Springfield, Missouri


Springfield, Missouri

Infobox Settlement|
official_name = Springfield, Missouri
settlement_type = City
nickname = The Queen City of the Ozarks

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mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in the state of Missouri


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = Counties
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_name1 = Missouri
subdivision_name2 = Greene, Christian
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1838
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
government_type =
leader_title =
leader_name =
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 191.1
area_total_sq_mi = 73.8
area_land_km2 = 189.5
area_land_sq_mi = 73.2
area_water_km2 = 1.7
area_water_sq_mi = 0.6
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 150,797
population_metro =
population_density_km2 = 800.0
population_density_sq_mi = 2072.0
population_footnotes =
timezone = CST
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = CDT
utc_offset_DST = -5
postal_code_type = ZIP codes
postal_code = 65800-65899
area_code = 417
latd = 37 |latm = 11 |lats = 42 |latNS = N
longd = 93 |longm = 17 |longs = 10 |longEW = W
website = http://www.springfieldmo.gov/home/
elevation_m = 396
elevation_ft = 1299
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 29-70000GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0735864GR|3
footnotes =

Springfield is a city in Christian and Greene Counties in the U.S. state of Missouri. On July 1, 2006, its estimated population was 150,797, of whom 150,790 lived in Greene County and 7 lived in Christian County, [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US29&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-T1-R&-ds_name=PEP_2006_EST&-_lang=en&-format=ST-9S&-_sse=on United States Census Estimates 2006] making it the third largest in Missouri. It is the county seat of Greene County.GR|6 The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area includes the counties of Christian, Dallas, Greene, Polk, and Webster. According to Forbes Magazine's list of "America's Wildest Weather Cities," Springfield is the city with the most varied weather in the nation. [cite news |title=In Pictures: America's Wildest Weather Cities: No. 9: Most Variety (biggest variations in temperature, precipitation, wind), Springfield, Mo. |first=Tom |last=Van Riper |work=Forbes |url=http://www.forbes.com/2007/07/20/weather-storms-united-states-biz-cx_tvr_0720weather_slide_10.html?thisSpeed=15000 |date=2007-07-20 ]

History

During the Civil War, Missouri was divided and a number of battles were fought in the Ozarks. Springfield itself saw a short but violent clash in 1863. Following the Civil War, Springfield saw some growth from Westward expansion. In 1865 the first “quick draw” duel of Old West fame took place on the town square when Wild Bill Hickok killed Davis Tutt Jr. The first train of the Atlantic-Pacific Railway, which became the St Louis-San Francisco Railway or "Frisco," arrived in 1870. This led to rapid growth and for many decades Springfield prospered as an important railway junction.

In 1906, a mob broke into the town jail and lynched three African-American men, Horace Duncan, Fred Coker, and Will Allen. They were hanged and burned by a mob over 2,000 strong without trial in the town square. This event sparked a mass exodus of African-Americans from the area, who still remain an extreme minority. A small plaque on the south-east corner of the square is the town's only reminder. The men were hung on the town square from a tower which held a replica of the Statue of Liberty. In the immediate aftermath, two commemorative coins were minted celebrating the lynching.

National Register of Historic Places

*Abou Ben Adhem Shrine Mosque
*Christ Episcopal Church
*Gillioz Theater
*Jefferson Street Footbridge
*Landers Theatre
*Springfield National Cemetery
*Lindberg's Tavern
*Stone Chapel
*Wilson's Creek National Battlefield
*Walnut Street Historical District [http://www.walnuthistoricdistrict.com/Home.html]

Name

The origin of the name "Springfield" remains unclear. Writing in 1883 the historian R. I. Holcombe states, "The town took its name from the circumstance of there being a "spring" under the hill, on the creek, while on top of the hill, where the principal portion of the town lay, there was a "field"." He goes on to note, "This version of the origin of the name is disputed by the editor of the Springfield Express, Mr. J. G. Newbill, who, in the issue of his paper, November 11, 1881, says: 'It has been stated that this city got its name from the fact of a spring and field being near by just west of town. But such is not a correct version. When the authorized persons met and adopted the title of the "Future Great" of the Southwest, several of the earliest settlers had handed in their favorite names, among whom was Kindred Rose, who presented the winning name, "Springfield," in honor of his former home town, Springfield, Robertson county, Tennessee.'" [http://thelibrary.springfield.missouri.org/lochist/history/holcombe/grch29pt1.html] The most common view is that the city was named for Springfield, Massachusetts. One story is that a man named James Wilson, who lived in the then unnamed city, offered free whiskey to everyone who would vote for naming it after his home town of Springfield, Massachusetts. [Dark, Phyllis & Harris. "Springfield of the Ozarkas: An Illustrated History." Windsor Publications, 1981. ISBN 0-89781-028-7.]

Springfield's nickname is the "The Queen City." It is also known as "The Cultural Center of the Ozarks." The area formerly known as North Springfield was once known as Moon City. Springfield is also known as "The Birthplace of Route 66," due to its early connection with the designation of U.S. Route 66. A placard in Park Central Square was dedicated to the city by the Route 66 Association of Missouri for its prominent role in the birth of Route 66.

Geography and Climate

Springfield is located at coor dms|37|11|42|N|93|17|10|W|city (37.2, -93.3).GR|1 According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.8 square miles (191.1 km²), of which, 73.2 square miles (189.5 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.7 km²) of it (0.87%) is water.

Demographics

As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 151,580 people, 64,691 households, and 35,709 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,072.0 people per square mile (800.0/km²). There were 69,650 housing units at an average density of 952.1/sq mi (367.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.69% White, 3.27% African American, 0.75% Native American, 1.36% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.31% of the population.

There were 64,691 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.82.

In the city the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.9% are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,563, and the median income for a family was $38,114. Males had a median income of $27,778 versus $20,980 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,711. About 9.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Law and government

In 2003, the city council of Springfield prohibited smoking in restaurants except for specific listed exceptions. [http://www.ci.springfield.mo.us/egov/minutes/smokeord_sum.html]

In November 2004, voters turned down a plan to fund a new coal-fired power plant in the city. Many voters who were polled stated concerns about the pollution that a new coal power plant would cause. The power plant bond issue was again placed on the ballot for the residents within the city limits to decide in June, 2006, and was approved.

In August, 2005, Springfield announced plans to annex a large chunk of southeastern Greene County. Plans called, if necessary, to force the area into the city. The annexation was called off after an agreement was reached with Rogersville to the east which also filed to annex the same area. Annexation has become a controversial issue in recent years, causing a lawsuit with neighboring Brookline.

In November 2006, voters established a "bar ban" for anyone under 21. Those under 21 are (according to the bill) not allowed in any bar or restaurant that makes most of their profit by selling alcohol, after 9pm. This caused an uproar with the college students from Missouri State, Drury, and other schools, who pointed out that since most bars were strict on checking IDs, underage adults visited the bars to support local music and sober drive for older friends.

Education

The public high schools in Springfield are Central High School, Kickapoo High School (which was attended by Brad Pitt and Lucas Grabeel), Hillcrest High School, Parkview High School, and Glendale High School. Private schools include Springfield Sudbury School and Greenwood Laboratory School. There are several private, Christian schools in Springfield as well, including New Covenant Academy, Springfield Lutheran School, Springfield Catholic High School, and Christian Schools of Springfield.

Colleges and universities located in Springfield include Missouri State University (until 2005 it was known as Southwest Missouri State University, or SMSU), Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, Baptist Bible College, Central Bible College, Drury University (known as Drury College until 2000) (which was attended by Bob Barker), Evangel University (until 2000 it was known as Evangel College, or EC), Forest Institute of Professional Psychology, Ozarks Technical Community College, St. John's College of Nursing and Health Sciences of Southwest Baptist University, Vatterott College, Everest College, Cox College (Nursing School), Webster University, and Bryan College. There are also three Cosmetology Schools, Academy of Hair Design, The System (A Paul Mitchell School) and Missouri College of Cosmetology (A Pivot Point School)

For the third year in a row, America's Promise Alliance in 2008 ranked Springfield as a "100 Best Community for Young People" [http://www.americaspromise.org/APAPage.aspx?id=9846] . "The 2008 100 Best Communities for Young People includes cities and small towns located across the United States that are wonderful places for youth to live and grow up."

In June 2008, Best Life Magazine ranked Springfield tenth on a list of Worst Cities to Raise a Family in America. [http://www.bestlifeonline.com/cms/publish/family-fatherhood/The_100_Best_Places_to_Raise_a_Family.shtml.] The magazine article does not explain what data was analyzed or how it was analyzed to make this determination.

Worldwide ERC named Springfield among "The Best Cities for Relocating Families" in 2007. [http://www.business4springfield.com/demographics/recognition/erc.pdf]

Springfield was recognized by the "World Health Organization" as a "Safe Community." [http://www.phs.ki.se/csp/safecom/springfield.htm]

Economy

The following national firms are headquartered in Springfield:

*Bass Pro Shops
*John Q. Hammons Hotels & Resorts
*Noble & Associates
*O'Reilly Auto Parts

The Milken Institute ranked Springfield in 2007 as a "Best Performing City" for creating and sustaining jobs. [http://www.business4springfield.com/news/07-10-08.htm] Expansion Management Magazine recently listed Springfield among "Best Mid-Sized Metros for Recruitment and Attraction." [http://www.business4springfield.com/news/07-06-28.htm]

Transportation

Highways

Springfield is served by Interstate 44 which connects the city with St. Louis and Tulsa, Oklahoma. U.S. Route 60, U.S. Route 65, and U.S. Route 160 pass through the city, and formerly U.S. Route 66 and U.S. Route 166 also passed through the city. Portions of the historic US 66 can still be seen in portions of the city. US 166's eastern terminus was once located in the northeast section of the city, and US 60 originally ended (westbound) in downtown Springfield. US 60 now goes through town on James River Freeway. Route 13 carries traffic north towards Kansas City. Major streets include Glenstone Avenue, Sunshine Street, National Avenue, Campbell Avenue, Kansas Expressway, Battlefield Road, Republic Road, West Bypass, Chestnut Expressway, and Kearney Street.Springfield also has public transportation operated by City Utilities that serves most areas inside the city limits in its fleet of biodiesel-fueled busses.

Railroads

The Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway has a major hub operation in Springfield. Mainlines to and from Kansas City, St. Louis, Memphis and Tulsa converge at the railroad's yard facility in the north part of the city. The Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad also operates several miles of (former Missouri Pacific) industrial trackage within the city. Springfield was once home to the headquarters and main shops of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad (Frisco). The Frisco was absorbed by the Burlington Northern in 1980. The BN subsequently merged with the Santa Fe in 1994, creating the current Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.

65-plus freight trains travel to, from, and through the city each day. In October 2006, BNSF announced plans to upgrade its Tulsa and Memphis mainlines into Springfield to handle an additional four to six daily intermodal trains between the West Coast and the Southeast. Passenger trains have not served Springfield since 1967. However, in 2006 the Missouri Department of Transportation and Amtrak began studying the possibility of restoring service to the city from St. Louis. The proposed service would utilize the current BNSF "Cuba Subdivision" mainline between the two cities via Rolla.

pringfield-Branson National Airport

Springfield-Branson National Airport serves the city. It is the principal air gateway to Springfield and Branson.

Sister cities

* Tours, France
* Tlaquepaque, Mexico
* Isesaki, Japan

ee also

*Notable Springfield Residents

References

cite web
title = History of the University
date = 6 Dec. 2006
url = http://www.missouristate.edu/about/history.htm
accessdate = 2006-12-18

External links

* [http://www.springfieldmo.gov/home Official Site of Springfield, Missouri]
* [http://www.SpringfieldAdventures.com/ Official Site of Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau]


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