Confederate railroads in the American Civil War


Confederate railroads in the American Civil War
A railway mounted mortar and its crew used during the Siege of Petersburg.

During the American Civil War, the Confederate States Army depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to its lines.

Contents

History

The outbreak of war had a depressing effect on the economic fortunes of the Confederate railroad industry. With cotton crop being hoarded in an attempt to entice European intervention, railroads were bereft of their main source of income.[1] Many were forced to lay off employees, and in particular, let go skilled technicians and engineers.[1] Due to a general sentiment that the war would not last long, initially Confederate rail operators did not seek, nor build, alternative sources of iron for rail construction and repair.[2]

Though railroad contracts to port-towns had ceased, due to the combined effects of the Cotton export policy and the Union naval blockade, lucrative government contracts were doled out to rail operators with lines supplying men and arms to the front line of Tennessee and Virginia.[1] A consortium of rail operators had decided upon a universal rate for government contracts; "a uniform rate of two cents a mile for men and half the regular local rate for munitions, provisions, and material, and also agreed to accept Confederate bonds at par in payment of government transportation."[3]

In addition, the Confederacy suffered from two key railroad deficiencies. The first was the lack of a true rail network, instead rail lines usually connected ports and river terminals to points inland. This caused many railroads to become useless once the Union blockade was in place. A second concern was a break of gauge; much of the Confederate rail network was in the broad gauge format, however, much of North Carolina and Virginia had standard gauge lines. Southern railroads west of the Mississippi were isolated, disconnected, and differed widely in gauge.[4]

1861

As troop movement began in earnest in May and June 1861, a crippling problem was discovered; many rail lines terminated in towns without connecting to continuing lines.[5] Instead, cargo would have to be unloaded, driven across town, and then reloaded. Soldiers, and other passengers, would often have to stay overnight to catch a continuing train the next day.[5] When the Confederate government attempted to rectify this problem, they ran into local opposition. Towns preferred the lack of connection, since it required the hiring of teamsters and populated hotels with guests.[5] Railroad operators, while not opposed to connecting lines, were opposed to the possibility of sharing rolling stock with rival companies.[5]

In April 1863, the presidents of the southern railroads again convened in Richmond and again addressed Secretary Seddon on the condition of the rails and appealed to Congress for remedial legislation...No record is available which shows that these recommendations were acted upon by the confederate government.[6]

1862

As 1862 opened, the Confederacy built a 5.5 miles (8.9 km) spur off the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Manassas Junction toward Centreville, Virginia known as the Centreville Military Railroad. It served to supply the Confederate defenses on the Centreville Plateau along the north side of the Bull Run feed into the Occoquan River.[citation needed]

As the war waged on attempts were made by railroad operators to acquire railroad supplies abroad, lacking in Confederacy's small industrial base.[7] The problem of supplies had become increasingly acute, especially amongst the already small supply of engines and cars. Stressed by overuse, lacking material to make repairs, and the conscription of men who could make them, rail operators were predicting a breaking point as early as 1862.[8] While railroad operators attempted, throughout the war, to get assistance from the Confederate Congress, the response was either indifferent or hostile.[7]

1863

It wasn't until mid-1863 that the Confederate government initiated an overall policy, and it was confined solely to aiding the war effort.[6] With the legislation of impressment the same year, railroads and their rolling stock, came under the defacto control of the military. In March, 1864, the Quartermaster General ordered all passenger trains to give governmental trains the right of way.[9] By mid-1864, all passenger service in the Confederacy had come to a standstill.[9] Transport of goods for civilian use was also affected, exacerbating shortages brought on by war-time devastation, rampant speculation and hoarding, and the Confederacy's impressment policy.[9]

1864

In the last year before the end of the war, the Confederate railroad system was always on the verge of collapse. The impressment policy of quartermasters ran the rails ragged. Feeder lines would be scraped for replacement steel for trunk lines, and the continual use of rolling stock wore them down faster than they could be replaced.[10]

Union Use

As the Union armies pushed further into Confederate territory, they came into ownership of former Confederate rail way lines, or what was left of them. Confederate troops generally applied a scorched-earth policy towards railroads when they were in retreat.[11] Union troops would often have to rebuild an entire line from scratch for it to be usable.[11] Due to the vagaries of the war, some lines would be rebuilt 6 or 7 times by differing sides, especially in states like Virginia, where fighting was most intense.[11][12]

Expansion

Attempts were made to enlarge the Confederacy's rail system by adding or connecting lines. Of the three major rail projects the Confederate congress proposed and funded, only one of them, a connection between Danville, Virginia, and Greensboro, North Carolina was completed.[13] Ironically, while the Confederate constitution forbade internal improvements to aid commerce, nothing within it said anything about improvements to aid war-time defense.[14]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Ramsdell, p. 795.
  2. ^ Ramsdell
  3. ^ Ramsdell, p. 796.
  4. ^ Hankey, John P. (2011). "The Railroad War". Trains (Kalmbach Publishing Company) 71 (3): 24–35. 
  5. ^ a b c d Ramsdell, p. 797.
  6. ^ a b Mary Elizabeth Massey Ersatz in the Confederacy University of South Carolina Press, Columbia. 1952, p. 128.
  7. ^ a b Ersatz, p. 128.
  8. ^ Ramsdell, p. 799.
  9. ^ a b c Ersatz, p. 129.
  10. ^ Ramsdell, pp. 809-10.
  11. ^ a b c Riegel, pp. 127-28.
  12. ^ Riegel, p. 133.
  13. ^ Ramsdell, p. 801: The other two lines funded, but never completed, were a line between Meridian and Selma, Alabama, which was abandoned after the fall of New Orleans and another, a connection between Rome, Georgia and Blue Mountain, Alabama, which was not finished before the end of the war.
  14. ^ Currie, p. 1311.

See also

References

  • Currie, David P. "Through the Looking-Glass: The Confederate Constitution in Congress, 1861-1865" Virginia Law Review, Vol. 90, No. 5 (Sep., 2004)
  • Diamond, William. "Imports of the Confederate Government from Europe and Mexico." The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Nov., 1940)
  • Mary Elizabeth Massey Ersatz in the Confederacy. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia. 1952
  • Ramsdell, Charles W. "The Confederate Government and the Railroads" The American Historical Review, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Jul., 1917)
  • Riegel, R.E. "Federal Operation of Southern Railroads during the Civil War." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Sep., 1922)

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Western Theater of the American Civil War — Western Theater Overview (1861–1865)   Confederate …   Wikipedia

  • New York in the American Civil War — Union States in the American Civil War …   Wikipedia

  • Outline of the American Civil War — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the American Civil War: American Civil War – civil war in the United States of America that lasted from 1861 to 1865. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession… …   Wikipedia

  • Mississippi in the American Civil War — Confederate States in the American Civil War South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Virginia Arkansas North Carolina …   Wikipedia

  • Florida in the American Civil War — Confederate State of Florida …   Wikipedia

  • Alabama in the American Civil War — The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. It provided a significant source of troops and leaders, military materiel,… …   Wikipedia

  • Atlanta in the American Civil War — The city of Atlanta, Georgia, was an important rail and commercial center during the American Civil War. Although relatively small in population, the city became a critical point of contention during the Atlanta Campaign in 1864 when a powerful… …   Wikipedia

  • Iowa in the American Civil War — The state of Iowa played a role during the American Civil War in providing food, supplies, and troops for the Union army, although its contribution was overshadowed by larger and more populated eastern states.Prelude to warIowa had become the… …   Wikipedia

  • Illinois in the American Civil War — The state of Illinois during the American Civil War was a major source of troops for the Union army (particularly for those armies serving in the Western Theater of the Civil War), and of military supplies, food, and clothing. Situated… …   Wikipedia

  • Origins of the American Civil War — For events following South Carolina s declaration of secession from the Union, see Battle of Fort Sumter and American Civil War. The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. The main explanation… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.