, Jeanson acknowledged having taken EPO more or less continuously since age 16 (circa 1998). [cite web |url=http://www.cbc.ca/sports/story/2007/09/20/jeanson-doping.html |title=Canadian cyclist Jeanson admits to doping |accessdate=2007-09-20 |work=CBC ] [ [http://velonews.com/article/13360 VeloNews article] ]

*Jesús Manzano of Spain admitted doping during the 2003 season. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated that he was "Acquitted for legal reasons." He is famous as the whisteblower of systematic doping in Spanish cycling and his statements led the Guardia Civil to conduct the Operación Puerto investigation around the sport doctor Eufemiano Fuentes.

*Johan Museeuw of Belgium was implicated in a doping affair accusing him of both trafficking and taking banned performance-enhancing drugs. The ring included six riders (Mario De Clercq, Jo Planckaert and Chris Peers) plus four others including the chief defendant, Belgian veterinarian Jose Landuyt. Museeuw used human growth hormone which he obtained from Landuyt. The police recorded phone calls where Museeuw spoke of "wasps", a codeword for Aranesp, a synthetic drug which increases red blood cell levels. On 24 January 2007, Museeuw confessed to these charges. The court proceedings were adjourned until September 23, 2008, pending a ruling from the Constitutional Court on the point of law.

*Scott Moninger of the USA was suspended for one year due to contaminated supplements which contained the banned substance - 19-norandrosterone. These supplements were bought off the shelf of the local Boulder, Colorado suppliment store. It was later proven by lab results from the same batch of suppliments that the banned substance was not labeled on the product container. Although Moninger was suspended, he is considered to be a clean rider by his peers. [ [http://www.dailypeloton.com/displayarticle.asp?pk=2388 Daily Peloton - Pro Cycling News ] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/riders/2003/interviews/?id=moninger03 Setting the Record Straight] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/?id=taintedsupplements Tainted Supplements: Positive or not? - Part I] ]

*Chris Peers was implicated in a doping affair involving both trafficking and taking banned performance-enhancing drugs, human growth hormone and Aranesp, a synthetic drug which increases red blood cell levels. The ring included six riders plus four others including the chief defendant, Belgian veterinarian Jose Landuyt. On 24 January 2007, Johan Museeuw confessed to the charges. The court proceedings were adjourned until September 23, 2008, pending a ruling from the Constitutional Court on the point of law.

*Jo Planckaert of Belgium was implicated in a doping affair involving both trafficking and taking banned performance-enhancing drugs, human growth hormone and Aranesp, a synthetic drug which increases red blood cell levels. The ring included six riders plus four others including the chief defendant, Belgian veterinarian Jose Landuyt. On 24 January 2007, Johan Museeuw confessed to the charges. The court proceedings were adjourned until September 23, 2008, pending a ruling from the Constitutional Court on the point of law.

*Mark Roland of Australia was suspended for 2 years by the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) in September 2008 for having used prohibited substances in 2003 and 2004, although he never tested positive. He was found to have used human growth hormone on two occasions in 2003 and the anabolic steroid Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) twice in 2003 and once in 2004. The World Anti-Doping Agency applies an eight year statute of limitations. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/sep08/sep19news2 Cycling News, Sept 2008 - Former Australian pro suspended] ]

*Raimondas Rumsas of Lithuania received a one year-ban after testing positive for EPO during the 2003 Giro d'Italia, in which he finished sixth overall. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2003/07/01/891978.htm Disgraced Rumsas set for ban after EPO test confirmed - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) ] ]

*Adham Sbeih of the USA, a former U.S. national time trial champion, tested positive in August of 2003 for EPO. He was the first U.S. cyclist to be found guilty of taking EPO, He received a two year ban [http://velonews.com/article/7245 Velo News] ] .

Oil for Drugs was an Italian doping case against doctor Carlos Santuccione and a number of accomplices, started in 2003. He was accused of administering prohibited doping products to professional and amateur athletes, to enhance their performance as well as being involved in doping network across Italy. [cite web|url=http://www.dailypeloton.com/displayarticle.asp?pk=10163|title=The Sport of the Doctors|publisher=Daily Peloton|accessdate=2008-05-03]

Unexpected deaths - It should be noted that during 2003 and the 2004 off season eight riders died from heart attacks:

*Denis Zanette of Italy, died on January 11 2003, aged 32. Zanette collapsed after visiting the dentist.

*Marco Ceriani of Italy, died on May 5, 2003, aged 1. An elite amateur, Ceriani experienced a heart attack during a race, was admitted to hospital in a coma, and failed to recover consciousness.

*Fabrice Salanson of France, died in his sleep at the age of 23 on the eve of the Tour of Germany in Dresden. Race director Roland Hofer said the Brioches La Boulangere rider was found in his hotel room and had died between 0230-0400 local time (0030-0200 GMT). The post mortem found no illegal substances in his body - a conclusion reinforced by the International Olympic Committee's laboratory in Kreska. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20030607/ai_n12690442 The Independent (London), Jun 7, 2003 , So Farewell Fabrice Salanson] ] .

*Marco Rusconi of Italy died on November 14, aged 24. He was leaving a party when he collapsed and died in a shopping centre car park.

*Jose Maria Jimenez of Spain died on December 6, aged 32. He suffered a heart attack in a psychiatric hospital in Madrid. Had retired two years previously but consistently claimed a comeback was imminent..

*Michel Zanoli of the Netherlands died on December 29, aged 35. He had retired in 1997 and suffered a fatal heart attack.

*Johan Sermon of Belgium died on February 15th 2004, aged 21. He suffered an apparent heart failure in his sleep having reportedly gone to bed early to prepare for an eight-hour training ride.

*Marco Pantani of Italy died on February 15th 2004, aged 34. Post mortem listed complex drug abuse. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2004/feb/16/cycling.cycling1 The Guardian, February 16th 2004, William Fotheringham, Inquiry into Belgian cyclist's death raises new fears over EPO -Tally of deaths reaches eight as drug suspicions rise] ]

2004

*Lizandro Ajcú of Guatamalla tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in 2005.

*Joey D'Antoni, received a 2 year suspension on September 24, from the United States Antidoping Agency. The track racer from Raleigh, North Carolina, tested positive for recombinant human Erythropoietin (rHuEPO)

*Christophe Brandt of Belgian tested positive for methadone during the Tour de France. He believed the test was a result of a tainted nutritional supplement that he had taken to cure a liver problem. The chemist who had prepared Brandt's prescription confirmed he had been working with methadone on the same day that he had prepared Brandt's prescription. His Lotto team fired him, but after he was exonerated by the Belgian Cycling Federation he was rehired.

*Dave Bruylandts of Belgium tested positive for EPO use in 2004 and was banned for 18 months [ [http://www.standaard.be/Artikel/detail.aspx?artikelId=GBL7G287&Snel=1] Belgian Standard] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/jul04/jul19news5Cycling News - July 2004] ] .

*David Calanche of Guatamalla tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*María Luisa Calle of Columbia lost her bronze medal after testing positive for heptaminol. The Colombian Olympic Committee appealed the decision, and in November 2005 she got her medal back.

*Oscar Camenzind of Switzerland tested positive on July 22 for the banned drug EPO and was barred from attending the Olympic games. Although he accepted full responsibility for the positive test, his cycling career became questionable after being fired by his Swiss professional cycling team Phonak. Soon after this occurrence, he announced his retirement from professional cycling. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympics_2004/cycling/3549628.stm BBC SPORT | Olympics 2004 | Cycling | Camenzind quits cycling ] ] [| [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/aug04/aug09news3 Cycling News - August 2004] ] .

*Stefano Casagranda and Martin Hvastija were asked to leave the 2004 Tour de France after race organisers received a letter from Padova's financial brigade, saying the riders were under investigation in Italy on doping charges. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/3887583.stm BBC SPORT | Other Sport | Cycling | Duo removed from Tour ] ]

*Yeisson Delgado of Venezuella tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*Carlos López González of Mexico tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*Abel Jocholá of Guatamalla tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*Danilo Di Luca was not eligible to participate in the Tour de France as he was under investigation by Italian officials for doping. Di Luca was recorded in several phone conversations with Eddy Mazzoleni in which he allegedly talked about doping products, the investigation led to Di Luca's non-participation in the 2004 Tour de France. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jun07/jun28news2/ Cycling News article, June 28, 2007] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jun07/jun29news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Tyler Hamilton won the gold medal in the men's individual time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. That medal was placed in doubt on September 20, 2004, after it was revealed that he had failed a test for blood doping (receiving blood transfusions to boost performance) at the Olympics. Two days after the announcement of his positive test result at Athens, the IOC announced that Hamilton would keep his gold medal because results could not be obtained from the second, backup sample. The Athens lab had frozen the backup sample, which made it impossible to repeat the blood doping test. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/4111071.stm Hamilton faces Greek drug probe] , BBC on Monday, 20 December, 2004.] Hamilton also tested positive for blood doping at the 2004 Vuelta a España, where he won the 8th stage. In April 2005 he was banned for 2 years for blood doping [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/SPORT/04/19/cycling.hamilton/ CNN Sports News, April 2005] ] . The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated that for Homologous Blood Transfusion he would be sanctioned to "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Jesus Manzano of Spain exposed doping practices in a series of articles in the Spanish newspaper Diario AS in March 2004. This included his use of EPO, Cortisone, Testosterone, Human Growth Hormone, Nandrolone, Oxyglobin, and the extreme practices to administer them. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/general/cycling-manzanos-drugs-allegations-cast-new-shadow-over-cycling-567755.html The Independent Newspaper, Cycling: Manzano's drugs allegations cast new shadow over cycling, March 2004] ] . The revelations were so strong that Spanish investigations were began, and these in turn lead to Operación Puerto.

*Filip Meirhaeghe the Belgian Mountain biker, tested positive for EPO at an out of competition control on June 25, two days before round 5 of the mountain bike World Cup in Mont St Anne, Canada, which he won. The 33 year old World Champion told the Belga newsagency that he will stop competitive cycling immediately. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/jul04/jul29news2 Cycling News, July 2004] ]

*Noel Armando Vazquez Mendoza of Venezuella tested positive for Erythropoietin and Nicethamide in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004. In July 2005 he was sanctioned by the Federacion Venezolana De Ciclismo, involving a four year suspension from 10th November 2004 to 9th November 2008, disqualification of the race, and a fine of CHF 1,000. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2005/jul05/jul30news Cycling News - July 30th 2005] ]

*David Millar of Great Britain was preparing for competition in the 2004 Tour de France and track events at the 2004 Summer Olympics when police searched his house in June 2004, finding used Epogen syringes. Millar confessed to the use of EPO on three occasions: in August 2001 before the Vuelta a España, in May 2003 before the Dauphiné Libéré and in September 2003 before the World men's individual time trial championships. He was handed a two-year suspension. [ [http://www.roadcyclinguk.com/news/article/mps/uan/490 CAS Decision on David Millar's ban - RoadCyclingUK Gear news ] ]

*Janet Puiggros Miranda of Spain became the second Spanish athlete to commit a doping offence at the Olympics after also testing positive for EPO during a pre-Olympic test. Like Gonzalez, she was withdrawn from competing (in the Women's Cross-Country race). She also denied the administration of a "B Test", which is used to verify the first drug test.

*Federico Muñoz of Colombia tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*José Reynaldo Murillo of Spain tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004.

*Santiago Pérez of Phonak team tested positive for a blood transfusion on On October 5, just over a week after he finished second in the 2004 Vuelta a España. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/nov04/nov01news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Nery Velásquez of Guatamalla tested positive for Erythropoietin in the 46th Vuelta a Guatemala in October 2004. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2005/jan05/jan01news CyclingNews - Jan 2005] ]

*Jeremy Yates of New Zealand who spent two years racing for Belgian teams, tested positive for high levels of testosterone after a race in Wanzele in March. The Belgian cycling federation banned him for two years plus a fine of $NZ900 plus costs. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2004/nov04/nov26news Cycling News, November 2004, Yates banned for two years] ]

2005

*Erwin Bakker of the Netherlands tested positive for Testosterone at Mont Sainte-Anne, Canada, on 26 March 2005, and for EPO on 23rd June 2005 at an out of competition control. He was disqualified and sacked by his team, Heijdens-Ten Tusscher. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/?id=2005/jul05/jul30news Cycling News - July 2005] ] The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated both "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years and life" respectively.

*Roberto Ballestero of Costa Rica tested positive for Phentermine on 23.12.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Wilmer Bravo of Venezuala tested positive for Prednisolone and Prednisone on 09.01.2006 The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 4 months".

*Ludovic Capelle tested positive for EPO at a race on June 7. He was initially suspended for 18 months by Belgian Cycling Federation but Capelle appealed his ban on a technicality. In the middle of December the Belgian Council of State overturned the suspension and Capelle was cleared on a procedural error of a testing officer. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2005/dec05/dec13news2 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Maurizio Carta of Poland tested positive for Clostebol on 24th September 2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Ferney Orlando Bello Clavijo of Columbia tested positive for Stanozolol on 09.08.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for life".

*Barry Forde of Barbados tested positive for Testosterone on 28th October 2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years and 2 months".

*Dario Frigo, was ejected from the 2005 Tour de France before the start of stage 11. Police found ten doses of EPO in his wife's car as part of a border-crossing search. The couple were arrested for carrying prohibited substances. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/jul08/jul02news2 Cycling News, July 2008] ] In September 2008 the court in Albertville gave him and his wife, Susanna, a six-month suspended prison sentence and an €8757 fine. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/sep08/sep16news2 Cycling News, Sept 2008, French court gives Frigo six-month sentence] ]

*Fabrizio Guidi tested positive for EPO on August 17. The test was taken at the HEW Cyclassics on July 31. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2005/aug05/aug17news3 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ] Guidi's B test came back negative for EPO and the team's temporary suspension against him was lifted. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2005/oct05/oct01news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Fredy Hamlet of France tested positive for Heptaminol on 16.07.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 1 year".

*Nelito Hereida of the Dominican Republic tested positive for EPO on 17th September 2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for life".

*Roberto Heras, the winner of an unprecedented fourth Vuelta a España, tested positive for EPO prior to the penultimate stage of the 2005 Vuelta a España. [ [http://velonews.com/article/9142 VeloNews | Heras Vuelta sample positive | The Journal of Competitive Cycling ] ] He was stripped of his 2005 Vuelta win and the victory was given to Russian Denis Menchov. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Danilo Hondo of Germany tested positive for the stimulant Carphedone at the Vuelta de Murcia and subsequently received a 2 year suspension. [ [http://www.cicloweb.it/viewcic.php?key_prog=322 Cicloweb Database] ] .

*Giorgio Landaeta of Venezuala tested positive for Norandrosterone and Noreticholanolone on 30.08.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Iñigo Landaluze, made his breakthrough by winning the 2005 Dauphiné Libéré, but it was soon announced he had tested positive for abnormally high testosterone and was suspended from racing until his case was heard out. In 2006, however, he was cleared to return to racing after he showed that the lab conducting tests committed procedural errors. The UCI then failed to show that those errors did not affect the outcome of the tests. The CAS panel reviewing the case said that it was "probable" that Landaluze had committed a doping violation, but the UCI had failed to meet its burden of proof in the case. New revisions to the WADA Code would suggest that Landaluze would have lost his case under the new rules. [ [http://www.velonews.com/article/11366 Velo News, December 20th 2006, 'Landaluze wins testosterone case'] ] The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states 'Acquitted for legal reasons'

*Jenaro Ramos Lozano of Spain tested positive for Stanozolol on 8th April 2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Gabriel Pop of Roumania Failed to Comply with test procedures on 22.04.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "ineligibility for 2 years".

*Jorge Coto Riviera of Costa Rica tested positive for CRC on 23rd December 2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Sandro Rodriguez of Bolivia tested positive for Norandrosterone on 10.11.2005. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "ineligibility for life".

*Francisco Pérez Sanchez tested positive twice for EPO during the 2003 Tour de Romandie when he won two stages and took the overall lead in spectacular fashionrace. He was suspended for 18 months from October 18, 2003 to April 17, 2005. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2005/aug05/aug23news3 Cycling News, August 2005, Fran Pérez to Illes Balears] ]

*Zinaida Stahurskaya, the former world champion from Belarus tested positive at three European races in 2005, - once to anabolic steroid stanozolol and twice to hormone testosterone. In 2006 she was banned for 2 years. It was not her first positive test for doping substances, nor her first suspension: At the Giro d'Italia Femminile in 2001, she returned a positive test for a diuretic, and at the Circuito di Massarosa in 2003, for ephedrine. She was out of competition for four and two months respectively. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/mar06/mar14news2 Cycling News, March 2006, Stahurskaya gets two-year ban] ]

2006

*Garcia Quesada Adolfo of Spain tested positive for Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in competition on 19th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Stephen Alfred of the USA, tested positive for Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in an 'out of season' test on March 26th, and an 'in competition' test on 10th June 2006. Further tests indicated that his testosterone imbalance resulted from the presence of exogenous testosterone. He was suspended for 8 years by the USADA [ [http://velonews.com/article/11589 Velonews.com VeloNews, Feb. 2, 2007, Alfred accepts 8-year suspension] ] . The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 8 years."

*Victor Hernandez Baeta of Spain tested positive for EPO in an 'out of competition' test on 4th July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Ivan Basso was expelled from the Tour de France in the week prior to its commencement due to his involvement in the Operación Puerto doping case [http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/spiegel/0,1518,425939,00.html Inside the Blood Doping Investigation] , "Der Spiegel", July 10, 2006] On 30 April 2007 Team Discovery Channel announced that Basso would be released from his contract on Basso's request.cite news |title=Basso's request to leave Team Discovery Channel is granted |url= http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may01news |work=Cyclingnews.com |accessdate=2007-05-01 |date=2007-05-01] While still claiming to never have actually engaged in blood doping, Basso admitted contacting Dr. Fuentes' clinic with the intention to engage in blood doping. Agence France Presse [http://www.velonews.com/news/fea/12220.0.html "Basso admits only to 'attempted' doping"] . "VeloNews". - May 8, 2007.] On 15 June 2007, Basso received a two-year ban.

*Pawal Bentkowski of Poland tested positive for Norandrosterone on 25th July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Jaime Bretti of Chile tested positive for Phentermine in competition on 4th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Santos Gonzalez Capilla of Spain tested positive for Triamcinolone acetonide on 4th March 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification, warning and reprimand".

*Jose Balague Carvajal of Chile tested positive for Ephedrine 'in competition' on 11th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Erick Castano of Ecuador tested positive for Metelonone on 14th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Luis Coehlo of Portugal tested positive for Norandrosterone, Clenbuterol, and hCG in competition on 15th July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and Ineligibility for 1 year".

*Juan Cotumba of Bolivia tested positive for Benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, and cocaine metabolites on 11th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Jhon Cunto of Peru tested positive for Norandrosterone in competition on 9th November 2006. he UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Kamil Dominian of Poland tested positive for Stanozolol on 20th May 2006. The 'Union Cycliste Internationale' (UCI) summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*David Garbelli of Italy tested positive for Triamcinolone acetonide and salbutamol on 9th June 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated "disqualification and warning".

*Christoph Girschweiler of Switzerland tested positive for Salbutamol and salmeterol in competition on 21st July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and warning".

*Aitor González, the winner of the 2002 Vuelta a España, tested positive twice in 2005, first during an out of competition test in August, and again during the 2005 Vuelta a España for a methyltestosterone metabolite. González claimed that the positive test was the result of a contaminated dietary supplement called "Animal Pack" prescribed by a doctor. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/dec06/dec23news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ] González was handed a two year ban and retired soon afterwards. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' listed 17 alpha methyl, 5 beta androstane, 3 alpha 17 beta dio and a 2 year ban [http://www.uci.ch/Modules/BUILTIN/getObject.asp?MenuId=&ObjTypeCode=FILE&type=FILE&id=MzQ2NzY& UCI list of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006'] ]

*Oscar Grau of Spain tested positive for Finasteride. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Jon Pena Hernaez of Spain tested positive for Phentermine in competition on 1st August 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Christina Alcade Huertanos from Spain was disqualified for 2 years. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' listed Triamcinolone acetonide and a 2 year ban

*Jörg Jaksche was one of the 9 riders held out of the 2006 Tour de France after being identified by investigators in the Operación Puerto investigation. On June 30, 2007 Jaksche admitted he was guilty of blood doping and that he was the "Bella" mentioned in the documents confiscated from Fuentes' clinic.Nesha Starcevic, [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/06/30/sports/EU-SPT-CYC-Doping-Jaksche.php German rider Joerg Jaksche admits blood doping from Spanish doctor] , "International Herald Tribune", June 30, 2007] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=features/2007/jorg_jaksche_jul07 CyclingNews July 2007] ]

*Valdimir Koev of Bulgaria tested positive for Stanozolol on 18th June 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Rafal Kumorowski of Poland tested positive for Cannabis in competition on 4th August 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and warning."

*Floyd Landis was fired from the Phonak team on August 5, 2006, after a test result indicated an abnormally high testosterone/epitestosterone ratiocite news | url=http://www.phonak-cycling.ch/index.php?id=5&L=1&uid=330| title= Phonak Cycling Team to clarify consequences | publisher=Phonak Cycling Team | date= 2006-08-05 | accessdate= 2006-08-05] after stage 17 of the 2006 Tour de France. On September 20, 2007, he was stripped of his title as winner of the 2006 Tour and placed under a two year ban from professional racing, following an arbitration panel's 2 to 1 ruling. He appealed the result of the arbitration hearing to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which subsequently upheld the panel's ruling. He remains suspended through January 30, 2009.

*Maxime Lefebvre of France 'Failed to Comply' with the 'in competition' testing on 29th december 2006 and 2nd January 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for life".

*Christian Luce of France. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' listed Testosterone and a 3 year ban

*Joseph M. Papp of the USA tested positive for metabolites of testosterone or its precursors (6α-OH-androstenedione 6β-OH-androsterone) on May 7, 2006, at the International 42nd Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey. He received a 2 year suspension. When he testified for the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) at the Floyd Landis trial he also stated that he had graduated to testosterone after starting on EPO (erythropoietin) in 2001. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/sportsNews/idUSN1720395520070519?feedType=RSS Reuters article on Landis trial] ]

*Evandro Luis Portela of Brazil tested positive for Phentermine and Stanozolol on 23rd March 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for life".

*Aitor Osa from Spain was involved in the Operación Puerto doping case. The Guardia Civil in Madrid linked numbers used by Dr. Fuentes to identify blood sample bags to names; number 1 to Ullrich, number 2 to Basso, number 4 to Botero, number 5 to Sevilla, number 7 to Unai Osa, number 8 to his brother Aitor Osa. [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may01news2 Cycling News, May 2007, Additional Operación Puerto dossier reveals extensive new evidence] ]

*Unai Osa from Spain was involved in the Operación Puerto doping case. The Guardia Civil in Madrid linked numbers used by Dr. Fuentes to identify blood sample bags to names; number 1 to Ullrich, number 2 to Basso, number 4 to Botero, number 5 to Sevilla, number 7 to Unai Osa, number 8 to his brother Aitor Osa.

*Cénéric Racault of France tested positive for Prednisolone and Prednisone. IThe UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for 18 months".

*Ilaria Rinaldi of Italy tested positive for Testosterone in competition on 18th July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Jose Antonio Pastor Roldan of Spain tested positive for Terbutaline on 19th June 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated that he was sanctioned by 'disqualification and a warning'.

*Alexandre Sabalin of Moldavia tested positive for Strychnine on 26th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated that he was sanctioned by 'disqualification and Ineligibility for 1 year'.

*Michele Scarponi was implicated in the Operación Puerto case. On May 8 2007, Scarponi confessed his role in the case. [cite news|url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may09news2 |title=Scarponi: "I am Zapatero" |work=Cyclingnews.com |date=2007-05-07 |accessdate=2007-05-20] On May 15, Scarponi was provisionally suspended. [cite news |url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may16news |title=Basso and Scarponi suspended |work=Cyclingnews.com |date=2007-05-16 |accessdate=2007-05-20]

*Ger Soeperberg of the Netherlands tested positive for Salbutamol on 2nd July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' stated that he was sanctioned by 'disqualification and warning'.

*Alvaro Tardaguila from Uraguay tested positive for r-EPO in February 2006, and received a 2 year ban. [ [http://www.usantidoping.org/what/management/sanctions.aspx US Antidoping Agency, Cycling database] ]

*Fernando Torres of Spain tested positive for Ephedrine in competition on 8th July 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years - (under appeal by rider)."

*Matteo Trentin of Italy tested positive for Salbutamol 'in competition' on 26th December 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Jan Ullrich was expelled from the Tour de France in the week prior to its commencement due to his involvement in the Operación Puerto doping case.

*Sascha Urweider was suspended by Team Phonak after a positive A-test for testosterone. Urweider blamed a nutritional supplement he bought without team doctors advise. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2006/mar06/mar14news2 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Tristan Valentin of France tested positive for Heptaminol on 6th June 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for 6 months".

*Jordi Reira Valls of Spain tested positive for Stanozolol and hCG on 16th May 2006. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2006' states "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

2006 Tour de France was marred by doping scandals. Prior to the tour, numerous riders - including the two favourites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso - were expelled from the Tour due to their link with the Operación Puerto doping case. After the end of the race, the apparent winner Floyd Landis was found to have failed a drug test after stage 17; Landis contested the result and demanded arbitration. On September 20, 2007 Landis was found guilty and suspended retroactive to January 30, 2007 and stripped of the 2006 Tour de France title making Óscar Pereiro the title holder [cite news |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20889737|title='I am innocent,' Landis says after losing verdict|publisher=MSNBC|date=2007-09-20] . Operación Puerto doping case (meaning "Operation Mountain Pass") is a Spanish doping case against doctor Eufemiano Fuentes and a number of accomplices, started in May 2006. He is accused of administering prohibited doping products to 200 professional athletes, to enhance their performance. Tour de France's favorites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were expelled from the Tour de France before the race started.

2007

Positive doping tests

Doping cases

*Ivan Basso of Italy was suspended by Discovery Channel on 24 April, when the Italian Olympic Committee (CONI) reopened his case on behalf of his involvement in the Operación Puerto doping case. On 30 April 2007 Team Discovery Channel announced that Basso would be released from his contract on Basso's request. While still claiming to never have actually engaged in blood doping, Basso admitted contacting Dr. Fuentes' clinic with the intention to engage in blood doping. On 15 June 2007, Basso received a two-year ban. The time he had already spent under team suspension whilst riding for CSC and temporary suspension since leaving Discovery were taken into consideration which means his ban will end on 24 October 2008. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/6693357.stm |title=Basso handed two-year doping ban |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2007-06-15 |accessdate=2007-06-15]

*Lorenzo Bernucci (Leonardo) of Italy tested positive for Sibutramine on August 15, and was fired from T-Mobile in September 2007. He purchased it over the counter at a pharmacy in Italy to help keep his weight under control and said he had been taking it for four years, unaware it had been added to the list of banned substances. [cite news |url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/sep07/sep04news2 |title=T-Mobile fires Bernucci after positive test |work=Cyclingnews.com |accessdate=2007-09-04 |date=2007-09-04] The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 1 year."

*Danilo Di Luca of Italy was revealed to have had unspecified low hormone levels in urine tests during the 2007 Giro d'Italia. Italian authorities investigated whether this was a natural consequence of racing at a high level for three weeks, or some kind of masking agent [ [http://www.procycling.com/news.aspx?ID=2869 CONI to question Petacchi, Di Luca and Mazzoleni] ] . On September 28, Di Luca withdrew from the UCI Road World Championships calling his treatment "a scandal" after he had been accused of doping allegations [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/sep07/sep28news Di Luca withdraws from Worlds] ] . Di Luca was leading the 2007 UCI ProTour when he was suspended from the competition before the final race, the Giro di Lombardia, due to alleged involvement in the Oil for Drugs doping case, for which he received a three month suspension through the close season. [cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/6265648.stm |title=Di Luca given doping suspension |work=BBC Sport |accessdate=2008-03-18 |date=2007-10-17]

*Marco Fertonani of Italy tested positive for using testosterone during the 2007 Tour Méditerranéen and was immediately suspended by the Caisse d'Epargne team. He is contesting the case, citing errors in the testing procedure at the laboratory. [cite news |title=Fertonani fights doping case |url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/aug07/aug13news |work=Cyclingnews.com |date=2007-08-13 |accessdate=2007-08-14] [cite news |title=Fertonani blames lab for test results |url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jul07/jul18news2 |work=Cyclingnews.com |date=2007-07-18 |accessdate=2007-08-14] . The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Alesandro Fatato of Italy 'Failed to Comply" with the testing procedures in competition on 14th January 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 1 year."

*Franklin Gomes de Almeida of Brazil tested positive for Stanozolol 'in competition' on 12th April 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years."

*Serhiy Honchar of the Ukraine was sidelined from T-Mobile Team's 2007 Giro d'Italia squad after a blood test showed "abnormalities" in blood tests conducted during Liège-Bastogne-Liège and the Tour of Romandie. [ [http://www.velonews.com/article/12373 VeloNews | T-Mobile leaves Honchar off of Tour roster | The Journal of Competitive Cycling ] ] Its contract was later terminated "for violations of the Team Code of Conduct,". [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jun07/jun19news2 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Mathias Kessler of Germany was suspended by Astana on June 27, 2007, for failing a drugs test for testosterone taken in Charleroi in April 2007. [cite news |url=http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/27062007/58/pro-tour-2007-kessler-fails-dope-test.html |title=Pro Tour 2007 - Kessler fails dope test |date=2007-06-27 |accessdate=2007-06-27 |publisher=Eurosport] He was then fired on July 13. [cite news |url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/cycling/2007-07-13-1626539736_x.htm |title=Astana fires Kessler after B sample returns positive |date=2007-07-13 |accessdate=2007-10-16]

*Christian Moreni of Italy tested positive for Testosterone 'in competition' on 19th July 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years." [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/road/2007/tour07/news/?id=/news/2007/jul07/jul25news5 Cycling News, July 7th, 2007, Moreni positive for testosterone] ] .

*Giuseppe Muraglia of Italy tested positive for hCG after winning the 2007 edition of Clásica de Almería on March 4th 2007. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jun07/jun11news2 Giuseppe Muraglia positive for hCG] ] The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years.". He was also sacked from his team, Acqua & Sapone. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/oct07/oct12news Two years for Muraglia] ]

*Magno Prado Navaret of Brazil tested positive for Sibutramine 'in competition' on 27th April 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 8 months."

*Nathan O'Neill of Australia. On November 6, 2007 his contract with the Health Net Pro Cycling Team was terminated after a positive test for the appetite suppressant drug phentermine [cite news|url=http://www.velonews.com/news/fea/13630.0.html|title=O'Neill suspended following doping positivex|publisher=Velo News|date=6 November 2007] O'Neill had a prescription for Phentermine, which meant his possession of it was legal, but its use failed to meet the guidelines of the UCI/WADA code and that set out by the team's medical director. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/nov07/nov07news Cycling News, November 6th 2007] ] .

*Leonardo Piepoli of Italy tested positive for Salbutamol (>1000ng/ml) on both 22nd and 30th May 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "Acquitted due to medical reasons."

*Aketza Peña of Spain and the Euskaltel-Euskadi team tested positive for the anabolic steroid nandrolone on May 30, 2007. The sample was taken after stage one of the Giro del Trentino on April 24 and was announced during the 2007 Giro d'Italia. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/may07/may30news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ] The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years"

*Alessandro Petacchi of Italy tested positive for Salbutamol (>1000ng/ml) 'in competition' on 23rd May 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "Acquitted due to medical reasons. (under appeal by NADO and World Anti Doping Agency (WADA)" [ [http://www.tdfblog.com/alessandro_petacchi/index.html TDF Blog - Alessandro Petachi - Petacchi cleared of Salbutamol charge, but...] ] [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2007/jul07/jul25news3 Cycling News, July 2008, Petacchi set to return, UCI to investigate] ] .

*Juan Carlos Rojas Villegas of Costa Rica tested positive for Phentermine 'in competition' on 4th May 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years"

*José Antonio Pecharroman Fabian from Spain tested positive for Finasteride 'in competition' on 26th August 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years" [http://www.uci.ch/Modules/BUILTIN/getObject.asp?MenuId=&ObjTypeCode=FILE&type=FILE&id=MzQ2Nzc& UCI list of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007'] ] .

*Svetlana Semchouk of the Ukraine tested positive for Cannabis 'in competition' on 27th September 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and warning".
*Patrick Sinkewitz of Germany tested positive for testosterone at the Tour de France 2007. Sinkewitz failed to start Stage 9 after colliding with a spectator the previous day. [ [http://cdn.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/n/a/2007/07/15/sports/s090713D45.DTL&type=printable Rasmussen Wins Tour De France 8th Stage ] ] On July 18 2007, Sinkewitz "A" blood sample tested positive for using testosterone/doping and was on the same day suspended by his team T-Mobile. On July 31, 2007, Sinkewitz was fired by the T-Mobile team after he declined to have his "B" blood sample testedcite news |first=Geir |last=Moulson |title=Sinkewitz Admits Testosterone Use |url=http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/07/31/ap3971066.html |publisher=Forbes |date= 2007-07-31 |accessdate=2007-07-31] . He also admitted to having used Testogel, a topically applied testosterone ointment. On November 3rd, he admitted using banned EPO and blood transfusions in the past. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/7076902.stm BBC SPORT | Other Sport... | Cycling | Sinkewitz receives one-year ban ] ]

*Marcin Sobiepanek of Poland tested positive for Norandrosterone 'in competition' on 21st October 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 2 years".

*Alexandre Vinokourov of Kazakhstan tested positive for Homologous Blood Transfusion 'in competition' on 21st July 2007. The UCI summary of 'Decisions on Anti-Doping Rule Violations made in 2007' stated "disqualification and ineligibility for 1 year. (under appeal by UCI)" [ [http://www.velonews.com/article/12910 Velo News, July 24th, 2007, Vinokourov tests positive; Astana withdraws from Tour] ] .

2007 Tour de France - The event was affected by a series of scandals and speculations related to doping. By the end of the Tour, two cyclists were dismissed for testing positive, the wearer of the yellow jersey, Michael Rasmussen was voluntarily retired by his team for lying about his whereabouts and missing doping tests. A fourth rider was confirmed to having used doping while in a training session prior to the 2007 Tour and a fifth rider tested positive late in the race, with his result being officially announced just after the end of the Tour. Along the way, two teams contesting the competition were asked to withdraw due to positive tests of at least one member.

2008

Positive doping tests

Doping cases

*Igor Astarloa had his contract terminated by in May 2008 by Team Milram following disclosures that he had shown "irregular blood values". [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/may08/may30news Cycling News, May 8th 2008] ]

*Manuel Beltrán tested positive for EPO after the first stage of the Tour de France. The news broke on 11 July 2008. Blood abnormalities before the tour start had led French anti-doping agency AFLD to target the rider. Beltrán's team Liquigas withdrew him from the tour with immediate effect. French police questioned Beltrán over possible offences, and searched his hotel room. The B-Sample has not yet been tested. [cite web |url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5j99v8lGDDLVr7JnBjqOPuu0iupiwD91RQJG01 |title=Doping agency: Beltran positive for EPO |accessdate=2008-11-07 |publisher=AP |work=google.com]

*Tom Boonen tested positive for cocaine in a test on May 26 2008. Since this was outside competition he does not face sanctions by the UCI or WADA but was barred from the 2008 Tour de France. [cite news
url=http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gd1Z4lZt9KeuTey0Ml33U-B7wCIw
title=Boonen participation in Tour de France to be decided: Ouick Step
language=English
date=2008-06-11
publisher=afp.google.com
] [cite news
url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jxwWIhZ6kC1VbnHNkea3oWGXJonQD9180C7G1
title=Former world champion Tom Boonen barred from Tour de France
language=English
date=2008-06-11
publisher=afp.google.com
]

*Paolo Bossoni tested positive for EPO after placing sixth at the Italian National Road Race Championships.cite news
url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/aug08/aug01news
title=Bossoni, Carini positive for EPO
language=English
date=2008-08-01
publisher=cyclingnews.com
]

*Giovanni Carini tested positive for EPO after winning the Elite without contract category at the Italian Championships in Boltiere.

*Jimmy Casper of France tested positive for corticosteroid, an asthma drug that is banned unless the user has a medical exemption for its use, during the 2008 Tour de France by the Agence Française de Lutte contre le Dopage. He failed to renew this exemption. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/7551944.stm BBC News - 9 August 2008, Fifth Tour rider fails drugs test] ] He was fully exonerated by the French cycling federation's disciplinary commission and rejoined his Agritubel team after he proved that the theraputic use exemption (TUE) which he had carried for 12 years had expired 1 month before the Tour de France. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/sep08/sep17news2 Cycling News, Sept 2008, Casper exonerated of Tour doping charges] ]

*Moisés Dueñas was withdrawn from the Barloworld team before the 11th stage of the Tour de France on the 16th July. The official statement from ASO stated that he had tested positive for EPO at the end of the time trial fourth stage. [cite web |url=http://www.letour.fr/2008/TDF/LIVE/us/1100/depeches.html#121340|title=11:02 - Official Statement From ASO|accessdate=2008-07-16|publisher=letour.fr] Barloworld, two days later, announced that they were withdrawing from sponsorship after this year's Tour de France. [http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=6&click_id=185&art_id=nw20080719130626460C437381 Plug pulled on Team Barloworld]

*Danilo Di Luca's appeal was rejected by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). He had sought to reverse a three-month ban he served for his involvement in the Oil for Drugs doping case. The CAS also rejected the appeal by the Italian Olympic Committee (CONI), which sought to increase the ban to two years. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/may08/may01news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Dmitry Fofonov tested positive for banned stimulant heptaminol after the 18th stage of the 2008 Tour de France. Fofonov had completed the race in nineteenth place, and was fired by Crédit Agricole after it was made aware of the positive test. [cite web
title = Tour rider Fofonov tests positive
publisher = BBC
date = 2008-08-28
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/7527891.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-28
]

*Vladimir Gusev was fired from Astana Team as a result of "irregular values" detected by its internal anti-doping program run by Doctor Rasmus Damsgaard. [cite news
url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/jul08/jul26news2
title=Bossoni, Carini positive for EPO
language=English
date=2008-07-26
publisher=cyclingnews.com
]

*Floyd Landis lost its final appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. It was concluded from the evidence presented that the "presence of exogenous testosterone or its precursors or metabolites in Floyd Landis' sample proved that he violated the anti-doping rules of the UCI." Landis will serve a full two-year suspension that is back-dated to January 30, 2007. Additionally, Landis was ordered to pay $100,000 in costs to the USADA. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/jun08/jun30news3 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Eddy Mazzoleni was handed a two-year ban in April 2008 by the Italian Cycling Federation (FCI) for his involvement in the Oil for Drugs affair. The FCI also banned 28 year-old former Ceramica Flaminia rider Domenico Quagliariello for life for his involvement in the same affair. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/apr08/apr09news www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Maria Moreno of Spain tested positive for EPO at the Beijing Olympics on July 31st. She left China on the day of the test, before the results were published, and reports in Spain claimed an 'anxiety attack'. IOC communications director Giselle Davies said: "She was tested in the Village and she had already left China that evening before having had the result. The test has come back positive for EPO. The disciplinary commission has ruled that she should be excluded from the Games and have her accreditation withdrawn." The IOC passed the case to the UCI for follow up. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/olympics/2537928/Spanish-cyclist-Maria-Moreno-fails-drugs-test---Beijing-Olympics-2008.html The Daily Telegraph, Sports News, Spanish cyclist Maria Moreno fails drugs test at Beijing Olympics] ]

*Alessandro Petacchi was suspended for one year by The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) for having tested positive for an asthma medication during the 2007 Giro d'Italia. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/may08/may06news2 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Leonardo Piepoli, winner of stage 10 of the 2008 Tour de France, was sacked by his team for "violation of the team's ethics code" the following day, though no positive test had been reported by that date. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/7514224.stm BBC SPORT Cycling - Spanish team sack Ricco & Piepoli] ] He confessed to his team manager that he had used the same MIRCERA, a new 'third generation' type of EPO, as team-mate Ricardo Rico. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/sep08/sep18news Cycling News, Sept 2008, Tour de France samples to undergo further anti-doping tests] ]

*The Portuguese cycling team LA-MSS had its headquarters searched by police where doping products such as doping substances, medications, equipment to conduct blood transfusions and instruments for clinical use were found. [cite web|url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/may08/may21news|title=Police raid LA MSS headquarters|publisher=Cyclingnews.com|accessdate=2008-05-21] In June 2008, the Portuguese Cycling Federation (UVP/FCP) suspended nine members of the team temporarily pending the outcome of the investigation; five of which were riders and four were team staff. [cite web|url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/jun08/jun28news|title= Portuguese fed suspends LA-MSS riders|publisher=Cyclingnews.com|accessdate=2008-06-28]

*Michael Rasmussen was handed a two-year suspension by the Monaco cycling federation for missed controls before the 2007 Tour de France. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/jul08/jul01news3 www.cyclingnews.com - the world centre of cycling ] ]

*Riccardo Riccò was kicked out of the 2008 Tour de France on July 17, 2008, after reports that a urine sample tested positive for MIRCERA, a new type of EPO, at the end of stage 4. [ [http://tour-de-france.velonews.com/article/80269/riccardo-ricco-tests-positive-saunier-duval-team-withdraws VeloNews | Riccardo Riccò tests positive; Saunier Duval team withdraws from Tour de France | Tour de France Coverage ] ] [Citation
last = Wyatt
first = Edward
title = Tour de France team out after test
newspaper = The New York Times
date = 2008-07-18
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/sports/sportsspecial1/18tour.html?ref=sports
] . There had not previously been any public acknowledgment that a test for the new drug was being administered, or had even been developed yet. The Tour de France testing was done under the auspices of the French Cycling Federation and the French Anti-Doping Agency, "not" the Union Cycliste Internationale [cite web
title = The 2008 Tour de France under the control of the French Cycling Federation
publisher = Amaury Sport Organisation
date = 2008-03-06
url = http://www.letour.fr/2008/TDF/COURSE/us/actus.html#zone14
accessdate = 2008-07-17
] [ [http://www.afld.fr/ L’Agence française de lutte contre le dopage] (in French) Accessed 2008-07-17] .

*Maximiliano Richeze tested positive for a steroid named stanazol before the start of the 2008 Giro d'Italia, which resulted in his expulsion from the race. [ [http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/09052008/3/argentine-rider-richeze-giro-positive-test.html Eurosport, Fri 09 May, Cycling News - Argentine rider Richeze out of Giro after positive test] ]

*Emanuele Sella was found to test positive for CERA, the third generation EPO, in out of competition control testing, performed July 23, 2008. UCI President Pat McQuaid noted that Sella had been targeted based on his actions in and out of racing. Sella won the climber's maglia verde at the 2008 Giro d'Italia and also won three stages. [ [http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/aug08/aug06 Giro's king of the mountain Sella positive for EPO-CERA] ]

*Ondřej Sosenka of the Czech Republic, who broke the UCI hour record in 2005, e tested positive for the banned stimulant methamphetamine and its metabolites during his national time trial championships in June 2008, he now faces a suspension which will mostly likely end his career [ [http://ca.sports.yahoo.com/sc/news?slug=capress-cycle_sosenka_doping Czech cyclist Ondrej Sosenka tests positive for methamphetamine] ] .

*During the Vuelta a Colombia six riders returned positive doping controls. It was not revelared which subststance caused the findings for Rafael Montiel, Juan Guillermo Castro, Camilo Gomez, Carlos Ospina Hernandez, Hernán Buenahora and Giovanni Barriga. [cite news
url=http://www.cyclingnews.com/news.php?id=news/2008/aug08/aug02news2
title=Colombians announce doping positives
language=English
date=2008-08-02
publisher=cyclingnews.com
]

*In May 2008 the UCI revealed that 23 riders were under suspicion of doping following the first phase of blood tests conducted under the new biological passport established at the start of the season. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/may/03/cycling Cycling - Blood tests cast doubt on 23 riders - The Guardian] ] A biological passport is an individual, electronic record for each rider, in which the results of all doping tests over a period of time are collated. Doping violations can be detected by noting variances from an athlete’s established levels outside permissible limits, rather than testing for and identifying illegal substances. [ [http://www.uci.ch/Modules/ENews/ENewsDetails.asp?MenuId=&id=NTQzOA Information on the biological passport] ]

=References=

=External links=
* [http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/cycling/news/story?id=3029280 Timeline: Recent doping cases in cycling - espn.go.com]
* [http://www.reuters.com/article/sphereNews/idUSL1975623220070920?sp=true&view=sphere TIMELINE: Doping problems to hit major Tours - reuters.com]
* [http://www.abcc.co.uk/Articles/DrgsTdeF.html Association of British Cycling Coaches - Drugs and the Tour de France by Ramin Minovi]
* [http://www.cycling4fans.de/index.php?id=1361 Cycling 4 Fans (German) - Doping Incidents Database]
* [http://www.uci.ch/english/health_sante/docs/side_effects.pdf Principal doping substances and their side effects - A compilation prepared for the International Cycling Union]
* [http://www.assr.nl/workingpapers/documents/ASSR-WP0304.pdf Amsterdam School for Social Science Research - Moral Entrepreneurship and Doping Culture in Sport by Ruud Stokvis]


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