- Rusyn language
name = Rusyn
nativename = _ry. Русинськый transl|ry|"Rusyns'kŷi"
region = flagicon|Ukraine
Zakarpattia Oblast( Ukraine)
speakers = Estimated: At least 600,000. [cite book |editor=Raymond G. Gordon, Jr. | title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World | url=http://www.ethnologue.com | accessdate=2007-04-27 | edition=15th edition | year=2005 | publisher=SIL International | location=Dallas, TX | language=English |isbn=13 978-1-55671-159-6 |pages=1272 |chapter=Ethnologue report for language code:rue (Rusyn) |chapterurl=http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rue ]
Census population: 60,000. [These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics:
*Slovakia - 24,201
**( http://www.statistics.sk/webdata/english/census2001/tab/tab3a.htm )
*Serbia - 15,626
**( http://www.statserb.sr.gov.yu/zip/esn31.pdf )
*Ukraine - 10,100
**( http://ukrcensus.gov.ua/results/general/nationality/zakarpatia/ )
*Croatia - 2,337
**( http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm )
*Poland - 5,800
**( http://www.stat.gov.pl/english/ )
*Hungary - 1,098
**( http://www.nepszamlalas.hu/eng/volumes/18/tables/load1_28.html )
*Czech Republic - 1,106
**( http://www.czso.cz/csu/2005edicniplan.nsf/t/D6002FD8F5/$File/kap_I_05.pdf ).]
Rusyn ( _ry. русинськый язык; transl|ry|"rusyns'kŷi iazŷk") is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, with which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the
Rusyns. Opinions differ among linguists concerning whether Rusyn is a separate East Slavic language or a dialect of Ukrainian. [ [http://lists.microlink.lv/pipermail/minelres/2000-January/000398.html RFE/RL on intolerance in Belarus and Ruthenians in Ukraine ] ] The political implications of the dispute add to the controversy.
Rusyn is spoken in the Transcarpathian Region of
Ukraine, in northeastern Slovakia, southeastern Poland(where it is often called "łemkowski" 'Lemko', from their characteristic word "lem/лем" 'only'), and Hungary(where the people and language are called "Ruten"). The Pannonian Rusyn languagein Serbiais sometimes considered part of the Rusyn language group, although some linguists consider that language to be West SlavicFact|date=January 2007. In Ukraine, Rusyn is usually considered a dialect of Ukrainian, as it is very close to the Ukrainian Hutsuldialect, but some speakers sometimes prefer to consider themselves distinct from Ukrainians.
Attempts to standardize the language suffer from its being divided among four countries, so that in each of these countries there has been devised a separate
orthography(in each case with Cyrillic letters) and grammatical standard, based on different Rusyn dialects. The cultural centres of Carpatho-Rusyn are Prešovin Slovakia, Uzhhorodand Mukachevein Ukraine, Krynicaand Legnicain PolandFact|date=December 2007, and Budapestin Hungary. Many very active Rusyns also live in Canadaand the USA.
It is very difficult to count the speakers of Rusyn, but their number is sometimes estimated at almost a million, most of them in Ukraine and Slovakia. The first country to officially recognize Rusyn,Dubious|date=March 2008 more exactly Pannonian Rusyn, as an official language was former
Yugoslavia. In 1995, Rusyn was recognized as a minority languagein Slovakia, enjoying the status of official languagein municipalities where more than 20% of the inhabitants speak Rusyn.
* The Rusyn language is divided as follows:
** "Hutsul" is spoken in the mountainous part of
Suceava Countyand Maramures Countyin Romaniaand the extreme southern parts of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblastof Ukraine(as well as in parts of the Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian Oblasts), and on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains.
** "Boyko" is spoken on the northern side of the Carpathian Mountains in the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblasts of
Ukraine. It can also be heard across the border in the Subcarpathian Voivodshipof Poland
** "Lemko" is spoken outside Ukraine in the
Prešov Regionof Slovakiaalong the southern side of the Carpathian Mountains. It was formerly spoken on the northern side of the same mountains, in what is now southeastern Poland, prior to Operation Wisła, but is being revived.
** "Dolinian Rusyn or Subcarpathian Rusyn" is spoken in the
Transcarpathian Oblastof Ukraine.
** "Pryashiv Rusyn" is the Rusyn spoken in the
Prešov Region(in Rusyn: Pryashiv/ Pryashuv) of Slovakia, as well as by some émigré communities, primarily in the United States of America.
Pannonian Rusyn" is spoken in northwestern Serbiaand eastern Croatia. Also called Bačkadialect, it is one of the official languages of the Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina).Boiko, Hutsul and Dolinian are identified (and for the same speakers) as Ukrainian dialects and not Rusyn for several speakers that they are identified themselves Ukrainians.
In the introduction to the book "Slavic languages," written in 1973, ten years before
glasnost, Samuel Bernshteinwrites about "western Ukrainians" and the "literary language" which they "until recently [i.e., 1973] " had.
* "A new Slavic language is born. The Rusyn literary language in Slovakia." Ed.
Paul Robert Magocsi. New York 1996.
* Magocsi, Paul Robert. "Let's speak Rusyn. _ry. Бісідуйме по-руськы." Englewood 1976.
* Дуличенко, Александр Дмитриевич. "Jugoslavo-Ruthenica. Роботи з рускей филолоґиї." Нови Сад 1995.
* Taras Kuzio, " [http://www.taraskuzio.net/journals/pdf/national-rusyns.pdf The Rusyn question in Ukraine: sorting out fact from fiction] ", Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XXXII (2005)
* Elaine Rusinko, "Rusinski/Ruski pisni" selected by Nataliia Dudash; "Muza spid Karpat (Zbornik poezii Rusiniv na Sloven'sku)" assembled by Anna Plishkova. Books review. "The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Summer, 1998), pp. 348-350. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-6752(199822)1%3A42%3A2%3C348%3ARP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A JSTOR archive]
* Marta Harasowska. "Morphophonemic Variability, Productivity, and Change: The Case of Rusyn", Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1999, ISBN 3110157616.
** [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0097-8507%28200009%2976%3A3%3C728%3AMVPACT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L Book review] by Edward J. Vajda, Language, Vol. 76, No. 3. (Sep., 2000), pp. 728-729
* I. I. Pop, Paul Robert Magocsi, Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture, University of Toronto Press, 2002, ISBN 0802035663
* [http://www.rusyn.org/rusyns-language.html Rusyn language at the World Academy of Rusyn Culture]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rue Ethnologue report for Rusyn]
* [http://www.ruskamatka.tk/ Руска Матка (Ruska Matka), the central cultural organization of the Pannonian Rusyns]
* [http://www.carpatho-rusyn.org/voj.htm Transliterating Rusyn into the Latin alphabet]
* [http://karpatorusyns.org/more.php?id=58_0_1_0_C17 Димитрій Сидор. ФОНЕТИКА РУСИНСЬКОГО ЯЗЫКА]
* [http://www.dzvoni.netfirms.com/index_files/english1.html Rusyn Greco Catholic Church in Novi Sad (Vojvodina-Serbia)]
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Pannonian Rusyn language — Infobox Language name=Pannonian Rusyn nativename=Руски язик Ruski yazik familycolor=Indo European states=Serbia, Croatia speakers=20,000 approx. rank=official regional language fam1=Indo European fam2=Balto Slavic fam3=Slavic fam4=West Slavic… … Wikipedia
Rusyn — can refer to:* Rusyns * The Rusyn language … Wikipedia
Rusyn — 1. noun a) Member of a people living in the eastern Carpathian Mountains, in part of western Ukraine, south eastern Poland and north eastern Slovakia. b) ethnonym for Ukrainian people 2. adjective Of or pertaining to the Rusyn people, culture, or … Wiktionary
Rusyn — ISO 639 3 Code : rue ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living … Names of Languages ISO 639-3
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New Rusyn Times — The New Rusyn Times is the English language membership publication of the Carpatho Rusyn Society, an American nonprofit organization promoting Rusyn culture in the United States as well in the homeland in east Central Europe. Established in 1994… … Wikipedia