Thermopylae


Thermopylae

Thermopylae (pronEng|θɚˈmɒpəli) (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek Polytonic|Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic Θερμοπύλες: "hot gateway") is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It derives its name from several natural hot water springs.

Geography

Thermopylae is located in eastern central Greece on the only land route large enough to bear any significant traffic between Lokris and Thessaly. Passage from north to south along the east coast of the Balkan peninsula requires use of the pass. Further west the way is blocked by mountains and the Gulf of Corinth. For this reason the area has been the site of several battles.

The area is dominated by the coastal floodplain of the Spercheios River, surrounded by steeply sloping forested limestone mountains. The continuous deposition of sediment from the river and travertine deposits from the hot springs has substantially altered the landscape during the past few thousand years. The land surface on which the famous Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 480 BC is now buried under 20 m (60 ft) of material. The shoreline has retreated greatly over the centuries, again due to sedimentary deposition. The level of the Gulf of Malia was significantly higher during prehistoric times and the Spercheios was significantly shorter. The shoreline retreated by up to 2 km between 2500 BC and 480 BC but still left several extremely narrow passages between the sea and the mountains. The narrowest point on the plain, where the battle was probably fought, would have been less than 100 m (300 ft) wide. Between 480 BC and the 21st century, the shoreline retreated by as much as 9 km (5 miles) in places, eliminating the narrowest points of the pass and considerably increasing the size of the plain around the outlet of the Spercheios. [Rapp, George Robert; Hill, Christopher L. "Geoarchaeology: The Earth-science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation", p. 96. Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0300109660]

A main highway now splits the pass, with a modern-day monument of Leonidas on the east side of the highway. It is directly across the road from the hill where Simonides of Ceos's epitaph is engraved in stone at the top. Thermopylae is part of the infamous "horseshoe of Maliakos" also known as the "horseshoe of death": it is the narrowest part of the highway connecting the north and the south of Greece. It has many turns and has been the site of many vehicular accidents.

The hot springs from which the pass derives its name still exist close to the foot of the hill.

Battles

Greeks and Persians

Thermopylae is primarily known for the battle that took place there in 480 BC, in which an outnumbered Greek force of several thousands (including the famous 300 Spartans) held off substantially larger force of Persians under Xerxes. For two days they held out between two narrow cliff faces to prevent the use of Xerxes' vast cavalry force, before being outflanked on the third via a hidden goat path. The name since then has been used to reference heroic resistance against a more powerful enemy.

Greeks and Gauls

In 279 BC a Gallic army led by an Brennus (not to be confused with the Brennus who sacked Rome in 387 BC) successfully defeated a Greek army under the Athenian Calippus.

Roman-Seleucid wars

In 191 BC Antiochus III the Great of Syria attempted in vain to hold the pass against the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio. Less famous is the confrontation of 353 BC/352 BC during the Third Sacred War when 5,000 Athenian hoplites and 400 horsemen denied passage to the forces of Philip II of Macedon and the battle of 267 when the Heruli defeated the Greek force that tried to stop them.

Greek War of Independence

In 1821, a force of Greek fighters led by Athanasios Diakos made a stand near the pass to stop a force of 8,000 Turks from marching down from Thessaly to put down revolts in Roumeli and the Peloponnese. Diakos, after making a last stand at the bridge of Alamana with 48 of his men, was captured and killed.

World War II

In 1941 during World War II the ANZAC forces delayed the invading German forces in the area enough to allow the evacuation of the British expeditionary force to Crete. This conflict also became known as the Battle of Thermopylae. Such was the fame of Thermopylae that the sabotage of the Gorgopotamos bridge in 1942 was referred in German documents of the era as "the recent sabotage near Thermopylae".

References

ee also

*Battle of Thermopylae
*Battle of Thermopylae (1941)

External links

* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/attica_shepherd_p16.jpgmaps of Attica and Thermopylae]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Thermopylae — chromolithograph Die Thermopylae 186 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thermopylae — • A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Thermopylae     Thermopylae     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • THERMOPYLAE — angustiae montis Oetae in Thessalia, in Phthiotide regione apud sinum Oetaeum, seu Maliacum, ubi ex Phthiotide in Phocidem transitus est, 25. tantum pedum spatiô, varie indigitatae. Scelos Io. Lydo: Terremotto Bonacciolo; Bocca di lupo Nardo,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Thermopylae — from Gk. thermos hot (see THERMAL (Cf. thermal)) + pylai, plural of pyle gate (see PYLON (Cf. pylon)). In reference to nearby hot sulfur springs …   Etymology dictionary

  • Thermopylae — [thər mäp′ə lē΄] in ancient Greece, a mountain pass in Locris, near an inlet of the Aegean Sea: scene of a battle (480 B.C. ) in which the Persians under Xerxes destroyed a Spartan army under Leonidas …   English World dictionary

  • Thermopylae — /theuhr mop euh lee /, n. a pass in E Greece, between the cliffs of Mt. Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 B.C. * * * ▪ mountain pass, Greece Modern Greek  Thermopílai,         narrow pass on the east coast of central… …   Universalium

  • Thermopylae —    Narrow pass that provides access from northern Greece into central Greece and the Peloponnesos (qq.v.). It is best known for its famous defense against Xerxes in 480 B.C. In the Byzantine period, Justinian I (q.v.) provided it with a garrison… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Thermopylae — noun A narrow pass on the East central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Its name is derived from its hot sulphur springs. It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood… …   Wiktionary

  • Thermopylae — noun a famous battle in 480 BC; a Greek army under Leonidas was annihilated by the Persians who were trying to conquer Greece • Syn: ↑battle of Thermopylae • Regions: ↑Greece, ↑Hellenic Republic, ↑Ellas • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pitch …   Useful english dictionary

  • Thermopylae — geographical name locality E Greece between Mt. Oeta & Gulf of Maliakós; once a narrow pass along the coast, now a rocky plain 6 miles (9.6 kilometers) from the sea …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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